Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Muscles of facial expression

27,816 views

Published on

Muscles of facial expression

  1. 1. PRESENTED BY –DR. SHEETAL KAPSE1st YEAR, P.G. STUDENT
  2. 2. The face is the mirror of the mind. St. Jerome
  3. 3. INCLUSIONS -  INTRODUCTION  DEVELOPMENT  TOPOGRAPHIC GROUPING  DESCRIPTION OF INDIVIDUAL MUSCLE  FUNCTIONAL GROUPING  APPLIED ANATOMY  CONCLUSION  RESOURCES
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION FACE Forehead iscommon to both face & scalp.
  5. 5. FACIAL MUSCLES Orbital margins & eyelids External nose & nostrils Lips, cheeks & mouth Pinna Scalp Cervical skin Muscles of facial expressions
  6. 6. Specificity of facial muscles These muscles are different from other muscle organization in having lack of deep membranous fascia beneath the skin of face. Many small slips of muscles, which are attached to the facial skeleton are inserted directly into skin (subcutaneously).
  7. 7. Importance of arrangement Primary & secondary functionSPHINCTOR & DILATOR OF FACIAL ORIFICES V/S Facial expression
  8. 8. Development
  9. 9.  Morphologically they represents the remnants of ‘panniculus carnosus’Which is a continuous subcutaneous muscle sheet seen in some animals & all of which are inserted into the skin.
  10. 10. TOPOGRAPHIC GROUPING
  11. 11. 6 GROUPS occipitofrontalis1. MUSCLES OF SCALP/ EPICRANIAL GROUP temporoperietalis orbicularis oculi2. MUSCLES OF EYELID levator palpebral surerioris corrugator spercilii Auricular anterior3. MUSCLES OF AURICLE Auricular superior Auricular posterior Procerus4. MUSCLES OF NOSE Dilator naris 1. Orbicularis oris Compressor naris 2. Levator labii superioris Depressor septi alequae nasi 3. Levator labii superioris 4. Levator anguli oris5. MUSCLES OF NECK - platysma 5. Zygomaticus major 6. Zygomaticus minor 7. Depressor labii inferioris6. MUSCLES ARROUND THE MOUTH 8. Depressor anguli oris 9. Risorius 10. Mentalis 11. buccinator
  12. 12. According to Gray’s Anatomy 40th edition
  13. 13. 4 GROUPS Occipitofrontalis & epicranial aponeurosis1. EPICRANIAL GROUP Temporoperietalis orbicularis oculi levator palpabral surerioris2. CIRCUMORBITAL & PALPABRAL corrugator spercilii MUSCLE GROUP 1. Orbicularis oris3. NASAL MUSCLE GROUP 2. Levator labii superioris alequae nasi Procerus 3. Levator labii superioris Nasalis Depressor septi 4. Levator anguli oris 5. Zygomaticus major 6. Zygomaticus minor4. BUCCOLABIAL MUSCLE GROUP 7. Depressor labii inferioris 8. Depressor anguli oris 9. Incisivus labii superioris 10. Risorius 11. Mentalis 12. Malaris 13. Buccinator 14. Platysma
  14. 14. OCCIPITOFRONTALIS Covers the dome of skull from superior nuchal line to eyebrows. EPICRANIAL APONEUROSIS Occipital belly Frontal belly
  15. 15. Action: Draws scalpforward and raiseseyebrows
  16. 16. EPICRANIAL APONEUROSIS Loosely attached to periosteum Tightly attached to skin S C A L P
  17. 17. ORBICULARIS OCULI Broad, flat, elliptical muscle 3 parts1. Orbital part2. Palpebral part3. Lacrimal part
  18. 18. Orbital part Insert into skin & subcutaneous tissue of eyebrow.
  19. 19. Palpebral part
  20. 20. Lacrimal part
  21. 21. Blood supply –branches of facial artery superficial temporal, maxillary & opthalmicNerve supply – temporal & zygomatic branches
  22. 22. Actions –1. Sphincter of orbital fissure2. Ocular reflex3. Accommodate the amount of light entering into eye4. Controls drainage of tears
  23. 23. Corrugatorsupercilii Pyramidal muscle Located at the medial end of eyebrow Deep to frontalis Blood supply – superficial temporal opthalmic arteryAction –1. Draws the eyebrow medially2. Frowning Nerve supply – temporal branch3. Vertical strip on supranasal strip of forehead
  24. 24. Levator palpebrae superioris Triangular muscle Arises from lesser wing of sphenoid, infront of optic foramen But separated by superior rectus
  25. 25. Blood supply –Directly by opthalmic arteryIndirectly by supraorbital branchNerve supply –CN IIISympathetic pluxes around CN IIIActions –1. Elevates upper eyelid2. Linked to superior rectus by check ligament3. Increased sympathetic activity – widened palpebral apparatus4. Lesion of sympathetic pluxes - ptosis
  26. 26. Procerus  Pyramidal muscle  Close to  Origin – periosteum over lower part of nasal bone perichondrium over lateral nasal cartilage aponeurosis of transverse nasalis  Insertion – glabellar skin over lower part of forehead between the eyebrows
  27. 27. Action –1. Draws the eyebrow medially & forms transverse wrinkles on lower part of forehead2. Frowning & concentration3. Reduces the glare of sunlight Blood supply – branches of facial artery Nerve supply – temporal branch zygomatic branch
