"

Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting

getting into hot water



solar ready homes

Shawna Henderson

"




Copyright, 1...
Add-on Solar Technologies"
•  Solar Domestic Hot Water"
•  40% to 60% energy savings potential"
•  Market-ready technology...
Why solar ready?"
Canadian context: "
12 million existing homes"
3.6 million major renovations/annually"

+110,000 new hom...
Why Solar Ready Homes?"
•  Similar to central
vacuum rough-in"
–  Minimal cost to builder/
homeowner at initial
constructi...
Why Solar?"
•  Utilize ‘free’ energy from the sun"
–  Solar is preferred energy choice for 92% 

of Canadians surveyed"
– ...
More Reasons Why..."
•  Undeveloped market"
–  ‘Green’ home market"
–  Anticipate homeowner needs"
–  Increase customer sa...
Why Not Solar Now?"
•  Lack of Canadian market
penetration"
• High initial costs (esp. PV)"
• Misperceptions about Canadia...
Solar Thermal History 101"
•  1980s: BIG incentives available"
–  Boom, then bust"

•  Not technical failure"
–  No requir...
Current Canadian ST Market
""
•  50% growth over 2002-2004"
•  1/3 market = DHW systems"
–  67% DHW in residential sector"...
Global ST Market"
•  46 million homes worldwide"
•  Installed capacity, 2005 = 77 GWth"
•  58% in China, 0.3% in Canada"
1...
07/08 Solar Ready Pilot

""

•  NRCan Goals "
– Demonstrate and monitor up to 100
Solar Ready Homes in small market
with p...
NRCan study objectives"
•  Work with an established production builder to explore the
"real" challenges of implementing So...
Other Solar Ready Incentives"
•  New Mexico --Solar Ready legislated"
•  California -- Solar Ready focussed on PV"
•  Main...
Solar Domestic Hot Water ""
•  Typical residential DHW system:"
–  Proven, reliable technology"
–  2 panels/30 tubes for 2...


Rancher/Bungalow in Vancouver"
BEST OPPORTUNITY FOR NZEEH:

General information"
– 
– 
– 
– 
– 

footprint = 17 x 6 m (5...
Upgrades"
•  Envelope "
–  2.0 ACH"
–  17.6 W/m2 (7Btu/ft2)"

•  Mechanicals: "
–  4 kW electric bb"
–  High-eff HRV"
–  H...
PV contribution"
•  To produce 3650 kWh/year"
–  3 to 4.6 kWp capacity"
–  With best south-facing slope 

(±10° latitude)
...
Solar DHW contributions"
•  Best solution for DHW system

(of those modelled)"
•  6m2 (65 ft2) flat-plate collector
tank"

...
Results of upgrades"

Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting"

"

Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, ...
Cost-effectiveness 1"
•  $30,000 investment (incl. SDHW)"
»  25 yr mtg @ 4%"
»  40 yr mtg $@ 6%"
»  not accounting for fue...
Cost-effectiveness 2"
•  $50,000 investment (incl. SDHW & 2kW PV)
"
»  25 yr mtg @ 4%"
»  40 yr mtg $@ 6%"
»  not accounti...
Climate Impacts on NZEEH"
•  Vancouver most likely"
•  Whitehorse/Prairies most difficult"
•  Coastal Regions : milder wint...
Energy Source Choices"
•  Fuel choices based on big-picture:"
–  GSHP with COP of 3"
–  oil-fired generation o/all eff. = 2...
New Mexico, 2007"
– New homes required by law to be
solar ready"
•  New building standard unanimously passed by state
sena...
California Solar Initiative, 2006"
•  Electricity mainly from natural gas"
•  85% of natural gas imported = ‘double whammy...
California-based Study, 2004"
•  Study included over 13,000 grid-connected
(PV) systems"
•  Benefits of Solar Ready Homes:"...
Maine Home Builders, 2006"
•  Program to Promote Solar Ready "
•  Focus of promotion on cost savings""
–  Electricity savi...
Maine Home Builders"
•  Least-cost solar financing "
•  Build into the mortgage"
•  Works because solar systems last so lon...
Europe"
•  Austria has same climate as Minnesota"
–  40x more SDHW installed than California"
–  1/4 population base"

