The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota
College of Biological Sciences

Revolutionary New Adaptive Material
...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclass...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclass...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclass...
The University of Kansas

College of Biological Sciences

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

uncl...
The University of Kansas

College of Biological Sciences

Successful Applications of Biomimicking
Adaptive Materials In th...
The University of Minnesota

Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory
College of Biological Sciences
Successful Applications of ...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota
College of Biological Sciences

Selected Aerospace Morphing Concepts...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota
College of Biological Sciences

Adaptive Materials & Structures
Piez...
The University of Kansas

College of Biological Sciences

Conventional Adaptive Materials
Current range of actuator materi...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclass...
The University of Kansas

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclassified

ITAR /EAR unrestricted...
The University of Kansas

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclassified

ITAR /EAR unrestricted...
The University of Kansas

College of Biological Sciences

Fast-Response Actuators
in Eukaryotes
Animal Muscle Cell & Tissu...
The University of Minnesota

Solution:
Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory
College of Biological Sciences
Actuators Made fr...
The University of Kansas

College of Biological Sciences

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

16

...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota
College of Biological Sciences

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 20...
The University of Kansas

College of Biological Sciences

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

18

...
The University of Minnesota

Solution:
Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory
College of Biological Sciences
Actuators Made fr...
The University of Kansas

College of Biological Sciences

Solution:
FAA-Certifiable Actuators based on Plant Cell Structur...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota

Biomimetic Honeycomb
Based on Plant Actuator Cells

Copyright © R.M...
The University of Kansas

College of Biological Sciences

PAH Theory, Experiment & Correlation

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. ...
The University of Kansas

College of Biological Sciences

PAH Single-Cell Tension-Compression Test

Copyright © R.M. and C...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota

ITAR /EAR unrestricted

Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory

College...
The University of Kansas

College of Biological Sciences

PAH Single-Cell Tension-Compression Test

Copyright © R.M. and C...
The University of Kansas

College of Biological Sciences

Comparison to Other
Adaptive Materials and Actuators
Conventiona...
The University of Minnesota
A New Approach to Flight Biological Sciences
Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory
College of Con...
The University of Kansas

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclassified

ITAR /EAR unrestricted...
The University of Kansas

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclassified

ITAR /EAR unrestricted...
The University of Kansas

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclassified

ITAR /EAR unrestricted...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota

ITAR /EAR unrestricted

Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory

College...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota
College of Biological Sciences

Pressure-Adaptive Flap in Wind Tunne...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota

Base Stiffness Cell Differential Pressure Behavior
1.6
NCCDP
(kPa)
...
The University of Kansas

College of Biological Sciences

Current Aircraft Technology in Gust Fields

Copyright © R.M. and...
The University of Kansas

College of Biological Sciences

PAH Wings: Enhancing Ride Quality, Fatigue
Properties & Flight S...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota

Structure of a typical FAR-25 V-n Diagram

Commercial Aircraft
Stru...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota

37

College of Biological Sciences

Weight Saving Paradigm Shift:
C...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota

38

College of Biological Sciences

Weight Saving Paradigm Shift:
C...
The University of Kansas

College of Biological Sciences

Reference: Boeing 787
$32B investment in new product RDT&E:
• Ju...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclass...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota

ITAR /EAR unrestricted

Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory

College...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclass...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota

ITAR /EAR unrestricted

Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory

College...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclass...
The University of Kansas

College of Biological Sciences

45

Pressure Adaptive Honeycomb (PAH)
Flap Systems
Example for L...
The University of Kansas

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclassified

ITAR /EAR unrestricted...
The University of Kansas

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclassified

ITAR /EAR unrestricted...
The University of Kansas

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclassified

ITAR /EAR unrestricted...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota

ITAR /EAR unrestricted

Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory

College...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclass...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota
College of Biological Sciences

PAH Linear-Elastic Modeling Backgrou...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclass...
The University of Kansas

College of Biological Sciences

53

PAH Geo-Kinematic Properties

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barr...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota
College of Biological Sciences

Non-linear Mechanics of PAH Structur...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota
College of Biological Sciences

Effects of Different PAH Boundary Co...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota
College of Biological Sciences

PAH Longitudinal Stress-Strain Corre...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota
College of Biological Sciences

Experimental PAH Stress-Strain Relat...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota
College of Biological Sciences

PAH Four-Cell Tensile Test of Steel ...
The University of Kansas

College of Biological Sciences

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

59

...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota

ITAR /EAR unrestricted

Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory

College...
The University of Kansas

College of Biological Sciences

PAH Multi-Cell Compression Test

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barre...
The University of Kansas

