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Energy Efficient Tiny Homes


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A presentation on energy efficiency and green building practices for Tiny Houses in cold climates.

Published in: Design
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Energy Efficient Tiny Homes

  1. 1. What do you get when you mash up a refrigerator box, a trailer, a sleeping bag and a thermos? Considerations for Energy Efficient Green and Healthy Tiny Homes Shawna Henderson, CEO Bfreehomes Design Ltd. 1.902.489.1014
  2. 2. Net Zero Energy Ready New Construction Deep Energy Retrofits 70 -90% less energy for space & water heating Optimize building envelope Minimize systems Maximize renewables Barrier free layouts + user friendly details
  3. 3. St.  Margarets   Bay,  1996   St.  Margarets   Bay,  1992   St.  Margarets   Bay,  1998   Lunenburg,   2002   Wallace  River,   2007  
  4. 4. 12 house types, 6 cities Range of ages: 1922 to 2000 1. How does house type/age affect NZEEH? 2. How does climate affect NZEEH? Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Houses CMHC 2006-2008
  5. 5. Ligh@ng   5%   Appliances   13%   Water   17%   Space   65%   ERS80   (PRE-­‐2012  R-­‐2000)   Changing Energy End Use Patterns •  Reduce space heating load –  Air tightness measures –  Insulation Measures •  Reduce water heating load –  Fixtures –  Drainwater Heat Recovery •  Meeting DWH load becomes biggest challenge –  Mechanicals designed around low temp hot water delivery –  Minimal electrical loads @ fans/pumps –  Small loads, can sacrifice efficiency @ blower •  Electrical base loads –  Primarily occupant driven –  Builder has minimal impact Ligh@ng   13%   Appliances   46%   Water   8%   Space   33%   Net  Zero  Energy   (solar  thermal  op@on)   Ligh@ng   10%   Appliances   44%   Water   20%   Space     26%   Net  Zero  Energy     (non-­‐solar  thermal)  
  6. 6. 0   50   100   150   200   250   300   350   400   As  Is   Conven@onal   DER  with  solar     Energy  Use  Comparison   Ligh@ng   Appliances   Water   Space   50%  reduc@on   80%  reduc@on   Shrinking Energy Use, Period
  7. 7. Revisit, Revise, Rethink Example: energy Analysis & Financial Evaluation Work Flow •  Initial measures impact the types of measures (and associated costs) further down the path to Net Zero Energy. Excel worksheet Revise to targets IRR/ simple payback Costings Loads w/fuel equivalents Energy contributions Incremental capital costs over baseline Reductions in purchased fuel Contributions from Renewables Offsets to purchased fuel (DWHR) Select target reduction from baseline Model for 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% reductions from baseline Select regionally appropriate assemblies to increase insulation levels Specify high performance mechanicals and renewables Estimate regional fuel costs Design is not a linear process
  8. 8. House as a System Many components determine energy use, occupant health, and comfort: Heat Flow Moisture Flow Air Flow Thermal Boundaries Pressure Boundaries House Shape and Size
  9. 9. Keep the heat in Control moisture Optimize systems
  10. 10. Keep the heat in Building Envelope Most optimal surface to volume ratio Highest levels of insulation Lowest air leakage possible Tiny Houses Weight penalty for trailer Stability in light frame Cost/budget allocation
  11. 11. Like standard practice, only better Tried & True Air sealing interior VDR Insulating with fibre Insulating/air sealing with foam Innovative Quad glass with 2 suspended films, krypton fill Vacuum Insulated panels: RSI 22.7/mm (R30/inch) (LEAF 3, trialing in Yukon) Materials and Assemblies
  12. 12. Control moisture Conventional Air Sealing Whole House Ventilation Spot Ventilation Tiny Houses Volume ≠ standard unit capacity Sound attenuation requirement Space for equipment
  13. 13. Mechanical Ventilation HRVs or ERVs •  Whole House •  Room-by-room •  Balanced •  Heat Recovery •  Quiet
  14. 14. Mechanical Ventilation Apartment/Room HRVs •  Thru the wall •  Ceramic core •  Nearly silent •  Minimal Energy
  15. 15. Optimize systems Conventional Match supply to demand temps Integrate equipment Optimize delivery Tiny Houses Eliminate Sound attenuation requirement Space for equipment
  16. 16. Like standard practice, only better Integrated systems Space and water heating/cooling Space/water & ventilation Flexibility of energy sources What types? How many? Issues Preplanning Servicing non-conventional systems Distribution systems Optimized Mechanicals Air   handler   Hot   water   coil   Evaporator   Coil   (cooling)   op@onal   Integrated  Space  Condi@oning   and  Water  Hea@ng  (forced  air)   Air  to  Water  Heat  Pump  (hydronic   space  condi@oning  and  water  hea@ng)  
  17. 17. Always cheaper to save a Watt than make a Watt Reduce loads Space heating Water heating Lighting Appliances Preplanning Solar thermal PV Micro co-generation District energy Renewable Energy
  18. 18. What to do with your poop? Waste water #1 issue after poop Closed Loop Systems Compost toilet Open Loop Systems Chemical toilet Wastewater tanks
  19. 19. If I can be of service, please don’t hesistate to contact me: Shawna Henderson, CEO Bfreehomes Design Ltd. mobile: 1.902.489.1014