Abr...
Solar Thermal Collectors"

•  Evacuated Tube"
•  Glazed Flat
Plate"
Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting"

"

Approaching ...
Flat Plate Collector"
Glazing frame

Glazing"

"

Flow Tubes

"
Outflow

"

Enclosure

Inflow

"
"

"

Absorber plate

Insul...
Evacuated Tube Collector"
"
"
"
Cross Section

""

Outer glass tube
Absorbing coating

Evacuated tube

Cover glazing

Inne...
Solar Hot Water Systems"
•  Closed Loop"
–  Antifreeze in
collector
loop"
–  Year-round
operation"

Abri Sustainable Desig...
Solar Hot Water Systems"
•  Open Loop"
–  Direct feed
to storage
tank"
–  Seasonal
operation in
cold
climates"
–  Pools"

...
Solar Hot Water Storage"

•  Storage Tank with
External Heat
Exchanger"

•  Storage Tank with 

Internal Heat Exchanger"
A...
PV Systems"
•  Grid-Tied"
•  inverter, one or more meters, utility access"

Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting"

"

Appr...
PV Arrays"
•  Building Integrated"
•  Roof-mounted"

Shingles "
or Metal"
Panels"

Can be flush mounted or
mounted on racks...
Balance of System (BOS)"
•  Exterior Controls"

Interior Controls - where
allowable by utility"

"Utilities can require ac...
Solar Ready Design Issues"
•  Orientation of roof face to solar"
•  Slope of roof face to solar"
•  Unobstructed/unshaded ...
Solar Ready Service Issues"
•  Install Conduit (straight run only)"

•  Pre-plumb from attic to utility room"

•  Pre-wire...
Orientation of Roof Face"
•  SE to SW quadrant optimal"
–  SE = more morning sun"
–  SW = more evening sun"

•  E and W or...
Roof Slope"
•  Roof slope = latitude of site ± 10° for
year-round performance"
–  Summer performance latitude minus 15°"
–...
Unobstructed Roof"
•  Route all roof penetrations away from
south-face roof, or move to the ridge
area. "
•  Dormers and s...
Roof Area"
•  Allow ± 1500mm x 1500 (10x10 ft)"
–  Flat plate collectors are 1200mm x 2400mm
(4 x 8 ft) each, with 2 panel...
Roof Loading"
•  Collector ‘filled’ weight = 20kg/m2"
–  Most likely no extra support required, BUT..."
•  If system has st...
Rough-in Conduit"
•  Feeds from collectors are insulated 

12.5mm (1/2”) to 19mm (3/4)”copper pipes "
•  Require 75mm (3”)...
Pre-Plumbed and Wired"
•  Two insulated 12.5mm (1/2”) to 19mm
(3/4)”copper pipes "
– 
– 
– 
– 

Install from attic to util...
Pre-Plumbed Solar Bypass"
•  Install solar plumbing connections "
–  Solar bypass valve installed on cold water
feed to ho...
CanSIA Solar Ready"
•  Program focussed on
Marketing Support to
Builders"
–  Include SR tag for
labelling of conduit,
plum...
Floor and Wall Space"
•  Allow utility space for storage tank, plus
additional square footage to allow
access to tank for ...
Floor Loading"
•  200 to 300L storage tanks 

weigh about 270kg to 400kg filled"
– Basement/concrete floors no problem"
•  I...
Range of Costs"
•  Variable, depending on house design"
–  Redesign of roof"
–  Redesign of floor plan/mechanical vis a vis...
Solar Ready Pilot Project"

•  Two basic issues:

"1. How to build it 

"2. How to sell it "

•  What’s different?"
•  Roo...
Project Current Status"
•  18 houses built"
– 3 have solar DHW installed"
– European clients accustomed to
seeing collecto...
The First Solar Thermal
Installation

The Tarry Residence 

(completed December 2006)

The solar panels are just visible o...
The Ivystone Model Home


•  Solar
Thermal Hot
Water
System
displayed in
Model"
•  Demonstrate
s the system
to customers"
...
The Lambert Model Home
•  Solar
Thermal Hot
Water
System
displayed in
Model."
•  (Home was
a 2007
OHBA
Awards of
Distincti...
The Ivystone Rear Elevation
• Solar
Panels on
roof to left
of the
upper
balcony.

Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting"

"...
Demonstration Homes
•  Each of these homes are equipped with Solar
Thermal Heating Systems for the Domestic
Hot Water Need...
Issues: Site and Orientation"
•  Perfect Solar Aspect:"
– Custom solar homes often
on 1Acre lots"

•  Production builder, ...
Issues: Sites and Roofs"
•  Two cases, similar loss of efficiency:"
–  Unobstructed west-facing roof"
–  Bungalow in shadow...
In the field 3: west-facing
panels"

• 

Lambert model, installation day. "

• 

Because of street alignment, this system i...
Issues: Rooflines"
•  Modify and redesign?"
–  No roofline repetition:"
•  Orientation issues"
•  Streetscape"
•  Unlikely t...
In the field: rooflines 1"
• 

Gable End Roof Designs are a
problem when the front of the
home faces South or West."

• 

Va...
In the field: rooflines 2"
• 

In this case the roof was redesigned
to be a Cottage Style. The client then
signed off on the...
Issues: Framing"
•  100 mm (4”) conduit won’t fit in 2x4 wall.
Options:"
–  75mm (3”) "
–  2 - 50mm (2”)"
•  Sticker on eac...
Issues: Design and Plans"
•  Open concept, 2 storey homes difficult "
•  No stacked walls "
•  No direct vertical routes"
•...
In the field: notes and
symbols 1"

• 

These are the Solar Panel Symbols used on roof elevation with a 9/12 pitch. "

• 

...
In the field: notes and
symbols 2"

• 

The Solar Panel Symbol indicates the future location on the elevation drawing."

• ...
In the field 5: floor plan
symbols"

Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting"

"

Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housi...
Issues: Attic Space"
•  No easy access"
–  Position conduit at least 2m (6 ft) away from
eave to allow trades room to work...
In the field 4: conduit stack"

• 

These are the two principal mechanical symbols."

• 

Used to locate the installation o...
In the field 4: conduit stack 2"

If the plumber puts a vent stack in your only viable spot for the panels, it’s no longer ...
Issues: Specifications"
•  Energy Star Homes (Ontario)"
–  Fully weighted to PV, yet solar thermal is
paying dividends now"...
In the field: installation
diagrams"
•  Installation Diagram
from EnerWorks."
•  Provided to Plumbers
for Installation
Guid...
Issues: Market Impacts"
•  West facing system has ± 13 year
payback"
–  Better if payback were 7 to 8 years"
–  Need incen...
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Shawna henderson_solarthermal_aci2008

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A look at solar thermal applications for houses, the systems, the criteria for good performance and how to plan for a future system installation. A good basic introduction for homeowners, builders and renovators who are not familiar with solar thermal. Presented at the national Affordable Comfort Institute conference, April 2008.

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Shawna henderson_solarthermal_aci2008

  1. 1. " Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting getting into hot water
 
