A close up is a shot that focuses heavily on the faceor an object, usually blurring out the backgroundto set a deeper focus. This is often used to addemphasis to a scene or image.
An extreme - close up is similar to close up, but anextreme close up usually fits the whole frame of aphoto, and you can only see a certain featurewithin the frame, for instance a human feature thatfocuses solely on the eyes. This is done to createtension within a scene or image.
A panoramic shot is a series of landscapephotographs that have been put together bysoftware, but taken individually, then overlapped tocreate a wide panoramic shot. Particularly used toshow an overview of a scene.
A long shot shows a realistic scale of an object orhuman being. It is able to fit objects and peoplewithin a scene in the frame without cuttinganything out. It is also able to if necessary, showother happenings/people in the background.
An extreme long shot is used to establish thescene and mood of a film. It is typically used inaction adventure scenes, to create tension.Although little detail is paid to the imageyou are able to establishWhere the scene has beenset.
Middle shot is where the camera focuses on afigure from the waist upwards, or an object withlittle zoom. The middle shot outlines thecharacters and the background has little detail,very minimal and usually blurry.
Birds eye view shows a ‘summary’ of a scene, thisis taken in the view high above ground level,people and objects are smaller than actual sizewhen this camera effect is used, but it is a goodway to show an overall perspective of a scene. It istypically used in action films when a new locationis introduced.
A high angle shot is similar to a birds eye view, butinstead of using a helicopter to get an overview ofthe scene, a crane is used to elevate the camera,and then focus on filming something at groundlevel.
Low angle shots are filmed at ground level and areused commonly when filming action scenes. Thisadds the effect of anxiousness for the character onscreen, and fear, because the effect is used tobuild up tension for a scene.This type shot would be used for example when; acharacter has to jump from one building toanother, or from one building to the ground.
Point of view shots are shot in the perspective of a character within thefilm, it is as if the audience are experiencing everything the charactergoes through within that scene. It is a technique used to make theaudience feel like they are part of the film, and actually are the maincharacter. It is used to show the audience the perspective of the maincharacter and works well in most films. It is typically used so that theaudience can engage with the film and it’s characters.
Oblique is the term used for camera shots that are titled slightly at anangle to show confusion or disturbance within a film. It is a good wayto introduce disaster scenes, such as weather effects. Oblique shots aremost popular within horror films as oblique can change the mood of thefilm quite quickly. Oblique shots are similar to point of view shotsbecause there is an eventual transition where the camera becomes theview of a character within the film.
Over the shoulder shots are used to show the perspective of acharacter, as if they are being watched or followed by somebody.The purpose of this type shot is to engage the audience as ifthey are in the presence of the characters.