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The Road to Full Internal       Self Government               1955 - 1959
Outcome
1959: A Year of Firsts
1955 Elections: Limited Internal SelfGovernmentLabour wins marginally.Results: Labour: 10 SPP: 4 PAP: 3 Others: 8
1959: Full Internal Self Government PAP Victory: 43/51 seats.
What is Full Internal Self          Government?
How did it come to this?
Full Internal Self Govt: A Comparison
What is Full Internal Self Government? Simply put: Full Internal Self Government was achieved  when a locally raised poli...
What was at stake in the 1959Elections?
Comparison: 1955 and 1959                          1955      1959No. of eligible voters    300,292   587,797(electorateNum...
What was at stake in the 1959 elections?Simply put: the Party that won the most votes would leadSingapore into Full Inter...
What We have Learnt So Far… 1959 elections first truly democratic elections in Singapore Local winner of elections to be...
The Big Question: How was         Full Internal Self    Government Achieved     between 1955 – 1959?
Issues:
1959 Elections:The Key Actors
1955 – 1959: People InvolvedSingapore Labour Front    The Voters          PAP         The Communists         The British
The Constant Variable: BritishConcerns Elected government  must NOT:Either Be pro-communistAnd/or Be unable to control ...
1955 – 1956:What happened in between?
Issues:
1955: Singapore Labour Front WinsElections SLF wins 1955 elections by  10/25 seats. British expected SPP to  win. David...
1955: Hock Lee Bus Riots   Communist instigated   April: Singapore Bus Workers Union    workers go on strike for better ...
1956: First Merdeka talks Marshall leads a delegation   to London to negotiate for   full internal self   government. To...
For Today… The British were not satisfied with Marshall’s performance in   relation to the communist threat and were not ...
Issues:
Issues:
1956: Prelude to Riots Lim Yew Hock clamps  down hard on  Communists by shutting  down Singapore Chinese  Middle Schools’...
1956: Student Riots   Students Camp at Chung Cheng    High School and Chinese High    School for two weeks.   Workers jo...
Arrests Made:Communists/ Associatedwith CommunistsDevan NairLim Chin SiongFong Swee SuanJames PuthuchearyS.Woodhull
What do you think the Britishand Chinese think of Lim Yew          Hock at this point?
1957-1958 1957: 2nd Merdeka talks Lim  Yew Hock leads second  delegation to London. Succeeds in negotiating for  full in...
Issues:
1959: Elections 525,000 voters 194 candidates 51 seats 13 political parties 1 winning party
“Why did the PAP win?”
Issues:
Conclusion PAP won because:   They built on the weaknesses and    achievements of the Labour Front   They were united a...
Building on the Achievements andWeaknesses of the Labour Front They built on the achievements of the Labour Front  govern...
They Were United and WellOrganised Large pool of voluntary  helpers from the Trade  Unions and Chinese School Portrayed ...
They Were in Touch with the People“We combed every village, walking fromhouse to house. My knowledge of Malaycame in handy...
They Had a Comprehensive Plan forSingapore“We drafted policy papers on economics,education, housing, health, rural develop...
Conclusion PAP won because:   They built on the weaknesses and    achievements of the Labour Front   They were united a...
Was it So Simple?“It was a victory but I was not jubilant. I had begun torealize the weight of the problems that we were t...
Appendix a road to internal_self_govt
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Appendix a road to internal_self_govt

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Appendix a road to internal_self_govt

  1. 1. The Road to Full Internal Self Government 1955 - 1959
  2. 2. Outcome
  3. 3. 1959: A Year of Firsts
  4. 4. 1955 Elections: Limited Internal SelfGovernmentLabour wins marginally.Results: Labour: 10 SPP: 4 PAP: 3 Others: 8
  5. 5. 1959: Full Internal Self Government PAP Victory: 43/51 seats.
  6. 6. What is Full Internal Self Government?
  7. 7. How did it come to this?
  8. 8. Full Internal Self Govt: A Comparison
  9. 9. What is Full Internal Self Government? Simply put: Full Internal Self Government was achieved when a locally raised political party has almost complete control over domestic affairs . Exceptions: security related matters (internal and external) and foreign relations.
  10. 10. What was at stake in the 1959Elections?
  11. 11. Comparison: 1955 and 1959 1955 1959No. of eligible voters 300,292 587,797(electorateNumber of elected seats 25 51Number of contesting 6 13partiesNumber of candidates 79 194
  12. 12. What was at stake in the 1959 elections?Simply put: the Party that won the most votes would leadSingapore into Full Internal Self Government and have almostcomplete control over domestic affairs .Exceptions: security related matters (internal and external)and foreign relations.
  13. 13. What We have Learnt So Far… 1959 elections first truly democratic elections in Singapore Local winner of elections to be given complete control over domestic affairs. Exception of external affairs, defence and internal security.