 solar ready homes
 Shawna Henderson
 " 
 Copyright, 1996 © Dale Carnegie & Associates, Inc. " April 2008
 "
  2. 2. Add-on Solar Technologies" •  Solar Domestic Hot Water" •  40% to 60% energy savings potential" •  Market-ready technology " "" •  CSA standard for packaged systems" •  Photovoltaics" •  2 to 5 kW system could create Net Zero Energy Home" Both solar hot water and solar electricity generate far more value than their cost! Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  3. 3. Why solar ready?" Canadian context: " 12 million existing homes" 3.6 million major renovations/annually" +110,000 new homes annually" Houses built to last 50 - 100+ years" No consideration of future energy options" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  4. 4. Why Solar Ready Homes?" •  Similar to central vacuum rough-in" –  Minimal cost to builder/ homeowner at initial construction" –  What would market penetration of central vac industry be w/out builder buy-in to pre-installation?" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  5. 5. Why Solar?" •  Utilize ‘free’ energy from the sun" –  Solar is preferred energy choice for 92% 
 of Canadians surveyed" –  Reliable equipment, minimal upkeep" –  Few parts to repair" –  Trouble-free energy 
 supply" Solar Collector
 captures light 
 and traps heat Hot Water –  Fixed operating costs" –  Provides 40 to 60% 
 of water heating 
 requirements" Hot Water Tank
 stores heat" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  6. 6. More Reasons Why..." •  Undeveloped market" –  ‘Green’ home market" –  Anticipate homeowner needs" –  Increase customer satisfaction" •  Build local solar thermal industry" –  Address energy security issues" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  7. 7. Why Not Solar Now?" •  Lack of Canadian market penetration" • High initial costs (esp. PV)" • Misperceptions about Canadian climate and solar energy" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  8. 8. Solar Thermal History 101" •  1980s: BIG incentives available" –  Boom, then bust" •  Not technical failure" –  No requirements for certification" –  No training of installers" –  No way to manage/encourage sustainable growth in industry" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  9. 9. Current Canadian ST Market "" •  50% growth over 2002-2004" •  1/3 market = DHW systems" –  67% DHW in residential sector" •  2004: space and water heating" –  23% of residential market" –  Strong growth in this sector" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  10. 10. Global ST Market" •  46 million homes worldwide" •  Installed capacity, 2005 = 77 GWth" •  58% in China, 0.3% in Canada" 12 World: 77 GWth " China: 45 GWth" EU: 9.8 GWth" US: 1.4 GWth" Canada: 0.26 GWth" Source: IEA " 10 8 6 4 2 ! 0 EU US Canada Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  11. 11. 07/08 Solar Ready Pilot "" •  NRCan Goals " – Demonstrate and monitor up to 100 Solar Ready Homes in small market with production builder" – Integrate Solar Ready and Energy Star technologies and techniques" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  12. 12. NRCan study objectives" •  Work with an established production builder to explore the "real" challenges of implementing Solar Ready in a typical subdivision setting" •  Develop a comprehensive guide to Solar Ready in a subdivision setting which reflects the inherent challenges and limitations of this type of development" •  Gauge consumer interest in Solar Ready and Solar Equipped Homes" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  13. 13. Other Solar Ready Incentives" •  New Mexico --Solar Ready legislated" •  California -- Solar Ready focussed on PV" •  Maine -- Builders Assoc. promoting Solar Ready" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  14. 14. Solar Domestic Hot Water "" •  Typical residential DHW system:" –  Proven, reliable technology" –  2 panels/30 tubes for 2 to 6 occupants" –  3 to 10 years payback investment" –  10 year Warranty" –  25 to 30 year life expectancy " Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  15. 15. 
 Rancher/Bungalow in Vancouver" BEST OPPORTUNITY FOR NZEEH: General information" –  –  –  –  –  footprint = 17 x 6 m (55 x 20 ft)" 4/12 roof, no significant heel @ eave " framed w/2x4 walls" poured concrete basement" single pane windows (w/storms elsewhere)" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  16. 16. Upgrades" •  Envelope " –  2.0 ACH" –  17.6 W/m2 (7Btu/ft2)" •  Mechanicals: " –  4 kW electric bb" –  High-eff HRV" –  High-eff gas heater & solar DHW" –  Drainwater HR" –  Clg RSI 10.6 (R-60)" –  AGW RSI 7.0 (R-40)" –  BGW RSI 7.0 (R-40), " –  Slab RSI 1.8 (R-10)" •  Est. Energy Usage" –  Space Heating: 5.1 GJ " " " "(therms)" –  Water Heating: 3.9 GJ
 " " "(therms)" –  Secondary Loads: 
 10 kWh/day, 3650 kWh/yr" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  17. 17. PV contribution" •  To produce 3650 kWh/year" –  3 to 4.6 kWp capacity" –  With best south-facing slope 
