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Advantages of Pure Polyurea and Polyurethane Elastomeric Coatings in Corrosive Environments


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Presentation by Peter Morgan, Rhino Linings Australasia Managing Director on - what polyurethane is, the advantages of using it, including advice on how to select the right product for the required application for drinking water tank linings, industrial tank liners, thickener tanks, channel linings, ponds, dams and secondary containment applications. Prepared by Denis Baker, Rhino Linings Special Project Engineer

Published in: Technology
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Advantages of Pure Polyurea and Polyurethane Elastomeric Coatings in Corrosive Environments

  1. 1. INTRODUCING Rhino Linings and its Spray Applied Polymer Potentials Presented by : PETER MORGAN General Manger
  2. 2. Introducing Rhino Linings  Rhino Linings Australasia Pty is a part of a global company consisting of a network of over 1600 Dealers and Approved Applicators operating in 65 countries around the world.  Since 1988 Rhino Linings has been providing superior spray applied solutions for impact, abrasion, corrosion and containment problems  Rhino Linings has manufacturing and technical support centres around the world. Our ISO9001 testing laboratory in USA ensures we remain at the leading edge of product development.  Rhino Linings manufactures their chemical products and equipment requirements for Australia and Asia from its facilities in Queensland, Australia. 2
  3. 3. Introducing Rhino Linings Rhino Linings has developed products specifically for drinking water tank linings, industrial tank liners, thickener tanks, channel linings, ponds, dams and secondary containment applications. • Chemical resistant • Potable water approved • Wet area membrane approved • Seamless • Spray applied to any thickness in one application 3
  4. 4. Major Projects  RAAF Base Richmond – AVTUR Fuel Farm secondary containment. Rhino Tuff Stuff polyurethane  Paspaley Pearls, Broome – Relining main sea water storage tank used for pearl cultivation. Rhino Tuff Stuff Polyurethane  Imaluk Remote Community – Relining Potable Water storage tank due to drop-in liner failure. Rhino Tuff Stuff polyurethane  Tiwi Islands Remote Community – Relining Potable Water storage tank due to drop-in liner failure. Rhino Tuff Stuff polyurethane  Coliban Water, Bendigo - Open Water Channel Restoration, Rhino Tuff Stuff polyurethane coating  Barwon Water, Otway Ranges – Open Water Channel Restoration, Rhino PP1195 Pure Polyurea  Adelaide City Council - Open Water Channel Restoration, Rhino PP1195 Pure Polyurea coating  LIHIR Gold Mine - LIHIR Island, PNG, Rhino MP1195 Modified Polyurea coating  BHP Thickener Tank - Kalgoorlie, Rhino PP1195 Pure Polyurea coating  Olympic Dam Mine - Slurry tank TK1000, Rhino PP1195 Pure Polyurea coating  Moura Coal Mine - Panel Tank Rehabilitation, RhinoGuard hybrid polyurethane coating  GVW Mooroopna - WWTP Inlet Works Rehabilitation, RhinoChem polyurethane coating  Veolia Australia, Bendigo – Chemical bunds, RhinoChem polyurethane coating  Dig It Australia, Perth – Cabin Floor sealing and Corrosion protection, Rhino Tuff Stuff polyurethane coating  BARD Engineering Mining Water Truck - Corrosion and Impact Protection, Rhino Tuff Stuff polyurethane coating  CAT and Komatsu Dump Trucks – Corrosion and Impact Protection Australia wide, Rhino Tuff Stuff polyurethane coating  Orica Cyanide, Gladstone - Factory Floor Sealing, Rhino PP1195 Pure Polyurea coating  Eastern Treatment Plant Odour Control, Carrum Downs, Vic - Sealing live water channels, Rhino PP1195 Pure Polyurea coating 4
  5. 5. RAAF Base, Richmond 5 AVTUR Fuel Farm – Secondary Containment Rhino TUFF STUFF polyurethane seamless membrane was used in this application.
  6. 6. Sea Water Tank Lining 6 Paspaley Pearls, Broome Western Australia The replacement of a failed liner with Rhino Linings TUFF STUFF polyurethane, potable water approved, seamless membrane
  7. 7. Potable Drinking Water Tank 7 Imaluk Remote Community, Northern Territory. The replacement of a failed liner with Rhino Linings TUFF STUFF polyurethane, potable water approved, seamless membrane.
  8. 8. Potable Drinking Water Tank 8 The replacement of a failed liner with Rhino Linings TUFF STUFF polyurethane, potable water approved seamless membrane.
