4 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS
⦿What is it we want students to learn?
⦿How will we know if each students has
⦿How will we respond when some students do
not learn it?
⦿How can we extend and enrich the learning
for students who have demonstrated
Rich Du Four
QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER?
⦿How is Response To Intervention used at
⦿Who implements student interventions?
⦿Can Response To Intervention be useful
toward addressing PLPs?
CORE INSTRUCTION AND INTERVENTION
⦿ Core Instruction: Those instructional strategies that are used
routinely with all students in general education setting is considered
‘core instruction.’ High-quality instruction is essential and forms the
foundation of RTI academic support. NOTE: While it is important to
verify that good core instructional practices are in place for a
struggling student, those routine practices do not ‘count’ as
individual student interventions.
⦿ Intervention: An intervention is used when a student is unable to
demonstrate that he/she as learned a skill, concept, or behavior. An
academic strategy is used to teach the skill, build fluency in a skill,
or encourage a child to apply an existing skill to a new situations or
settings. An intervention leaves a student with stronger skills.
⦿ Accommodations: An accommodation is intended to help the
student to fully access and participate in the general education
curriculum without changing the instructional content and without
reducing the student’s rate of learning (Skinner, Pappas & Davis,
2005). Accommodations change the way an assignment or
assessment is given or taken to allow access to the materials. An
accommodation is intended to remove barriers to learning while still
expecting that students will master the same instructional content as
their peers. Accommodations do not improve skills like interventions
⦿ Example: An accommodation for students who are slow readers,
for example, may include having them supplement their silent
reading of a novel by listening to the book on tape. An
accommodation for unmotivated students may include breaking
larger assignments into smaller ‘chunks’ and providing students
with performance feedback and praise for each completed ‘chunk’
of assigned work.
⦿ Modifications: A modification changes the expectation of what a
student is expected to know or do, typically by lowering the
academic standards. An example of a modification would be
giving a student fewer math problems or spelling words for
practice in comparison to what the other students are expected
to do. Modifications should only be made with students who have
IEP’s and Section 504 plans. By changing or lowering the
academic expectations with modifications, a student will never
‘catch up’ academically. Modifications are generally not
included in student’s RTI intervention plans; the working
assumption is that the student can be successful in the
curriculum with appropriate interventions and accommodations
Case Scenario Example
Susie has an intellectual disability. She receives academic support,
and has been participating in general education classes. Susie’s 4th
grade general education teacher has required her to participate in
spelling tests. Susie received a failing grade for the past 4 spelling
tests. The teacher has decided to reduce the number of spelling
words on Susie’s list. She is only responsible for the single syllable
words on the spelling list each week.
Is this an example of an accommodation or modification?
Are there other ways to address this student’s need?
THREE CHARACTERISTICS OF TIER II
⦿Evidence-based (clear, practice, feedback)
⦿Small group instruction (3-5 x wk.)
⦿Intervention with fidelity
Evelyn Johnson, Ed. D, Boise State University
FIVE ELEMENTS OF FIDELITY
⦿ Student Engagement: How engaged and involved are the
students in this intervention or activity?
⦿ Adherence: How well do we stick to the
⦿ Exposure/Duration: How often does a student receive an
intervention? How long does an intervention last?
⦿ Quality of Delivery: How well is the intervention,
assessment, or instruction delivered? Do you use good
⦿ Program Specificity: How well is the intervention defined
and different from other interventions?
National Center on Response to Intervention
MATHEMATICS HAS 6
⦿Instructional design that eases the learning
⦿A strong conceptual basis for procedures that
⦿An emphasis on drill and practice
⦿Cumulative review as part of drill and
⦿Motivators to help students regulate their
attention and behavior and to work hard
Lynn Fuchs, Vanderbilt University
INTERVENTION REQUEST FORMS
⦿Grade Level Team Form
⦿Problem Solving Team Form
Presentation Process Product
How is it taught?
•Teacher or student
•Whole group instruction
How is it done?
How to demonstrate
Math Reading English
IXL Math Help
1. Who is responsible for implementing student
General education teachers.
2. If a student is not responding to your core instruction
(Tier I), what is your next course of action?
Provide targeted interventions.
3. True/False—Routine instructional practices count as
individual student interventions?
4. Which tier addresses targeted interventions geared
toward meeting grade level targets?