College of Biological Sciences

62

PAH Gurney Flaps & Winglets

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barre...
The University of Kansas

College of Biological Sciences

Fast-Response Actuators in Eukaryotes
Molecuar Mechanism of Musc...
The University of Kansas

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclassified

ITAR /EAR unrestricted...
The University of Minnesota

Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory
College of Biological Sciences
Successful Applications of ...
The University of Kansas

The University of Minnesota
College of Biological Sciences

Biomimetic Plant-Cell Based
Honeycom...
The University of Kansas

College of Biological Sciences

67

Aerocompliance: Key to Birds Wings and PAH

Copyright © R.M....
The University of Kansas

College of Biological Sciences

PAH Four-Cell Tensile Test of Steel
Honeycombs

Copyright © R.M....
The University of Minnesota

69

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved

unclassified

ITAR /EAR unres...
The University of Kansas

College of Biological Sciences

Pressure Adaptive Honeycomb (PAH)
Breakdown for Modeling

Copyri...
The University of Kansas

College of Biological Sciences

PAH Nonlinear Mechanics

Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 ...
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Solution wings for Aerospace Applications.

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Which handles huge strains (>50%) and is easy to control to handle real loads. Lighter than conventional aircraft actuator systems. Provides less drag & less cost for actuation & certifiable under FAR 23/25, 27,29.

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Solution wings for Aerospace Applications.

