Exercise physiology 4


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  • MC – pressure, touch, vibrations, stretchTR – temp changes N – Painful stimuli PR – Electromagnetic radiation CR – Food, odor, changes in blood or tissue concentration of ox, co, glucose, electrolytes.
  • JKR – located in the joint capsule and are sensitive to joint angles and rates of change in these angles (position and movement in the jnt)MS – sense muscle length and rate of change in length GTO – detects the tension applied by a muscle to its tendon, providing information about the strength of muscle contraction.
  • Exercise physiology 4

    1. 1. Neural Control of the Exercising Muscle
    2. 2. Central Nervous System Brain Cerebrum Diencephalon Cerebellum Brain Stem Spinal Cord
    3. 3. Cerebrum Composed of right and left hemispheres Connected by fiber tracts/ bundles called corpus callosum, allowing communication between the two hemispheres. The cerebral cortex forms the outer layer of the cerebral hemispheres (conscious brain). Also known as the grey matter secondary to unmyelinated cell bodies.
    4. 4. Four primary lobes: Frontal lobe: general intellect and motor control Temporal lobe: auditory input and its interpretation Parietal lobe: general sensory input and its interpretation Occipital lobe: visual input and its interpretation
    5. 5. Diencephalon Composed mostly of the thalamus and the hypothalamus. Thalamus – Sensory integration center, most sensory input enters here and relays the information to the appropriate area of the cortex. Hypothalamus – responsible for maintaining homeostasis by regulating most processes that affects the body’s internal environment.
    6. 6. Neural centers in the hypothalamus assists in regulating: Blood pressure Heart rate Respiration Digestion Body temperature Fluid balance Neuroendocrine control Emotions Thirst
    7. 7. Cerebellum Located behind the brainstem Connected to numerous parts of the brain, with a crucial role in coordinating movement.
    8. 8. Brain Stem Composed of: Relays information between the brain and the spinal cord. Contains the major autonomic regulatory centers that control the respiratory and cardiovascular system.
    9. 9. Brain Stem Specialized collection of neurons in the brain stem, known as the reticular formation, is influenced by (and has an influence on) nearly all areas of the CNS. These neurons help: Coordinate skeletal muscle function Maintain muscle tone Control cardiovascular and respiratory functions Determine our state of consciousness (both arousal and sleep)
    10. 10. Spinal Cord The lowest part of the brain stem, the medulla oblangata, is continuous with the spinal cord below. Its composed of tracts of nerve fibers that allows for two way conduction of nerve impulses. Sensory (afferent) fibers Motor (efferent) fibers
    11. 11. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Contains 43 pairs of nerves 12 pairs of cranial nerves 31 pairs of spinal nerves Functionally the PNS has two major divisions: Sensory division Motor division
    12. 12. Sensory Division Carries sensory information toward the CNS Afferent neurons originate from: Blood and lymph vessels Internal organs Special sense organs Skin Muscle and tendons
    13. 13. Afferent neurons end in the spinal cord or in the brain; continuously conveying information. Sensory division receives information from 5 primary types of receptors: Mechanoreceptors Thermoreceptors Nociceptors Photoreceptors Chemoreceptors
    14. 14. Free Nerve endings detect: Crude touch Pressure Pain Heat Cold Special muscle and joint nerve endings are of many types and function (eg. Joint kinesthetic receptors, muscle spindles, and golgi tendon organs).
    15. 15. Motor Division Autonomic Nervous System Controls the body’s involuntary internal function. Two major divisions Sympathetic nervous system Parasympathetic nervous system
    16. 16. Sympathetic Nervous System Fight or Flight System Prepares the body to face a crisis and sustain its function during that crisis The effects of this system important to athletes are: Heart rate and strength of cardiac contraction increase Coronary vessel dilate, increasing blood supply to the heart muscle. Peripheral vasodilation allows more blood to enter the active skeletal muscle Vasoconstriction in most other tissues diverts blood away from them and to the active muscle Blood pressure increase, allowing better perfusion of the muscle and improving the return of venous blood to the heart
    17. 17. Bronchodilation improves gas exchange. Metabolic rate increases, reflecting the body’s effort to meet the increased demands of physical activity. Mental activity increases, allowing better perception of sensory stimuli and more concentration on performance. Glucose is released from the liver into the blood as an energy source. Functions not directly needed are slowed, conserving energy so that it can be used for action.
