Exercise at
Altitude
Conditions at Altitude
• At least 1,500 m (4,921 ft) above sea level
• Reduced barometric pressure (hypobaric)
• Reduced p...
Differences in Atmospheric Conditions at
Sea Level up Through an Altitude of 900 m
(29,520 ft)
Comparison of the Partial Pressure of
Oxygen in the Inspired Air and in Body
Tissues
The S-shaped Oxygen-Binding Curve
for Hemoglobin at Sea Level
Did You Know . . . ?
The reduction in PO2 at altitude affects the partial
pressure gradient between the blood and the tiss...
Respiratory Responses to Altitude
• Pulmonary ventilation increases.
• Pulmonary diffusion does not change.
• Oxygen trans...
Changes in Maximal Oxygen Uptake With
Decrements in Barometric Pressure and
Partial Pressure of Oxygen
Data from E.R. Busk...
Did You Know . . . ?
Altitude does not affect VO2max until approximately
1,600 m (5,294 ft). Above this level, the decreas...
Cardiovascular Responses to
Altitude
• Initial decrease in plasma volume (more red blood cells
per unit)
• Initial increas...
Metabolic Responses to Altitude
• Increase in anaerobic metabolism
• Increase in lactic acid production
• Less lactic acid...
Key Points
Performance at Altitude
• At altitude, endurance activity is affected the most
due to reliance on oxygen transp...
Acclimatization to Altitude
• Increase in number of red blood cells
• Decrease in plasma volume
• Increase in hemoglobin c...
Hemoglobin (Hb) Concentrations of
Men Living at Various Altitudes
Altitude Training for Sea-Level
Performance
• Increases red blood cell mass on return to sea level.
• Not proven that alti...
Training for Optimal Altitude
Performance
• Compete within 24 hours of arrival to altitude.
• Train at 1,500 to 3,000 m ab...
Acute Altitude Sickness
• Symptoms are nausea, vomiting, dyspnea, insomnia.
• Appears 6 to 96 h after arrival at altitude....
High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema
(HAPE)
• Symptoms are shortness of breath, excessive fatigue,
blue lips and fingernails, men...
High-Altitude Cerebral Edema
(HACE)
• Symptoms are mental confusion, progressing to
coma and death.
• Most cases occur abo...
Exercise physiology 10
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Exercise physiology 10

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Exercise physiology 10

  1. 1. Exercise at Altitude
  2. 2. Conditions at Altitude • At least 1,500 m (4,921 ft) above sea level • Reduced barometric pressure (hypobaric) • Reduced partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) • Reduced air temperature • Low humidity • Increase in solar radiation intensity
  3. 3. Differences in Atmospheric Conditions at Sea Level up Through an Altitude of 900 m (29,520 ft)
  4. 4. Comparison of the Partial Pressure of Oxygen in the Inspired Air and in Body Tissues
  5. 5. The S-shaped Oxygen-Binding Curve for Hemoglobin at Sea Level
  6. 6. Did You Know . . . ? The reduction in PO2 at altitude affects the partial pressure gradient between the blood and the tissues and thus oxygen transport. This explains the decrease in endurance sport performance at altitude.
  7. 7. Respiratory Responses to Altitude • Pulmonary ventilation increases. • Pulmonary diffusion does not change. • Oxygen transport is slightly impaired. • Oxygen uptake is impaired. • As the PO2 decreases, VO2max decreases at a progressively greater rate. .
  8. 8. Changes in Maximal Oxygen Uptake With Decrements in Barometric Pressure and Partial Pressure of Oxygen Data from E.R. Buskirk et al., 1967, "Maximal performance at altitude and on return from altitude in conditioned runners," Journal of Applied Physiology 23: 259-266.
  9. 9. Did You Know . . . ? Altitude does not affect VO2max until approximately 1,600 m (5,294 ft). Above this level, the decrease in VO2max is approximately 11% for every 1,000 m (3,281 ft). . .
  10. 10. Cardiovascular Responses to Altitude • Initial decrease in plasma volume (more red blood cells per unit) • Initial increase in HR, SV, and Q during submaximal work to compensate for less O2 • Decrease in HR, SV, and Qmax during maximal workout, which limits oxygen delivery and uptake . .
  11. 11. Metabolic Responses to Altitude • Increase in anaerobic metabolism • Increase in lactic acid production • Less lactic acid production at maximal work rates at altitude than at sea level
  12. 12. Key Points Performance at Altitude • At altitude, endurance activity is affected the most due to reliance on oxygen transport and the aerobic energy system. • Endurance athletes can prepare for competitions at altitude by performing high-intensity endurance training at any elevation to increase their VO2max. • Anaerobic sprint activities are the least affected by altitude. • The thinner air at altitude provides less aerodynamic resistance and less gravitational pull, thus potentially improving jumping and throwing events. .
  13. 13. Acclimatization to Altitude • Increase in number of red blood cells • Decrease in plasma volume • Increase in hemoglobin content and blood viscosity • Decrease in muscle fiber areas and total muscle area • Increase in capillary density • Increase in pulmonary ventilation • Decrease in VO2max with initial exposure does not improve much .
  14. 14. Hemoglobin (Hb) Concentrations of Men Living at Various Altitudes
  15. 15. Altitude Training for Sea-Level Performance • Increases red blood cell mass on return to sea level. • Not proven that altitude training improves sea-level performance. • Difficult to study since intensity and volume are reduced at altitude. • Live at high altitude and train at lower altitudes.
  16. 16. Training for Optimal Altitude Performance • Compete within 24 hours of arrival to altitude. • Train at 1,500 to 3,000 m above sea level for at least 2 weeks before competing. • Increase VO2max at sea level to be able to compete at a lower relative intensity. .
  17. 17. Acute Altitude Sickness • Symptoms are nausea, vomiting, dyspnea, insomnia. • Appears 6 to 96 h after arrival at altitude. • May result from carbon dioxide accumulation. • Avoid by ascending no more than 300 m (984 ft) per day above 3,000 m (9,843 ft).
  18. 18. High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE) • Symptoms are shortness of breath, excessive fatigue, blue lips and fingernails, mental confusion. • Occurs after rapid ascent above 2,700 m (8,858 ft). • Accumulation of fluid in the lungs interferes with air movement. • Cause is unknown. • Administer supplemental oxygen and move to lower altitude.
  19. 19. High-Altitude Cerebral Edema (HACE) • Symptoms are mental confusion, progressing to coma and death. • Most cases occur above 4,300 m (14,108 ft). • Accumulation of fluid in cranial cavity. • Cause is unknown. • Administer supplemental oxygen and move to lower altitude.

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