  1. 1. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences Revolutionary New Adaptive Material “SolutionCell © ” SolutionCell© is a Pressure Adaptive Honeycomb (PAH) www.SolutionCell.com & www.SolutionCell.net unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory Brought to you by: Shawn Paul Boike Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved Solution Vehicles Co & American Industrial Consultants From: BOEING, Northrop, Lockheed, FORD, GM & NASA Long Beach, CA. 90803 562.343.5660 / 562.338.9911 (m) https://www.facebook.com/AmericanIndustrialConsultantsGroup by Ron Barrett The University of Kansas, Lawrence Aerospace Engineering Department and Cassandra Barrett The University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010 1
  2. 2. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Biological Sciences Presentation Dates • So. California (Feb 24-28 2014): Thu Fri 2/27 2/28 Northrop UAV *San Diego Boeing Seal Bch Boeing LB Aero/Def San Diego Gen Atomics?? Boeing HB ??? distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved Mon 2/24 Tue 2/25 Wed 2/26 Zodiac Aero Aero/Def Eaton/Parker Unclassified rev. 28 February 2010 2
  3. 3. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Biological Sciences Revolutionary Adaptive Aerostructures, Changing Flight via Nature's Analogs for Dramatic Fuel Savings by Ron Barrett The University of Kansas, Lawrence Aerospace Engineering Department and Cassandra Barrett The University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences 1st international Conference and Exhibition on Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, San Antonio, Texas 30 September – 2 October 2013 Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010 3
  4. 4. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Biological Sciences Outline 1. Introduction & Motivation 2. Fast-Response Actuators in Eukaryotes 3. Biomimetic FAA-Certifiable Artificial Muscles 4. Selected Aerospace Applications 5. Summary 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5. Summary 4
  5. 5. The University of Kansas College of Biological Sciences Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota Motivation: The same as nature T/O & Landing: Maximize CLmax, Reject Gust Loading Cruise: Maximize L/D Minimize Airframe Weight 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Automotive 5
  6. 6. The University of Kansas College of Biological Sciences Successful Applications of Biomimicking Adaptive Materials In the Aerospace Industry: Weapon Systems Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota Piezoelectric, Shape-Memory-Alloys, Electroluminiscent Materials... 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5. Summary 6
  7. 7. The University of Minnesota Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Biological Sciences Successful Applications of Biomimicking Adaptive Materials In the Aerospace Industry: Disappearing UAVs Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted The University of Kansas 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5. Summary 7
  8. 8. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences Selected Aerospace Morphing Concepts Section Morphing www.nextgenaeronautics.com 2008 Planform Morphing Gould et al. 1981 MissionAdaptiveWing Pendelton et al. 1981 1980’s: Mission Adaptive Wing www.geocities.com 2008 Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory University of Florida 1990’s: NASA’s AAW Lockheed Martin 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5. Summary 8
  9. 9. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences Adaptive Materials & Structures Piezoelectric Materials Shape Memory Alloys Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory Air Muscles McMurtry 2004 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 285. Summary rev. February 2010 9
  10. 10. The University of Kansas College of Biological Sciences Conventional Adaptive Materials Current range of actuator materials available Can they be used in commercial aircraft as a class? ...or in primary structure? Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5. Summary 10
  11. 11. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Biological Sciences What Would an Aircraft Designer want if s/he could design an adaptive material??? An "Ideal" Adaptive Aeromaterial/Aerostructure: •Material capable of "huge" (>50+%?) strains •Fully proportional, easily controlled •Stiff & strong enough to handle "real" loads •Lighter & faster than conventional aircraft actuation systems •Less costly & lower drag than conventional aircraft actuation systems •Certifiable under FAR 23/25, 27/29 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 5. Summary rev. 28 February 2010 11
  12. 12. The University of Kansas Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences Solution? ...Biomimetics "You should pay attention to what Mother Nature has done because she's got a 4.2 billion year lead in research and development. -Prof. H.W. Smith, PE, Ph.D. 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary 12
  13. 13. The University of Kansas Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences Fast-Response Actuators in Eukaryotes •Animal Muscle Cells and Tissues • Fast-Acting Plant Cells and Tissues 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary 13
  14. 14. The University of Kansas College of Biological Sciences Fast-Response Actuators in Eukaryotes Animal Muscle Cell & Tissues Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary 14
  15. 15. The University of Minnesota Solution: Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Biological Sciences Actuators Made from 100% FAA-Certifiable materials, but arranged like fast-acting plant cells 15 Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted The University of Kansas 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Video Credit: & © C.M. Barrett Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Automotive
  16. 16. The University of Kansas College of Biological Sciences Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved 16 Solution: FAA-Certifiable Actuators based on Plant Cell Structures unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota Albizia julibrissin 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary
  17. 17. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved 17 Solution: FAA-Certifiable Actuators based on Plant Cell Structures unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory Pulvinus 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary
  18. 18. The University of Kansas College of Biological Sciences Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved 18 Solution: FAA-Certifiable Actuators based on Plant Cell Structures unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota Ground Cells Phloem Xylem 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary
  19. 19. The University of Minnesota Solution: Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Biological Sciences Actuators Made from 100% FAA-Certifiable Materials, but arranged like fast-acting plant cells 19 Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted The University of Kansas 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Video Credit: & © C.M. Barrett Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Automotive
  20. 20. The University of Kansas College of Biological Sciences Solution: FAA-Certifiable Actuators based on Plant Cell Structures Fundamental Structural Arrangement: Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary 20
  21. 21. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota Biomimetic Honeycomb Based on Plant Actuator Cells Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Biological Sciences • Easily modeled, light, strong • Made of conventional materials (aluminum, steel, aramids) • Already known and accepted by certifying agencies like the FAA Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010 21