  9. 9. Remote Water Transfer 9 Coliban Water, Victoria The repair and restitution of heritage listed open water channels (both concrete and dirt based) using Rhino TUFF STUFF and RhinoGuard 2185 polyurethane, potable water approved seamless membrane, with and without Geotextile.
  10. 10. Remote Water Transfer 10 Barwon Water, Victoria The repair and restitution of a 950m long water channel (both concrete and dirt based) in the Otway Ranges, Victoria, using Rhino PP2190 Pure Polyurea, potable water approved seamless membrane, with and without Geotextile
  11. 11. LIHIR Gold Mine 11 Lihir Gold Mine, Lihir Island Pacific Ocean - North of Papua New Guinea. Rhino Linings completed the supply and fit of Rhino MP1195 Modified Polyurea to various structures. The CCD required the coating of the rake arms and support arm of the deflector cone, along with the inside feed well, as shown in the photos. The CCD tank operates at approximately 700C, with low pH, and is only available for repairs on a complete shutdown. The rake arms are coated to 3mm DFT, with 10mm DFT on the bottom of the rakes. The deflector cone is coated with 3mm DFT of Rhino MP1195, while the support arms are coated with 10mm DFT of Rhino MP1195. This project was completed in late 2001/early 2002
  12. 12. Thickener Tank Surface Protection 12 BHP Nickel Mine BHP Billiton, Kalgoorlie, WA This thickener tank is over 60 meters in diameter. The aggressive chemicals and abrasive materials in the nickel slurry were eroding the base structure. Rhino PP1195 Pure Polyurea was applied at 5-6mm thick and significantly improved : •Slurry flow •Slurry mixing •Tank floor surface wear •This coating can be easily repaired without removing the total membrane
  13. 13. Slurry Tank Surface Protection 13 TK1000 Slurry Tank Olympic Dam, South Australia This slurry steel tank has to cope with the aggressive slurry’s associated with the recovery of radio active material from this mine. Rhino PP2190 Pure Polyurea, was selected as the preferred coating for this application and was applied at up to 25mm DFT. So far the steel tank has remained protected at each shutdown inspection.
  14. 14. Tank Repair and Relining 14 Moura Coal Mine, Qld Moura Coal Mine has 3 large bolted panel tanks for water storage. The internal liners on all the tanks have failed and corrosion had set in. The first of the 3 tanks was inspected to API653 and assessed as recoverable. Corrosion on sheet and bolts was removed, bolts replaced, then blasted and primed prior to the application of RhinoGuard 2185 Hybrid Polyurethane. This application late in 2012 saved the mine from having to replace the complete tank.
  15. 15. WWTP Inlet Works 15 Goulburn Valley Water, Mooroopna WWTP Inlet Works Rehabilitation and Re-Lining This WWTP Inlet Works had deteriorated badly. H2S gas had attacked the concrete and after water pressure cleaning & neutralising, revealed severely exposed aggregate. Rhino Linings Bendigo used a cementuous grout specified by the WWTP Operator to rebuild the substrate, then primed the substrate with RhinoPrime SP150 Primer and sprayed 3mm of RhinoChem 2170 chemically resistant Polyurethane to the rebuilt surfaces including stainless steel “fences” at the base of the inlet. This rehabilitation work was completed in 3 days and has now been back in operation for over 12 months.
  16. 16. Chemical Storage Bund 16 Veolia Water, Bendigo, Victoria Bund - Aqueous Ammonia and Sodium Hypochlorite Veolia is a major player in the Australian Water and Waste Water treatment market. In 2009, they installed a new Aqueous Ammonia storage tank and required a premium bund membrane. RhinoChem 2170 chemical resistant Polyurethane was selected and applied @ 3mm DFT and the tank facility has now been in operation since 2009. Because of the success of the Aqueous Ammonia bund, Rhino Linings RhinoChem 2170 was also selected for the Sodium Hypochlorite tank and bund system that was installed in mid 2011. Both systems function daily and are easy to maintain and show excellent resistance to chemical attack.
  17. 17. Mining - Heavy Machinery 17 “We chose to install this (Rhino TUFF STUFF Polyurethane) as our preferred flooring due to the durability and hard wearing nature of the product. The cab floors are easily cleaned and unlike cabs where rubber flooring is used there is no issues with smell and a build-up of dirt under the rubber flooring where over time the rubber swells and becomes a trip hazard for operators.” Aaron Banes Product / Technical Support Drill Rigs Australia
  18. 18. Mining – Heavy Machinery 18 Bard Engineering, Queensland Manufacturers of mine site refuelling tankers Bard Engineering specified Rhino Linings TUFF STUFF be applied to the under guards of these large vehicles to protect against corrosion and chemical attack.