 (±10° latitude)
 (not what every house offers!)" –  24 to 30 m2 (260 to 325 ft2) 
 roof face
 (not necessarily available!)" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  18. 18. Solar DHW contributions" •  Best solution for DHW system
 (of those modelled)" •  6m2 (65 ft2) flat-plate collector tank" • 240L (60 gal) storage •  Water T = 55°C (130°F) • Daily use = 150L (40 gal)" " •  Solar contribution ranged from 
 5.5 to 10.1 GJ (20,000 to 36,000 kWh-e)" •  East or West facing systems: 48 to 65% solar contribution" •  South facing systems: 59 to 83% solar contribution" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  19. 19. Results of upgrades" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  20. 20. Cost-effectiveness 1" •  $30,000 investment (incl. SDHW)" »  25 yr mtg @ 4%" »  40 yr mtg $@ 6%" »  not accounting for fuel cost increases" •  Increases mortgage payment by $125 to $165" •  Decreases energy costs by $120 to $175" •  7 out of 12 options see net savings" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  21. 21. Cost-effectiveness 2" •  $50,000 investment (incl. SDHW & 2kW PV) " »  25 yr mtg @ 4%" »  40 yr mtg $@ 6%" »  not accounting for fuel cost increases" •  Increases mortgage payment by $225 to $275" •  Decreases energy costs by $130 to $195" •  0 out of 12 options see net savings " –  (deficit = $35 to $140/mo)" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  22. 22. Climate Impacts on NZEEH" •  Vancouver most likely" •  Whitehorse/Prairies most difficult" •  Coastal Regions : milder winters" –  better options for higher passive solar gain in retrofits, flat plate SDHW good option" •  Continental Regions: colder, more sun" –  higher kWh generated from PV, 
 colder winters -- look to evacuated tube SDHW?" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  23. 23. Energy Source Choices" •  Fuel choices based on big-picture:" –  GSHP with COP of 3" –  oil-fired generation o/all eff. = 25 to 30%" –  GSHP efficiency = high-eff. oil-fired furnace " •  GHG emissions & carbon footprint " –  Hydroelectric better choice than fossil-fuel, esp. where heating loads are minimal" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  24. 24. New Mexico, 2007" – New homes required by law to be solar ready" •  New building standard unanimously passed by state senate and house" •  ± 12,000 homes annually in state " –  Standard includes requirements/guidelines for: " –  Roof orientation" –  Roof strength" –  Obstructions to sunlight" –  Access to installation locations" –  Built-in conduit and wiring" –  Piping and brackets for attaching solar collectors" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  25. 25. California Solar Initiative, 2006" •  Electricity mainly from natural gas" •  85% of natural gas imported = ‘double whammy’ Incentive in place for PV, but not SDHW" –  $3k to $4k rebate for PV system" •  Will add 3000MW PV capacity in 10 years" •  ‘Glamorous’: lots of celebrity endorsement " •  Aim : “electricity-neutral” homes" •  Many custom and production builders already offering" solar ready for both ST and PV" –  Equivalent Solar DHW initiative could save 971 million therms/1126 GigaWatt-hr" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  26. 26. California-based Study, 2004" •  Study included over 13,000 grid-connected (PV) systems" •  Benefits of Solar Ready Homes:" •  Shorter time on market" •  Increased property value" •  solar electric homes sell at a premium ! Increase in appraisal value for house with PV system ±20 times the annual reduction in operating costs due to PV system! Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  27. 27. Maine Home Builders, 2006" •  Program to Promote Solar Ready " •  Focus of promotion on cost savings"" –  Electricity savings in Maine" •  2.0 kW PV saves about $644 per year. Over 20 years, total savings could exceed $19,000" –  Hot water savings in Maine " •  A solar hot water system for a family of 4 would replace over 3,400 kWh of electric-heated hot water each year. Over 20 years, savings could be over $22,000 in electricity" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  28. 28. Maine Home Builders" •  Least-cost solar financing " •  Build into the mortgage" •  Works because solar systems last so long! –  –  –  –  Buy it with your new home – ! Monthly energy savings outweigh increased payment. ! Include it when you refinance —! Add the capital cost of retrofit to mortgage balance. ! •  Return on Investment (ROI) for PV! •  Under conservative assumptions (output and eq. Life)" •  2.0 kW system represents (after state and federal rebates) an annual return on investment (ROI) of ± 9%" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  29. 29. Europe" •  Austria has same climate as Minnesota" –  40x more SDHW installed than California" –  1/4 population base" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  30. 30. Solar Thermal Collectors" •  Evacuated Tube" •  Glazed Flat Plate" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  31. 31. Flat Plate Collector" Glazing frame Glazing" " Flow Tubes " Outflow " Enclosure Inflow " " " Absorber plate Insulation Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh "
  32. 32. Evacuated Tube Collector" " " " Cross Section "" Outer glass tube Absorbing coating Evacuated tube Cover glazing Inner glass tube" " " Fluid Tubes Cooper Sheet Evacuated space" " " Inflow Outflow " Reflective surface Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  33. 33. Solar Hot Water Systems" •  Closed Loop" –  Antifreeze in collector loop" –  Year-round operation" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  34. 34. Solar Hot Water Systems" •  Open Loop" –  Direct feed to storage tank" –  Seasonal operation in cold climates" –  Pools" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  35. 35. Solar Hot Water Storage" •  Storage Tank with External Heat Exchanger" •  Storage Tank with 
 Internal Heat Exchanger" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  36. 36. PV Systems" •  Grid-Tied" •  inverter, one or more meters, utility access" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  37. 37. PV Arrays" •  Building Integrated" •  Roof-mounted" Shingles " or Metal" Panels" Can be flush mounted or mounted on racks on flat or low-slope roofs" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  38. 38. Balance of System (BOS)" •  Exterior Controls" Interior Controls - where allowable by utility" "Utilities can require access for control of system" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  39. 39. Solar Ready Design Issues" •  Orientation of roof face to solar" •  Slope of roof face to solar" •  Unobstructed/unshaded area 
 on roof face for collectors" •  Roof loading" •  Floor space for additional equipment" •  Wall space for additional controls" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  40. 40. Solar Ready Service Issues" •  Install Conduit (straight run only)" •  Pre-plumb from attic to utility room" •  Pre-wire from attic to utility room" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  41. 41. Orientation of Roof Face" •  SE to SW quadrant optimal" –  SE = more morning sun" –  SW = more evening sun" •  E and W orientations are less efficient but still give benefit" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  42. 42. Roof Slope" •  Roof slope = latitude of site ± 10° for year-round performance" –  Summer performance latitude minus 15°" –  Winter performance latitude plus 15°" •  Lat. 45°N year-round = 8:12 to 16:12 slope" •  Lat. 45°N summer = 7:12 slope" •  Lat. 45°N winter = 20:12 slope (Vertical)" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  43. 43. Unobstructed Roof" •  Route all roof penetrations away from south-face roof, or move to the ridge area. " •  Dormers and satellite dishes adjacent to the collector site will cause shading.! Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  44. 44. Roof Area" •  Allow ± 1500mm x 1500 (10x10 ft)" –  Flat plate collectors are 1200mm x 2400mm (4 x 8 ft) each, with 2 panels for typical DHW system" –  Vacuum tubes are 1800 to 2400 mm (6 to 8 ft) long, in banks 900 to 1200 mm (3 to 4 ft) wide)" •  For aesthetic reasons, a larger space may be required! Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  45. 45. Roof Loading" •  Collector ‘filled’ weight = 20kg/m2" –  Most likely no extra support required, BUT..." •  If system has storage on roof, size accordingly" •  Racked systems have higher wind loading" •  Low slope roofs = special loading considerations" •  Include bracing between trusses or rafters. " •  2x8 @ 600mm (24 in) o.c. will cover most mounting systems." •  Spacing dependent on type of system "! •  Install small access catwalk" •  Ensure enough height to work in space" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  46. 46. Rough-in Conduit" •  Feeds from collectors are insulated 
 12.5mm (1/2”) to 19mm (3/4)”copper pipes " •  Require 75mm (3”) or 100mm (4”) ABS or PVC conduit from utility space to attic, straight run" –  Or 2 - 50mm (2”) conduit" •  May require floor plan changes to get 
 straight-run for 3” or 4” pipe" –  1-storey do-able" –  2-storey: challenging" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  47. 47. Pre-Plumbed and Wired" •  Two insulated 12.5mm (1/2”) to 19mm (3/4)”copper pipes " –  –  –  –  Install from attic to utility space" Pressure test" Cap and seal" Label!" •  2 - 24V, 14-gauge shielded wires" –  Label!" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  48. 48. Pre-Plumbed Solar Bypass" •  Install solar plumbing connections " –  Solar bypass valve installed on cold water feed to hot water tank" –  Cap and seal" •  may require backflow preventer and pressure tank as well" –  Label!" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  49. 49. CanSIA Solar Ready" •  Program focussed on Marketing Support to Builders" –  Include SR tag for labelling of conduit, plumbing and/or wiring
 