  22. 22. The University of Kansas College of Biological Sciences PAH Theory, Experiment & Correlation Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary 22
  23. 23. The University of Kansas College of Biological Sciences PAH Single-Cell Tension-Compression Test Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary 23
  24. 24. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Biological Sciences Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified Multi-Cell Compression Test 180mm Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010 24
  25. 25. The University of Kansas College of Biological Sciences PAH Single-Cell Tension-Compression Test Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary 25
  26. 26. The University of Kansas College of Biological Sciences Comparison to Other Adaptive Materials and Actuators Conventional Hydraulic Actuators Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota High Pressure Adaptive Honeycomb Atmospherically Triggered Adaptive Honeycombs 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary 26
  27. 27. The University of Minnesota A New Approach to Flight Biological Sciences Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Control... Based on Nature: 27 Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted The University of Kansas PAH employs distributed, rather than concentrated actuation... 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Automotive
  28. 28. The University of Kansas Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences Current Aircraft Actuator Design Philosophy Distributed airloads Control surface loads concentrated at finite hard points Loads transferred through actuators & tracks Loads redistributed into primary structure 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary 28
  29. 29. The University of Kansas Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences PAH Actuator Design Philosophy Control surface loads stayed distributed Distributed control surface loads passed thru distributed actuators Distributed loads transferred to primary strucure 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary 29
  30. 30. The University of Kansas Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences Comparison of PAH to Adaptive Materials and FAA Certified Actuators High Pressure Adaptive Honeycomb Conventional Hydraulics & Pneumatics 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary 30
  31. 31. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Biological Sciences and C.M. al. 2007 Copyright © R.M. Murray et Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified Pressure Adaptive Wing Section Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010 31
  32. 32. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences Pressure-Adaptive Flap in Wind Tunnel (cont.) Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory 0kPa CDP 40kPa CDP Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010 32
  33. 33. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota Base Stiffness Cell Differential Pressure Behavior 1.6 NCCDP (kPa) 40 20 Net Camber CDP = 40kpa 1.4 Lift Coefficient, Cl (~) Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved 33 College of Biological Sciences PAH Wing Section: Controllable Aerocompliance unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory 1.3 0 1.0 -20 0.8 -40 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -5 0 5 10 Angle of Attack, a (deg) 15 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary
  34. 34. The University of Kansas College of Biological Sciences Current Aircraft Technology in Gust Fields Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary 34
  35. 35. The University of Kansas College of Biological Sciences PAH Wings: Enhancing Ride Quality, Fatigue Properties & Flight Safety via Active Aerocompliance Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary 35
  36. 36. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota Structure of a typical FAR-25 V-n Diagram Commercial Aircraft Structural Weights are set by these points Gust Limits Maneuver Limits Load Factor, n (g's) Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved 36 College of Biological Sciences The Real Savings... from Class I Design Forward unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory +1 0 -1 VS1 VA Flight Speed, Vflt (kts) VC VD Gust Limits 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary
  37. 37. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota 37 College of Biological Sciences Weight Saving Paradigm Shift: Compression of Gust Lines to within Maneuver ...just like birds do, via dynamic aerocompliance Load Factor, n (g's) Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory +1 0 -1 VS1 VA Flight Speed, Vflt (kts) VC VD 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary
  38. 38. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota 38 College of Biological Sciences Weight Saving Paradigm Shift: Compression of Gust Lines to within Maneuver ...just like birds do, via dynamic aerocompliance saving... 7 – 23% total aircraft structural weight! Load Factor, n (g's) Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory +1 0 -1 VS1 VA Flight Speed, Vflt (kts) VC VD 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary
  39. 39. The University of Kansas College of Biological Sciences Reference: Boeing 787 $32B investment in new product RDT&E: • Just over half of the RDT&E was devoted to new materials & manufacturing to achieve a ~20% weight reduction WRT conventional materials Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary 39
  40. 40. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Biological Sciences PAH Implications for Commercial Aircraft Implications for commercial jets: • Reduction in Structural Weight • Increase in mission integrated L/Dmax • Reduction in DOC at constant range • Increase in range at constant TOW • Airfoil section gust load rejection: • Net airframe gust load rejection • Safe Airframe Life Extension 9 - 22% 6 - 9% 7 - 11% 12 - 18% up to 380% up to 87% 11 - 14% US Pat. 8,366,057 Issued 13 February 2013 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary 40
  41. 41. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Biological Sciences Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified Acknowledgements Prof. Roelof Vos NASA Ames Research Center Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010 41
  42. 42. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Biological Sciences PAH Flap and Winglet System Implications Implications for commercial jet fleets: Korean Air: KRW11.807 trillion 2011 in operating expenses Retrofit Impacts: ~ +KRW200B (Net loss in 2011: KRW98B) New Equipment Impacts: +KRW850B DOC savings + +KRW220B Airframe Life Extension + +KRW660B increased cargo carriage revenue ~ KRW1.7 trillion European Patent EP 2459442 A2 US Patent 8,366,057 B2 February 2013 Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010 42
  43. 43. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Biological Sciences Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified Questions? Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010 43
  44. 44. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Biological Sciences 44 What if... Something about the flight environment itself could deploy the surfaces... 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Automotive
  45. 45. The University of Kansas College of Biological Sciences 45 Pressure Adaptive Honeycomb (PAH) Flap Systems Example for LSA wing Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Automotive