    18. 18. Parasympathetic Nervous System More active when one is calm and at rest. Effects tend to oppose those of the sympathetic system. Causes decreased heart rate, constriction of coronary vessels, and bronchoconstriction. Major role in carrying out processes such as digestion, urination, glandular secretion and conservation of energy.
    19. 19. Neuron
    20. 20. Nerve Impulse Electrical charge Signal that passes from one neuron to the next and finally to an end organ or back to the CNS. Resting Membrane Potential Electrical potential difference across the cell membrane. Cell membrane @ rest has a negative electrical potential of approximately – 70 mV Caused by the separation of charges across the membrane (imbalance in the number of ions inside and outside of the cell).
    21. 21. Neuron has a high concentration of potassium on the inside of the membrane, and high concentration of sodium on the outside. Cell membrane is much more permeable to potassium than sodium, hence there is a tendency for the ions to move out of the cell. Sodium cannot move inside the cell that readily. Sodium-potassium pump actively transport 2 potassium ions in and 3 sodium ions out. More positively charged ions are outside the cell than inside.
    22. 22. Depolarization Occurs when the charge difference becomes less than the RMP of – 70mV. Typically results from change in the membrane’s Na+ permeability. Hyperpolarization Occurs when the charge across the membrane increases, i.e. it becomes more polarized.
    23. 23. Graded Potentials (GP) Localized change in the membrane potential. Depolarization or hyperpolarization Ion gates controls the influx and out flux of ions, which are usually closed until stimulated. It is triggered by a change in the neurons local environment. Ion gates may open in response to transmission of an impulse from another neuron or sensory stimuli.
    24. 24. Graded Potentials (GP) Most neuron receptors are located on the dendrites. Nerve impulses typically pass from the dendrites to the cell body and from the cell body along the length of the axon to the axon terminals. GP might result in depolarization of the entire cell membrane, it is usually a local event, not spreading far along the neuron. To travel the full distance an impulse must generate an action potential.
    25. 25. Action Potentials (AP) Typically the RMP changes from -70mV to +30mV. All AP starts as a GP, until enough stimulation occurs to cause depolarization of at least 15 - 20mV. The membrane voltage at which the GP becomes an AP is called the depolarization threshold. The threshold gives rise to the all or none principle.
    26. 26. Action Potential (AP) When an AP is generated and the sodium gates are open, that segment of the axon cannot respond to further stimulation (absolute refractory period). Once the sodium gates are closed and the potassium gates are open, repolarization occurs and that segment of the axon can respond to new stimulus of substantially greater magnitude (relative refractory period).
    27. 27. Propagation of the AP Two characteristics of the neuron are important when considering how quick an impulse can pass through the axon: Myelination Diameter
    28. 28. Myelin Sheath Formed by specialized cells called Schwann cells, which covers the neuron with myelin (fatty substance that insulates the membrane). The sheath is not continuous, it has gaps between each Schwann cell referred to as Nodes of Ranvier. These gaps allows for saltatory conduction, which allows for a much faster transmission of impulse than that of an unmyelinated fiber.
    29. 29. Diameter of Neuron The larger the diameter of the neuron the faster the speed of the impulse conduction. Larger neuron presents less resistance to local current flow.
    30. 30. Synapse
    31. 31. Neuromuscular Junction
    32. 32. Neurotransmitters Two major neurotransmitters involved in regulating our physiological response to exercise: Acetylcholine Norepinephrine The nerve impulse is complete once the neurotransmitter binds to the postsynaptic receptor. It is then degraded by enzymes, actively transported back into the presynaptic terminals for reuse, or diffused away from the synapse.
    33. 33. Acetylcholine Primary neurotransmitter for motor neurons that innervate skeletal muscle and most parasympathetic neurons Generally an excitatory neurotransmitter, but can be inhibitory at some parasympathetic nerve endings.