 visit: www.cansia.ca" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  50. 50. Floor and Wall Space" •  Allow utility space for storage tank, plus additional square footage to allow access to tank for service/replacement " •  600 x 1200 mm (2x4 ft) floor space " •  600 x 900 mm (2x3 ft) wall space for controls" •  No windows or electrical panels behind utility space" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  51. 51. Floor Loading" •  200 to 300L storage tanks 
 weigh about 270kg to 400kg filled" – Basement/concrete floors no problem" •  If water heater is installed in other area, 
 ensure that storage tank location will stand extra loading" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  52. 52. Range of Costs" •  Variable, depending on house design" –  Redesign of roof" –  Redesign of floor plan/mechanical vis a vis roof" –  2- 2” conduit" Plumbing " " Electrical Outlet " 2-2” C-Vac conduits " Design Time (per plan-set) Stickers " " " Total " " "$60.00" "$40.00" "$150.00" "$50.00" "$2.00" "$302.00" •  ± $300 for installation" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  53. 53. Solar Ready Pilot Project" •  Two basic issues:
 "1. How to build it 
 "2. How to sell it " •  What’s different?" •  Roof: pitch, orientation, obstructions" •  Subdivision planning" •  2 - 2” conduit, straight run built into design" •  Mechanical Room" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  54. 54. Project Current Status" •  18 houses built" – 3 have solar DHW installed" – European clients accustomed to seeing collectors on homes" – Promoting as a premium entity" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  55. 55. The First Solar Thermal Installation The Tarry Residence 
 (completed December 2006)
 The solar panels are just visible on the roof behind the porch. " Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  56. 56. The Ivystone Model Home
 •  Solar Thermal Hot Water System displayed in Model" •  Demonstrate s the system to customers" •  Installation allowed builder to gain experience Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  57. 57. The Lambert Model Home •  Solar Thermal Hot Water System displayed in Model." •  (Home was a 2007 OHBA Awards of Distinction Winner)" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  58. 58. The Ivystone Rear Elevation • Solar Panels on roof to left of the upper balcony. Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  59. 59. Demonstration Homes •  Each of these homes are equipped with Solar Thermal Heating Systems for the Domestic Hot Water Needs." •  All three homes are production homes, built within a traditional subdivision. The lots are typical in design, with no Solar Orientation changes on the part of the Developer." •  In Addition all Three Homes are finalists in their categories for the 2007 National SAM Awards." •  These homes show that Solar Thermal Homes can be well designed with Award Winning Curb appeal." " Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  60. 60. Issues: Site and Orientation" •  Perfect Solar Aspect:" – Custom solar homes often on 1Acre lots" •  Production builder, few site options:" – 36 ft wide lots" – less than optimum orientations" – obstructions and shading" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  61. 61. Issues: Sites and Roofs" •  Two cases, similar loss of efficiency:" –  Unobstructed west-facing roof" –  Bungalow in shadow of 2 storey" •  South roof shaded for some months" •  West facing roof is out of range of CanSIA guidelines for Solar Ready" •  However, could provide normal range of solar gain Mar through Oct" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  62. 62. In the field 3: west-facing panels" •  Lambert model, installation day. " •  Because of street alignment, this system is on a primarily West facing roof. " •  Note the use of roof jacks and a 2” x 10” working platform during installation. " Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  63. 