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Cell organelle power point notes


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Organelle power point notes (use with your KIM, cell city planning guide, etc.)

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Cell organelle power point notes

  1. 1. Nucleus Endoplasmic Vacuole reticulumNucleolus Mitochondria Cell WallCytoplasm Golgi Body Chloroplast Cell Lysosome Ribsomesmembrane 1
  2. 2. NucleusThe “brain” of the cellControls all of thecellular activitiesDNA is inside the nucleus 2
  3. 3. NucleusCHROMOSOMES- are found inside the nucleus carry the information thatChromosomes – determines what traits a living thing will have 3
  4. 4. NUCLEOLUSThe dark area inthe nucleusLike a tinynucleus inside thenucleus. 4
  5. 5. CYTOPLASMCytoplasm- everything inside the cell membrane & outside of the nucleus except the cell’s nucleus cytoplasm 5
  6. 6. CELL MEMBRANE holds the cell together keeps all of the pieces (like the organellesand the cytoplasm) inside the cell controls what goes in and out of the cell Example: like a big plastic bag with tiny holes in it 6
  7. 7. Endoplasmic Reticulum known as the “ER” it is an organelle inside the cell that ismade up of membranes that are in theCYTOPLASM of the cellThere are two different Smooth ER Rough ER 7
  8. 8. Smooth ER Main function is to collect, maintain &transport things Shaped slightly tubular Creates steroids Stores Ions for the cell to keep nutrientsbalanced 8
  9. 9. Rough ERIt has bumps all over it giving it a “rough”appearanceBumps are called RIBOSOMESER collects the proteins (built by theribosomes) and creates a bubble around them VESICLE- is formed when the ER pinchesoff a part of its membrane 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. Mitochondria Mito = Mighty / Power The Power-House of the cell They break down food molecules so thecell has the energy to live If a cell needs a lot of energy…it will havemore mitochondria (some could have 200 ormore) 11
  12. 12. MATRIX: a fluidthat has waterand proteins allmixed together(like a solution)•The proteinstake the foodmolecules in andcombine themwith Oxygen torelease theenergy 12
  13. 13. GOLGI BODY•Also called the Golgi Complex•It is made up of a stack of flattened out sacs…like a loose stack of pancakes WHAT DOES IT DO?1) it takes simple molecules and combines them to make larger molecules.2) takes those larger molecules and puts theminto packs called GOLGI VESICLES 13
  14. 14. Think about building a model of a ship (thats themolecule). Then take that model and put it in abottle (thats the vesicle). 14
  15. 15. LYSOSOMES (primarily animal)•They combine with the food taken in by the cell•The enzymes in the lysosome bond to food &digest it (acidic interior)• Next…smaller molecules are released which are absorbed by the mitochondria 15
  16. 16. LYSOSOMES• When an organelle no longer works, the lysosome will attach itself to it and break it down like food (kind of like a cannibal) – Chemicals can then be reabsorbed or excreted• Lysosomes can also destroy the cell if it breaks open accidentally – “Suicide Sacs” – UV light damages lysosome membrane• The enzymes inside the lysosome spread throughout the cell and digest it 16
  17. 17. LYSOSOMES 17
  18. 18. VACUOLE• Vacuoles are “bubbles” that float in the cell • Vacuoles are more important to the survival of plant cells than they are to animal cells 18
  19. 19. VACUOLE: STORAGE IN PLANT CELLS• Vacuoles in plants support structure• Vacuoles hold onto things that the cell might need…like a backpack• There are some vacuoles that hold onto waste products, similar to having a big septic tank• Storing waste products protects the cell from contamination 19
  20. 20. You will know that a plants vacuoles areshrinking when you see the plant begin todroop over HOLDING UP THE WALLS 20
  21. 21. Turgor Pressure- force exerted by the waterentering (osmosis) the vacuole, which thenswells exerting internal force on the cell wall •Causes “rigidity” so the plant my increase by stacking cells 21
  22. 22. Chloroplast•the site of photosynthesis in eukaryoticcells•disk-like structures•composed of a single membrane•surrounding a fluid containing stacks ofmembranous disks 22
  23. 23. Chloroplast•photosynthesis takes place inside the chloroplast the process in which plant usePhotosynthesis- water, carbon dioxide, and energy form the sun to make food 23
  24. 24. •SOLAR energyradiated from the Chloroplastsun is captured byplants(chloroplast)•Then it isinstantaneouslychanged intoELECTRICALenergy•Then packaged asCHEMICAL energy 24
  25. 25. Ribosomes•small dot-like structures in cells•they are often associated with forming rough ER•Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesisin cells•they are made in the nucleus of the cell•A ribosome can make the average protein inabout one minute 25
  26. 26. Types of Ribosomes•There are two kinds of ribosomes 1) Attached to the rough ER 2) floating in the cell cytoplasm•Attached ribosomes make proteins that areused in the ER or transported within the ER•Free ribosomes make proteins that are usedin the cytoplasm 26
  27. 27. 27
  28. 28. 1. Which organelle is known as the “Brain” of the cell?2. If you look at a picture of a cell, how would yourecognize the nucleolus?3. List the 3 main jobs of the cell membrane4. Explain why the cell membrane has tiny holes madeof protein in it (think of the gate).5. The term hydro means _________. A. If something is hydrophobic it is _________ 28 B. If something is hydrophilic it is __________
  29. 29. 1. Which organelle is known as the Power House” ofthe cell?2. The mitochondria of a cell share the same job asthe __________ (hint- an organ) in the human body.3. Explain how you could distinguish the rough ERfrom the smooth ER.4. What is the main job of the smooth ER?5. What type of reactions occur on the innermembrane of the mitochondria? (produces energy) 29
  30. 30. 1. What is the main function of a lysosome?2. What happens if a lysosome breaks open?3. Explain the difference between cytoplasm andprotoplasm. (draw a diagram if it will help you)4. Why are vacuoles important to PLANTS?5. Which organelle is the site of photosynthesis?6. What are the three main ingredients forphotosynthesis? 30