Wind turbines in wild places

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The presentation gives details of the challenges of installing wind turbines in Antarctica. Many thanks to Scott Bennet for suppling some of the materials.

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Wind turbines in wild places

  1. 1. + World’s most southerly wind farm Dr Shaun West
  2. 2. + Renewables in other extreme places
  3. 3. + Where is and who needs the power from the wind farm? Where? Need? 100 people 150kW 1250 people 1.6MW 3km Ross Island
  4. 4. + What other renewable options were considered? Solar n  Already in use n  No sun April - August n  Unable to provide 1MW of capacity Anna Mason, 2007
  5. 5. + What other renewable options were considered? Wave power n  The sea is covered with ice 9 months of a year
  6. 6. + 3 x Enercon 330kW wind turbines selected, but why? n  n  Direct drive generator eliminates gearbox and oil issues n  Hub Height: 39m above ground Proven in Antarctic Service AAD Mawson Station has 2 x E-30s in service for 5 years n  Diameter: 33.4m Power: 330 kW, 3 blades with pitch control Power electronic energy conversion highly flexible n  Control systems designed for wind diesel integration n  Components fit into 40ft containers n  Annual major maintenance So where is the innovation? http://www.enercon.de/p/downloads/EN_Productoverview_0710.pdf
  7. 7. + All of the equipment installed on Ross Island was proven so why was it innovative? n  3 x 330 kW wind turbines n  20-60% wind power n  n  Frequency converter n  n  80-40% existing diesel engines 50/60Hz (NZ/US) Flywheel power store n  500kW for 30 seconds 3 x Crater Hill Wind Turbines McMurdo Station Scott Base
  8. 8. + Feedback – what were the issues that came to mind? n  Q – what other technologies could have be considered? n  n  … Q – what were the challenges (risks) that drove innovation? n  … Class discussion
  9. 9. + Why was the additional 1MW needed when Ross had sufficient generation? Issues n  n  n  Cost of fuel savings n  Fuel prices are increasing CO2 emissions n  Antarctic Treaty requires limited environmental impact Data n  Cost of fuel 3.29USD per liter n  Average load site load 1.7MW n  2.53 kg CO2 per liter of fuel consumed n  Fuel consumption 700,000 liters pa n  Wind to diesel generation 80/20 Risk n  The pack ice can make delay ship arrivals http://www.eia.gov/oiaf/1605/coefficients.html http://www.anta.canterbury.ac.nz/documents/GCAS %20electronic%20projects/James%20Mason%20project.pdf
  10. 10. + Why was the additional 1MW needed when Ross had sufficient generation? Project results Benefits accrued n  65/45 wind to diesel n  n  Saving of 455,000 liters of fuel pa Cost saving of 1.5M USD pa in fuel n  1150 tonnes CO2 pa n  Refueling of base is every 4-5 years rather than annually n  Reduced dependency on erratic fuel deliveries n  Project cost 5.23 M USD n  Project payback <5 years n  Note: 20% de-rating on the turbines due to use of wrong grease
  11. 11. + If all technology was proven why were there technical challenges? 1 annual supply ship n  1 annual supply ship Solution n  Equipment planned and programmed down to the last nut and bolt!
  12. 12. + If all technology was proven why were there technical challenges? 3 flights per week n  High cost of airfreight n  Detailed planning n  n  3 Globemaster flights per week Solution Maximized use of 40ft shipping containers n  Simple but effective
  13. 13. + If all technology was proven why were there technical challenges? Temperature n  Cold conditions prevent concrete from reacting and solidifying n  Summer -37oC to +7oC n  Average -20oC Solution n  Precast foundations
  14. 14. + If all technology was proven why were there technical challenges? Weather n  Storms and high winds n  5-10ms-1 to >60ms-1 n  Temperatures less than -50C Solution n  Planning and to some extent ‘luck’ n  “The one time you want no wind for your Wind Farm is when you’re building it!”, Scott Bennett, Project Manager, Meridian Energy
  15. 15. + Create innovative solutions to deal with the unplanned Weather damage Solution n  Delays cannot be easily recovered n  Generic spares with strategic parts for non-generic parts n  There is no OBI to buy parts locally n  Local machining required n  Air freight only when required
  16. 16. + What do you think the necessary skills and competences for the project were?
  17. 17. + What do you think the necessary skills and competences for the project were? Scoping Strategic General management O&M issues Technology Environmental Planning Project management Engineering Inter cultural Logistics Environmental Execution Project management Psychological Inter cultural Logistics Environmental n  Mix of skills required at each phase different n  Each topic would fill a lecture!
  18. 18. + Was the project successful? Yes, the project was successful n  Delivered on time. n  n  Renewable generation – good fuel savings n  n  n  n  Opened in Jan 2010 by New Zealand Minister for Foreign Affairs and US Ambassador for New Zealand Wind penetration 60-70% Diesel not used Scott Base Single diesel at McMurdo Station Availability of 86% in 1st year n  Just below target
  19. 19. + Where was the innovation in this project? How can this be innovation as key components were all proven? Class discussion on what was innovative and why
  20. 20. + Where was the innovation in this project? How can this be innovation as key components were all proven? n  Most southerly and largest wind turbine location n  n  n  Almost 1MW Join US/NZ cooperation System integration was unique n  50/60Hz Foundations n  Energy storage/buffering n  n  Installation required innovation n  n  Remote project management Locally developed solutions
  21. 21. + Key take-aways from the project Keep thinking of solutions not problems n  Understand the aim and objectives n  Invest the effort in up-front planning n  Have a positive “can do” outcome attitude … think laterally n  Always look for solutions with “elegance of simplicity” n  …be proud and passionate of what you do and innovate
  22. 22. + PR video
  23. 23. + References and further reading n  n  n  http://www.anta.canterbury.ac.nz/ documents/GCAS%20electronic %20projects/Anna%20Mason %20Project.pdf http://www.southpolestation.com/trivia/ 00s/windfarm2.html Ross Island Wind Energy – Stage 1 Project, 2 May 2011, S Bennett n  http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=XXS_hmSEgGU&feature=player_embed ded n  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ McMurdo_Sound n  http://www.enercon.de/p/downloads/ EN_Productoverview_0710.pdf n  http://eandt.theiet.org/magazine/2009/21/ zero-emission-continent.cfm n  Many thanks to Scott Bennett for providing additional source materials http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=id6ZTRS4jdk&feature=player_embedde d n  http://www.energyawards.co.nz/awards http://www.meridianenergy.co.nz/whatwe-do/our-power-stations/wind/rossisland/ n  n 
  24. 24. + World’s most southerly wind farm Dr Shaun West

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