  46. 46. The University of Kansas Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences 46 Potential Application: Pressure Adaptive Honeycomb (PAH) Flap Implications for LSA* based on a 20% increase of clean CLmax:** • 17% reduction in wing wetted area • 20% increase in aspect ratio • 10% increase in L/D • 8% reduction fuel burn and DOC at constant range • 1.5% decrement in TOW and purchase price at constant range • 37% gust rejection loads *45kts flaps-up stall requirement **Based on: Roskam “Airplane Design,” part I, II, V, and VIII, and Cessna 162 Skykatcher Data 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Automotive
  47. 47. The University of Kansas Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences 47 PAH Gurney Flap (cont.) Implications for jets based on a 6% increase of CLmax: 5.8% decrease in wetted area 6% increase in aspect ratio 3% increase in L/Dmax 3.2% reduction in DOC at constant range 3% increase in range at constant TOW 380% section gust load rejection 87% net airframe gust load rejection *Based on: Roskam “Airplane Design,” part I, II, and V, and Cessna Citation Sovereign Data 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Automotive
  48. 48. The University of Kansas Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota 48 College of Biological Sciences PAH Implications for Commercial Aircraft Implications for commercial jets: • Increase in CLmaxL/TO • Reduction in Structural Weight • Increase in mission integrated L/Dmax: • Reduction in DOC at constant range • Increase in range at constant TOW • Section gust load rejection: • Net airframe gust load rejection Retrofit STC 3% 0% 2.4% 2.5% 2.2% 43% 21% Class I Design 6% 9 - 22% 6 - 9% 7 - 11% 12 - 18% 380% 87% 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Automotive
  49. 49. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Biological Sciences Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified PAH Cell Modeling Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010 49
  50. 50. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Biological Sciences PAH Linear-Elastic Modeling Background Cellular Material Theory (CMT) after Gibson et al. 1988 Considerations: l • Only valid for small thickness-to-length ratio t qi • Only valid for +/- 20% of strain • Linear stress-strain relationship Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010 50
  51. 51. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences PAH Linear-Elastic Modeling Background Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010 51
  52. 52. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Biological Sciences PAH Theoretical Characterization Global stress-strain relations: @ constant pressure: @ constant mass: with Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010 52
  53. 53. The University of Kansas College of Biological Sciences 53 PAH Geo-Kinematic Properties Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota CDP = Cell Differential Pressure 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Automotive
  54. 54. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences Non-linear Mechanics of PAH Structures Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010 54
  55. 55. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences Effects of Different PAH Boundary Conditions Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010 55
  56. 56. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences PAH Longitudinal Stress-Strain Correlation Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory p = 55kPa Unclassified distribution unlimited p = 60kPa © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010 56
  57. 57. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences Experimental PAH Stress-Strain Relations Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010 57
  58. 58. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences PAH Four-Cell Tensile Test of Steel PAH Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010 58
  59. 59. The University of Kansas College of Biological Sciences Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved 59 PAH Bender Experimental Characterization Validation Experiment: Three-point bend test unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota FEM Modeling: 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Automotive
  60. 60. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Biological Sciences Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified PAH Cell Modeling Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All Rights Reserved rev. 28 February 2010 60
  61. 61. The University of Kansas College of Biological Sciences PAH Multi-Cell Compression Test Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary 61
  62. 62. The University of Kansas College of Biological Sciences 62 PAH Gurney Flaps & Winglets Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Automotive
  63. 63. The University of Kansas College of Biological Sciences Fast-Response Actuators in Eukaryotes Molecuar Mechanism of Muscle Contraction Stimulus Myosin head binds to actin Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota 6.7nm contraction Myosin head turns as P1 is released 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary 63
  64. 64. The University of Kansas Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences Fast-Response Actuators in Eukaryotes Mechanical Analogs of Animal Muscle Tissues: -Shape-Memory-Alloys -Pneumatic Tubes -Piezoelectric Polymers -Adaptive Gels -Electrostatic Actuators 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary 64
  65. 65. The University of Minnesota Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Biological Sciences Successful Applications of Biomimicking Adaptive Materials In the Aerospace Industry: UAVs & Hovering Missiles Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted The University of Kansas 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 5. Summary rev. 28 February 2010 65
  66. 66. The University of Kansas The University of Minnesota College of Biological Sciences Biomimetic Plant-Cell Based Honeycomb Actuator After: Olympio et al. 2007 Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory Standard Auxetic Hybrid 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary 66
  67. 67. The University of Kansas College of Biological Sciences 67 Aerocompliance: Key to Birds Wings and PAH Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota Gust load relieving smoothes flight 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Automotive
  68. 68. The University of Kansas College of Biological Sciences PAH Four-Cell Tensile Test of Steel Honeycombs Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary 68
  69. 69. The University of Minnesota 69 Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted The University of Kansas Solution: Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory College of Biological Sciences FAA-Certifiable Actuators based on Plant Cell Structures 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Automotive
  70. 70. The University of Kansas College of Biological Sciences Pressure Adaptive Honeycomb (PAH) Breakdown for Modeling Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary 70
  71. 71. The University of Kansas College of Biological Sciences PAH Nonlinear Mechanics Copyright © R.M. and C.M. Barrett 2013 all rights reserved unclassified ITAR /EAR unrestricted Adaptive Aerostructures Laboratory The University of Minnesota 1.Introduction 2.Nat. Actuators 3.Art.MusclesRights Reserved Unclassified distribution unlimited © R. Barrett All 4.Aerospace 28 February 2010 rev. 5.Summary 71

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