  28. 28. procerus Nasalis Transverse2 parts – part1. Transverse component / compressor naris2. Alar part / pars alaris/ dilator naris posterior Alar part Depressor septiAttached to skin & posterioir part of mobile septum Blood supply – branches of facial artery infraorbital branch of maxillary artery Nerve supply – buccal branch zygomatic branchActions –Compression of narisWidening of naris & elongation of noseActive immediately before inspiration
  29. 29. •Primary dilator of nostril •Prevents the closure of nasal wall duringDilator Naris Anterior inspiration
  30. 30. Depressor Septi  Absent or rudimentary. Depressor septiBlood supply – superior labial branch of facial arteryNerve supply – buccal & zygomatic branches  Actions – 1. Pulls the nasal columella, septum & tip of nose downward 2. With alar part of nasalis – widens the nasal apperture causing nose to dip on smiling.
  31. 31. Levator Labii SuperiorisAlequae Nasi
  32. 32. Blood supply – superior labial branch of facial arteryNerve supply – buccal & zygomatic branches
  33. 33.  Actions –Lateral slip -1. Raises & evert the upper lip.2. Raises, deepens & increases the curvature of top of nasolabial fold.Medial slip -1. Pulls the lateral crus superiorly2. Along with depressor septi – secondary dilator of nose
  34. 34. Levator Labii Superioris
  35. 35. Blood supply –branches of facial artery infraorbital branch of maxillary arteryNerve supply – buccal& zygomatic branches Actions – 1. Elevates & everts the upper lip 2. Modifies the nasolabial fold
  36. 36. Zygomaticus Major
  37. 37. Blood supply – superior labial branch of facial arteryNerve supply – buccal& zygomatic branches Actions – 1. Elevates & everts the upper lip 2. Modifies the nasolabial furrow
  38. 38. Zygomaticus Minor
  39. 39. Blood supply – superior labial branch of facial arteryNerve supply – buccal& zygomatic branches Actions – 1. Elevates & everts the upper lip 2. Modifies the nasolabial furrow 3. Along with LLSAN & LLS – curls the upper lip in smiling 4. Expressions - smugness (too obviously pleased with oneself) - contempt ( very low opinion) - disdain ( to be too proud)
  40. 40. Levator Anguli Oris
  41. 41. Blood supply – superior labial branch of facial artery infraorbital branch of maxillary arteryNerve supply – buccal& zygomatic branches Actions – 1. Raises the angle of mouth on smiling 2. Contributes to depth & contour of nasolabial furrow
  42. 42. MentalisConical fesciculusLying at the side of mandibular labial frenulum
  43. 43. Blood supply – inferior labial branch of facial artery mental branch of maxillary arteryNerve supply – marginal mandibular Actions – 1. Raising, protruding & everting the lower lip 2. Wrinkling of skin of lower lip
  44. 44. Depressor labii inferioris Quadrilateral muscle
  45. 45. Blood supply – inferior labial branch of facial artery mental branch of maxillary arteryNerve supply – marginal mandibular Actions – 1. Draws the lowerlip downward & littlebit laterally 2. Everting the lower lip 3. Expressions – irony, sorrow, melancholy ( causing sadness) & doubt
  46. 46. Depressor Anguli Oris
  47. 47. Blood supply – inferior labial branch of facial artery mental branch of maxillary arteryNerve supply – lower buccal & marginal mandibular Actions – 1. Draws the angle of mouth downward 2. Expressions – sorrow
  48. 48. Buccinator Muscle of cheek Quadrilateral Between maxilla & mandible 3 parts-1. Upper fibers2. Middle fibbers3. Lower fibersPosterior partAnterior part
  49. 49. Blood supply – branches from facial artery branches from maxillary arteryNerve supply – branches from facial nerve Actions – 1. Compresses the cheek against the gums 2. When cheek are distended with air the buccinator expel it between lips – important for playing wind instruments. Buccinator – Latin : trumpeter trumpet – a brass musical wind instrument with a high clear tone.
  50. 50. Relations of buccinator PosteriorlyCovered withbuccopharyngeal fascia
  51. 51.  Superficially
  52. 52.  Anteriorly
  53. 53.  Deep surface
  54. 54. Orbicularis Oris Pars peripheralis Pars marginalis
  55. 55. Blood supply – inferior labial branch of facial artery mental branch of maxillary arteryNerve supply – buccal & marginal mandibularActions –1. Compresses & protrudes the lip (whistling & sucking).2. Restrict distension when blowing.
  56. 56. Incisivus labii superioris & Inferioris
  57. 57. Risorus
  58. 58. Blood supply – superior labial branch of facial artery mental branch of maxillary arteryNerve supply – buccal branch of facial nerveActions –Pulls the corner of mouth laterally in grinning & laughing.
