Spanish Grammar Book

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Spanish Grammar Book

  1. 1. OK B O AR M AMGR a rS hel to n Cés
  2. 2. 3) NATIONALITIES4) STEM CHANGING VERBS5) PARA6) INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS7) PRONOUN PLACEMENT8) GUSTAR9) AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE WORDS10) SUPERLATIVES11) REFLEXIVES12) AFFIRMATIVE TU COMMANDS AND IRREGULARS13) NEGATIVE TU COMMANDS AND IRREGULARS14) SEQUENCING EVENTS
  3. 3. STEM CHANGERS• o to ue                  almorzar to almuerzo• u to ue                  jugar to juegas• e to ie                   pensar to piense• e to i                     servir to sirven • There are no stem changing verbs for nosotros.
  4. 4. PARA• Para: to indicate• The recipient of items • El regalo tú mama.• Purpose • Vamos al resturante para comer.• Implied purpose • Tengo dinero para comprar algo.
  5. 5. INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS• Indirect object pronouns replace or accompany indirect objects. Plural Singular •nos •me • us • me •os •te • you familiar • you familiar •les •le • you, them • you formal, him, her
  6. 6. PRONOUN PLACEMENT• How do you know where indirect object pronouns go in a sentence? They work just like direct object pronouns.• When the pronoun accompanies a • Before conjugated verb, the pronoun • Rosa le compra una olla a su comes before the verb. madre.• When the pronoun accompanies a • Attached sentence with an infinitive, it can • Rosa quiere comprarle una either go before the conjugated olla a su madre. verb or be attached to the end of an infinitive.
  7. 7. GUSTAR Singular Plural•Me gusta béisbol. •Me gustan baloncesto.•Te gusta béisbol. •Te gustan balencesto.•Le gusta béisbol. •Le gustan belencesto.•Nos gusta béisbol. •Nos gustan balencesto.•Os gusta béisbol. •Os gustan balencesto.•Les gusta béisbol. •Les gustan balencesto.
  8. 8. AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE WORDS• Rules Affirmative Words Alguno(a) and ninguno(a) must match the gender of •Algo the noun they replace or modify. •Alguien• Alguno(a) and ninguno(a) have different forms when •Algún/Alguno(a) used before masculine or singular forms. •Siempre • Alguno to algún •También • Ninguno to ningún• A double negative is required in Spanish when no Negative Words procedes the verb •Nada • No quiero nada. •Nadie• If a negative word such as nunca or nadie comes •Ningún/Ninguno(a) before the verb, a second negative is not needed. •Nunca • Nadie quiere postre. •Tampoco
  9. 9. SUPERLATIVES• To express extremes with most adjectives, drop the final vowel and add ísimo(a).• The adjective must agree in gender and number with the noun it modifies.• When the last consonant is c, g, or z spelling changes are required. • c to qu • rico(a) to riquísimo(a) • g to gu • largo(a) to larguísimo(a) • z to c • feliz to felecísimo(a)
  10. 10. REFLEXIVES• Reflexive pronouns are used with reflexive verbs to indicate that the subject of the sentence receives the action of the verb. Lavarse • Many verbs can be used with or without reflexive•Me lavo pronouns.•Te lavas • When there is no reflexive pronoun, the person•Se lava doing the action does not receive the action.•Nos lavamos • Reflexive•Se levan • Papa se lava. • Not reflexive • Papa lava el carro.
  11. 11. AFFIRMATIVE TÚ COMMANDS, IRREGULARS, AND PRONOUN PLACEMENT Irregular Affirmative Tú Commands Affirmative Tú Commands •Decir•Give instructions or commands to someone by • Diusing the affirmative tú commands of regular verbs. •Hacer • Haz•Notice it is a tú command, but ends like a 3rd •Irhouse form. • Ve • Caminar ¡Camina! ¡Camina en el parque! •Poner • Pon •Salir Pronoun Placement • Sal•When you use a pronoun with an affirmative •Ser • Sécommand, the pronoun attaches to the command. •Tener • ¡Pon te otra camisa! • Ten•When using an object pronoun, attach the pronoun •Venirto the end of the command. • Ven • Cruza el parque to ¡Crúzalo! • Primero haz los quehaceres.
  12. 12. NEGATIVE TÚ COMMANDS, IRREGULARS, AND PRONOUN PLACEMENT Negative Tú Commands Irregulars•When you tell someone what not to do, use a •A few verbs have irregular tú commands.negative command. •None of the yo forms of these verbs end•Negative tú commands are formed by taking in -o.you form of the present tense, dropping the -o, •dar (doy)No le des mi dirección a nadie.and adding the appropriate ending. •estar (estoy) No estés triste.•Hablar to hablo •ir (voy)No vayas a la tienda. • ¡No hables! •ser (soy) No seas malo.•Volver to vuelvo • ¡No vuelvas! Pronoun Placement •Object Pronouns precede the verbs in negative commands, just as with other conjugated verbs. • ¡No lo uses!
  13. 13. SEQUENCING EVENTS• Primero • First• Entonces • Then• Luego/Después • Later/After• Por fin • Finally• Antes de/ Después de • Before/After• Por la mañana/tarde/noche • In/Durning the...• Los lunes, etc. • On Mondays

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