63. Issues: Rooflines" •  Modify and redesign?" –  No roofline repetition:" •  Orientation issues" •  Streetscape" •  Unlikely to have clients OK with design restrictions based on solar aspect" •  Cannot pass cost of roof redesign for solar onto client" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  64. 64. In the field: rooflines 1" •  Gable End Roof Designs are a problem when the front of the home faces South or West." •  Vaulted Roof Designs can also create problems both for placing the panels and for attic access space" •  This is an actual client home that was not changed before agreement & there was no orientation that worked for the panels." Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  65. 65. In the field: rooflines 2" •  In this case the roof was redesigned to be a Cottage Style. The client then signed off on the re-design. •  This change was slightly more expensive than the original design, but since it was discovered after the agreement, the builder could not recover the added cost. •  In this market there is the added complication of restrictions on repetition of elevations within a certain number of units. Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  66. 66. Issues: Framing" •  100 mm (4”) conduit won’t fit in 2x4 wall. Options:" –  75mm (3”) " –  2 - 50mm (2”)" •  Sticker on each end of conduit w/website link for reference" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  67. 67. Issues: Design and Plans" •  Open concept, 2 storey homes difficult " •  No stacked walls " •  No direct vertical routes" •  50% of 2 storey designs needed reworking to get conduit stack location" •  Solutions" •  Set dimensions from mechanical room" –  Cross check on each floor: 30 minutes" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  68. 68. In the field: notes and symbols 1" •  These are the Solar Panel Symbols used on roof elevation with a 9/12 pitch. " •  Used for Roof Elevation Check and Future Location Note on Client Plans." •  Note actual size of panel location on roof plan is 9’ x 9’ (for two panels)" " Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  69. 69. In the field: notes and symbols 2" •  The Solar Panel Symbol indicates the future location on the elevation drawing." •  The corresponding vent stack note is visible above the roof." " Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  70. 70. In the field 5: floor plan symbols" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  71. 71. Issues: Attic Space" •  No easy access" –  Position conduit at least 2m (6 ft) away from eave to allow trades room to work" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  72. 72. In the field 4: conduit stack" •  These are the two principal mechanical symbols." •  Used to locate the installation on the plans. " •  These symbols will also be made available to NRCan for builders that choose to participate." Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  73. 73. In the field 4: conduit stack 2" If the plumber puts a vent stack in your only viable spot for the panels, it’s no longer Solar Ready. Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  74. 74. Issues: Specifications" •  Energy Star Homes (Ontario)" –  Fully weighted to PV, yet solar thermal is paying dividends now" –  Suggest a tiered system:" •  South orientation gets 400kW credit" •  West is less, say 200 kW credit" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  75. 75. In the field: installation diagrams" •  Installation Diagram from EnerWorks." •  Provided to Plumbers for Installation Guidelines." •  Plumbing Note on Basement Plan: “Provide Valves & T’s For Solar Ready Hot Water Tank.”" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh
  76. 76. Issues: Market Impacts" •  West facing system has ± 13 year payback" –  Better if payback were 7 to 8 years" –  Need incentive in place" •  Lack of ‘solar’ sites:" –  Better to have 40,000 homes @ 70% efficiency vs. 400 perfectly sited homes" Abri Sustainable Design & Consulting" " Approaching Net Zero Energy in Existing Housing ACI 2008, Pittsburgh

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