  59. 59. Platysma Origin – from pactoral & deltoid fascia Insertion – lower border of body of mandible & skin over the lower neck Muscle of neck & contributes to orbicularis oris complex 3 parts1. Mandibular2. Labial3. Modiolar
  60. 60. Platysmapars mandibularispars labialispars modiolaris
  61. 61. Blood supply –1. facial artery2. occipital artery3. posterior auricular artery4. subclavian arteryThey form a rich network within platysma & account for the viability of various skin flaps raised during neck dissection.
  62. 62. Blood supply – superior labial branch of facial artery mental branch of maxillary arteryNerve supply – buccal branch of facial nerve greater auricular nerve transverse cutaneous nerve of neckActions –1. Release pressure of skin on the subjacent vein2. Depresses the mandible forcefully3. Pull the angle of mouth downward4. Depresses & wrinkles the skin of lower face & mouth5. Tenses the skin of neck
  63. 63. Functional Grouping Of Facial Muscles Opening Sphincter DilatorPalpebral fissure Orbicularis oculi 1. Levator palpebrae superioris 2. Frontalis part of occipitofrontalisNostrils Compressor naris 1. Dilator naris 2. Levatoe labii superioris alequae nasi 3. Depressor septiOral fissure Orbicularis oris All muscles arround the mouth except Orbicularis oris & mentalis
  64. 64. Cleft lip cases - Nasal septum deviated to non-cleft side due to absence of correct insertion of transverse muscle of nose & orbicularis oris on medial aspect of cleft onto the tissue around the anterior nasal spine , nasal septum & most important contralateral muscle. 3 functional groups of facial muscles displaced inferiorly
  65. 65. Some common facial expressions
  66. 66. Grinning & smiling - risorius
  67. 67. Levator labii superioris & Levator anguli oris Corrugator supercilli & procerus
  68. 68. Horror, terror & fright - platysma
  69. 69. Dilator naris & depressor septii Depressor anguli oris
  70. 70. Whistling - Buccinator Contempt & disdain – zygomaticus minor
  71. 71. Facial Nerve Paralysis Supranuclear – upper motor neuron type of paralysis Nuclear – all signs of Bell’s palsy except deafness Infranuclear – Bells palsy
  72. 72. Bell’s palsy
  73. 73. Mangement of facial palsy -1. Reanastomosis of facial nerve stem – some voluntary & emotional expressions.2. Adams transplanted – anterior fibers of masseter – on both lips Requires 2-3 months temporalis muscle fiber – eyelids for function properly part of frontalis – to other side3. Adour et al transplanted masseter – facial muscles – successful best result by – stripping fascia from masseter & suture the paralyzed muscles on its raw surface.
  74. 74. Examination of facial muscle  Frontalis  Dilators of mouth  Orbicularis oculi  Buccinator
  75. 75. Botulinum toxin injection infacial muscles for treatment of Facial dystonias Blepharospasm hemifacial spasm oromandibular dystonia cervical dystonia facial synkinesis Hyperfunctional facial lines Gummy smile Migraine Chronic tension headache Trigeminal neuralgia Sialorrhea
  76. 76. Platysma
  77. 77. Nasalis Orbicularis oris
  78. 78. MentalisDepressor anguli oris
  79. 79. Wrinkle lines  The direction in which facial skin tension is greatest varies regionally. Skin tension lines which follow the furrows formed when the skin is relaxed are known as ‘relaxed skin tension lines’ (Borges & Alexander 1962). In the living face, these lines frequently (but not always) coincide with wrinkle lines and can therefore act as a guide in planning elective incisions.A, Distribution of relaxed skin tension lines (Kraissls lines) lateral view. B, Anterior view.
  80. 80.  When lesions on the face such as scars, pigmented lesions and skin cancers are excised, the dimensions of these lesions often require excision as an ellipse, so that the resulting defect can be closed as a straight line. If the resulting scar is to be aesthetically acceptable it is important to make the long axis of the ellipse parallel to the natural relaxed skin tension lines, so that the scar will look like a natural skin crease.
  81. 81. Surgical Aspect Levators
  82. 82. MentalisReposioning of muscleafter subperiostealdissection of its origin.
  83. 83. Levator labii superioris Infraorbital nerve & vessels
  84. 84. RESOURCESTEXT BOOK –1. B.D. Chaurassia’s human anatomy 4th edition vol. 3 The Head & Neck.2. Gray’s Anatomy 40th edition.3. Botulinum Neurotoxin For Head & Neck Disorder – by Blitzer , Benson & Guss.4. Surgical Approaches To Facial Skeleton 2nd Edition – by Edward Ellis & Michael F. Zide
  85. 85. Any question ……….. Sheetal.kapse@yahoo.com

×