  19. 19. Impact and Corrosion Protection 19 Many Cat and Komatsu heavy vehicles have had their fuel and hydraulic tanks, plus under guard areas protected by Rhino TUFF STUFF Polyurethane. This coating of about 4-5mm DFT gives exceptional impact protection and total corrosion protection for these mine site vehicles.
  20. 20. Orica Factory Floor 20 Orica Cyanide Factory, Gladstone This project was a result of an urgent requirement to eliminate any possibility of cyanide waste products leaching into the factory subsoil. The project involved surface preparation of 6,500sqm of concrete, expansion joints and construction joints followed by the application of a 3mm coating of Rhino PP1195 Pure Polyurea.
  21. 21. Eastern Treatment Plant 21 Eastern Treatment Plant Carrum Downs, Melbourne, Vic This coating project involved the surface preparation and coating of transfer tunnels and open channels prior to the fitting of odour control sealing panels to the complete treatment works. The project meant working on a live sewer and all the associated difficulties required to blast, surface prep, prime and coat the channel concrete above the low waterline with Rhino PP1195 Pure Polyurea
  22. 22. Polymer Potentials Formulation of Pure Polyurea Linkage O ιι R-N=C=O + R1NH2 = R-N-C-N-R1 ι ι H H Isocyanate Amine Urea Formulation of Polyurethane Linkage O ιι R-N=C=O + R1OH + catalyst = R-N-C-O-R1 ι H Isocyanate Alcohol Urethane These coatings are sometimes referred to as “snap cure” and usually are two component liquid coatings. • Pure Polyurea (least effected by weather conditions during application) • Hybrid Polyurea (Polyurea and Polyurethane) • Polyurethane (most effected by weather conditions during application) 23
  23. 23. Polymer Potentials ADVANTAGES OF PURE POLYUREA  Very fast cure 3 – 8 seconds (snap cure)  Can be sprayed on a slope or vertical up to 6mm thick with no sags or runs  Foot traffic can resume within 30 seconds on horizontal surfaces WEATHER CONDITIONS CAN AFFECT APPLICATION 24 Weather Variations  High Humidity  High Temperatures  Low Temperatures Little Effect on Adhesion  High Humidity  High Temperatures  Low Temperatures Polyurea is Relatively Insensitive  Moisture  Temperature
  24. 24. Polymer Potentials Spray polyurea was first used in the Alaska Pipeline due to its weather insensitivity during application (-290C) Common Uses  Concrete  Earth and Dike to stop leaks  Drinking Water Tanks (potable water certificate)  Water Treatment Plants • Incoming dirty water – outgoing drinking water • Gas attack in sealed storage areas 25
  25. 25. Polymer Potentials PROOF OF SAFETY Potable Water Certificate AS/NZS 4020:2005 Testing of products for use in contact with drinking water. The following Rhino Linings products are approved: Rhino TUFF STUFF Polyurethane RhinoGuard 2185 Hybrid Polyurethane Rhino PP1195 Pure Polyurea Rhino PP2190 Pure Polyurea Rhino MP2195 Hybrid Polyurea Rhino Eco-Coat USA Certification  Rhino Eco-Coat contains UV stabilizers and leafing aluminium pigment that forms a long term barrier against water intrusion and offers a high reflectivity index.  Best of all, the Rhino Eco-Coat is an aromatic polyurea and will undergo a slight gloss change when exposed to UV light, it will not chalk, crack or degrade with normal service. LEED Certified The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is a third-party certification program and the nationally accepted benchmark for the design, construction and operation of high performance green buildings 26
  26. 26. Polymer Potentials COATING THICKNESS  100% Solids  Therefore no volatiles (VOC) to evaporate  Dry film thickness usually .05mm – 6mm THINNER FILMS ARE NOT AVAILABLE  0.3mm  Special guns (Gusmer GX-8, Glas-Craft LS)  Flat tip instead of round tip  Speed and distance 27 LOW SPRAY (Thick Application) PLURAL COMPONENT GUNS LS Spray Gun
  27. 27. Polymer Potentials FORMULATION CAN EFFECT • Flexibility – soft or hard elastomers on cure • Different colours • Aromatic or Aliphatic • Surface texture: Smooth or non-skid • Adhesion 28
  28. 28. Epoxy v’s Polyurea EPOXY • Long cure time (overnight) • Solvents present (VOC usually) • Not always 100% solids • Dry film thickness (DFT) is less (thin) • Requires multiple coats to build DFT • Heavy application traps solvents • Shrinks on cure • Surface tension sensitive • Moisture sensitive • Less algae resistance • Not UV resistant • High odour • Sprayed by conventional airless gun 29 POLYUREA • Short cure time (3-4 hours) • No solvents present (No VOCs) • 100% solids • Dry film thickness heavier (thick 25 – 250mils) • Single coating thick DFT possible • No solvent entrapment • Elastomeric properties reduce shrinkage on cure. • Much less surface tension sensitivity • Much less moisture sensitive • Better algae resistance • Aliphatic is UV resistant • Low odour • Sprayed by plural component gun