    34. 34. Norepinephrine Neurotransmitter for most sympathetic neurons Can be excitatory or inhibitory, depending on the receptor involved.
    35. 35. Postsynaptic Response An excitatory impulse causes depolarization, known as a excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP). An inhibitory impulse causes hyperpolarization, known as inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP).
    36. 36. The axon hillock keeps a running total of all EPSPs and IPSPs. When their sum meets or exceeds the threshold for depolarization, and AP occurs. The process of accumulating incoming signals is known as summation.
    37. 37. Sensory Motor Integration
    38. 38. For the body to respond to sensory stimuli, the sensory and motor divisions of the nervous system must function together in the following sequence of events: A sensory stimulus is received by sensory receptors(e.g. pinprick). The sensory action potential is transmitted along sensory neurons to the CNS. The CNS interprets the incoming sensory information and determines which response is most appropriate, or reflexively initiates a motor response. The action potentials for the response are transmitted from the CNS along alpha-motor neurons. The motor action potential is transmitted to a muscle, and the response occurs.
    39. 39. Sensory Input Sensations and physiological status are detected by sensory receptors throughout the body. The action potentials resulting from sensory stimulation are transmitted via the sensory nerves to the spinal cord. When they reach the spinal cord, they can trigger a local reflex at that level, or they can travel to the upper regions of the spinal cord or to the brain. Sensory pathways to the brain can terminate in sensory areas of the brain stem, the cerebellum, the thalamus, or the cerebral cortex. An area in which the sensory impulses terminate is referred to as in integration center. This is where the sensory input is interpreted and linked to the motor system.
    40. 40. The integration centers vary in function: Sensory impulses that terminate in the spinal cord are integrated there. The response is typically a simple motor reflex, which is the simplest type of integration. Sensory signals that terminate in the lower brain stem result in subconscious motor reactions of a higher and more complex nature than simple spinal cord reflexes. Postural control during sitting, standing, or moving is an example of this level of sensory input. Sensory signals that terminate in the cerebellum also result in subconscious control of movement. The cerebellum appears to be the center of coordination, smoothing out movements by coordinating the actions of the various contracting muscle groups to perform the desired movement. Both fine and gross motor movements appear to be coordinated by the cerebellum in the concert with the basal ganglia. Without the control exerted by the cerebellum, all movement would be uncontrolled and uncoordinated.
    41. 41. Sensory signals that terminate at the thalamus begin to enter the level of consciousness, and the person begins to distinguish various sensations. Only when sensory signals enter the cerebral cortex can one discretely localize the signal. The primary sensory cortex, located in the postcentral gyrus (in the parietal lobe), receives general sensory input from the receptors in the skin and from proprioceptors in the muscles, tendons, and joints. This area has a map of the body. Stimulation in a specific area of the body is recognized, and its exact location is known instantly. Thus, this part of the conscious brain allows us to be constantly aware of our surroundings and our relationship to them.
    42. 42. Motor Control Once a sensory impulse is received, it may evoke a motor response, regardless of the level at which the sensory impulse stops. This response can originate from any of three levels: The spinal cord The lower regions of the brain The motor area of the cerebral cortex As of the level of control moves from the spinal cord to the motor cortex, the degree of movement complexity increases from simple reflex control to complicated movements requiring basic thought processes. Motor responses for more complex movement patterns typically originate in the motor cortex of the brain.
    43. 43. Reflex Activity A motor reflex is a preprogrammed response; any time the sensory nerves transmit certain action potentials, the body responds instantly and identically. Whether one touches something that is too hot or too cold, thermoreceptors will elicit a reflex to withdraw the hand. Whether the pain arises from heat or from a sharp object, the nociceptors will also cause a withdrawal reflex. By the time one is consciously aware of the specific stimulus(after sensory action potentials also have been transmitted to the primary sensory cortex), the reflex activity is well under way, if not completed. All neural activity occurs extremely rapidly, but a reflex is the fastest mode of response because the impulse is not transmitted up the spinal cord to the brain before an action occurs. Only one response is possible; no options need to be considered.