  29. 29. Polymer Potentials LESSONS LEARNED • Polyurea must be applied onto a clean substrate • Polyurea must have a good deep profile for adhesion • If a clean substrate is not obtainable, a thin coat, .0250 - .0500mm of primer, usually having an adhesion promoter in the formulation. Epoxy or Polyurethane are preferred. 30
  30. 30. Polymer Potentials Shock absorption capability of spray polyurea coatings • The Air Force did a comparative explosion test of a polyurea thick coating (6mm) and a wood panel for barracks. With a detonated explosive at a 35ft distance from the test panels the polyurea thick panel was intact and the wood panel was in splinters • Flexible epoxy coatings start to show cavitation failure on a rudder in 6 months while a polyurea coating has been demonstrated to last 2+ years when applied to a properly prepared substrate. • Polyurethane manufacturers feel that on a well prepared substrate the material can withstand a reasonable size detonation when applied at an appropriate thickness and properly prepared substrate • The thick polyurea coating will prevent the substrate from shattering or even penetration due to the polyurea adhesion to substrate and its elongation (400% - 700%) capability 31
  31. 31. Polyurea Potentials 32 10-12mm (1/2 inch) thick polyurea build up took 10 minutes EXAMPLE OF A THICK POLYUREA COATING
  32. 32. Polymer Potentials In the USA, Navy is requesting polyurea coatings that meet most of the major requirements of MIL-P-23236C. This specification covers coatings systems for ship tanks and steel structures. Major requirements of this specification include: • Edge control from surface tension • Uniform dry film thickness at all edge and faces Spray polyurea coatings offer these additional advantages over current epoxies • Minimise downtime (quicker coating application) • Less sensitivity in application due to environmental conditions (moisture/temperature) • Single step process is possible to obtain required thickness • Improved adhesion due to elastomeric properties (shrinking vs. elongation) 33
  33. 33. Polyurea Potentials 34 US NAVY COLLECTION HOLDING TRANSFER TANK This tank was coated with an approved epoxy to meet MIL-P-23236C. This was the result after 6 years, the epoxy has failed and flaked off the substrate. As a result MIL-P-23236C is now calling for the use of Pure Polyurea in these type of application.
  34. 34. Polyurea Potentials Polyurea coatings combine extreme application properties  Rapid cure (even at low temperatures <0oc)  Insensitivity to humidity  Exceptional physical properties – high hardness, flexibility, tear strength, tensile strength, chemical and water resistance  Good weathering and abrasion resistance  100% solids (no VOC – meets strictest regulations)  Effective in area such as corrosion protection, containment, membranes, linings and caulks. 35
  35. 35. Polyurea Potentials Why have polyurea coatings not been exploited in typical epoxy coating applications?  Spray polyurea technology has been developing over the last 20 years (equipment development for two component snap cure materials).  Previously polyurea materials were only used in reaction injection molding (RIM) automotive applications.  The Alaska pipeline that was done many years ago and Rhino truck bed linings have enabled the markets for spray polyurea coatings and its application equipment to be developed and commercialised. 36
  36. 36. The Future Rhino Linings offer superior solutions for the liquid containment industry using spray applied Polyurethane and Polyurea proprietary formulations, combined with innovative substrate preparations. • Spray applied • Seamless, can be applied to any thickness in one applications. • Instant set – reduces downtime • Superior flexibility to accommodate substrate movement • Superior adhesion to a wide range of substrates • Follows the shape of the substrate to be coatings • Excellent abrasion resistance • Excellent chemical resistances • Can be applied at remote locations • Easy to maintain, clean and recoat if required. 37
  37. 37. Data Sheet - PP1195 38
  38. 38. Data Sheet – Rhino TUFF STUFF 39
  39. 39. Data Sheet – RhinoChem 2170 40