  14. 14. The Big Question: How was Full Internal Self Government Achieved between 1955 – 1959?
  15. 15. Issues:
  16. 16. 1959 Elections:The Key Actors
  17. 17. 1955 – 1959: People InvolvedSingapore Labour Front The Voters PAP The Communists The British
  18. 18. The Constant Variable: BritishConcerns Elected government must NOT:Either Be pro-communistAnd/or Be unable to control the communists
  19. 19. 1955 – 1956:What happened in between?
  20. 20. Issues:
  21. 21. 1955: Singapore Labour Front WinsElections SLF wins 1955 elections by 10/25 seats. British expected SPP to win. David Marshall becomes Chief Minister. David Marshall’s power limited.
  22. 22. 1955: Hock Lee Bus Riots Communist instigated April: Singapore Bus Workers Union workers go on strike for better pay and working conditions. 229 workers dismissed Workers deliberately block front gate. David Marshall’s Commission of Inquiry fails to appease strikers. Climax reached on 12 May 1955: 20 lorries with students arrive, riots get violent. 4 killed, 31 injured. Workers got their job back
  23. 23. 1956: First Merdeka talks Marshall leads a delegation to London to negotiate for full internal self government. To be in effect by 1957 Talks fail. Marshall steps down as Chief Minister. Lim Yew Hock takes over
  24. 24. For Today… The British were not satisfied with Marshall’s performance in relation to the communist threat and were not willing to grant Singapore full Internal self government during the first Merdeka Talks. However, it was Marshall’s drive for full internal self government that paved the way for Lim Yew Hock to succeed in pushing for elections full internal self government during the Second Merdeka talks. Singapore still had a long way to go. The communist threat was still not defeated, and the British were still not satisfied.
  25. 25. Issues:
  26. 26. Issues:
  27. 27. 1956: Prelude to Riots Lim Yew Hock clamps down hard on Communists by shutting down Singapore Chinese Middle Schools’ Student Union. 4 students leaders arrested 142 students expelled
  28. 28. 1956: Student Riots Students Camp at Chung Cheng High School and Chinese High School for two weeks. Workers join in after talk by Lim Chin Siong 26th October, school stormed by police Rioters take to the streets destroying public property Curfew imposed 13 dead, 100 wounded
  29. 29. Arrests Made:Communists/ Associatedwith CommunistsDevan NairLim Chin SiongFong Swee SuanJames PuthuchearyS.Woodhull
  30. 30. What do you think the Britishand Chinese think of Lim Yew Hock at this point?
  31. 31. 1957-1958 1957: 2nd Merdeka talks Lim Yew Hock leads second delegation to London. Succeeds in negotiating for full internal self government. November 1958 Constitution approved
  32. 32. Issues:
  33. 33. 1959: Elections 525,000 voters 194 candidates 51 seats 13 political parties 1 winning party
  34. 34. “Why did the PAP win?”
  35. 35. Issues:
  36. 36. Conclusion PAP won because:  They built on the weaknesses and achievements of the Labour Front  They were united and well organised  They were in touch with the people on the ground  They had a comprehensive plan for Singapore.
  37. 37. Building on the Achievements andWeaknesses of the Labour Front They built on the achievements of the Labour Front government.  David Marshall demanded for Full Internal Self Government, but never won the confidence of the British.  Lim Yew Hock, succeeded where Marshall had failed by gaining the trust of the British by being hard on the communists. However, he had lost the confidence of the Chinese educated.  They Labour Front thus lost the confidence of the local population. Moreover, the party underwent a split during Lim Yew Hock’s term.  All of this paved the way for the first truly democratic elections to be held in 1959. Without this chance, the PAP may not have had the chance to come to power.
  38. 38. They Were United and WellOrganised Large pool of voluntary helpers from the Trade Unions and Chinese School Portrayed themselves as an honest party.
  39. 39. They Were in Touch with the People“We combed every village, walking fromhouse to house. My knowledge of Malaycame in handy in Kampong Chantek; Iswitched to Hokkien in the predominantlydialect speaking neighbourhood of Yea SuaBuay.”Adapted from On the Beat to the Hustings: An Autobiography byLee Khoon Choy.
  40. 40. They Had a Comprehensive Plan forSingapore“We drafted policy papers on economics,education, housing, health, rural development,labour and women’s rights, which we published ina series of pamphlets entitled, “The TasksAhead…”Adapted from “The Singapore Story”: Memoirs of Lee Kuan Yew.By Lee Kuan Yew.
  41. 41. Conclusion PAP won because:  They built on the weaknesses and achievements of the Labour Front  They were united and well organised  They were in touch with the people on the ground  They had a comprehensive plan for Singapore.
  42. 42. Was it So Simple?“It was a victory but I was not jubilant. I had begun torealize the weight of the problems that we were to face –unemployment, high expectations of rapid results,communist unrest, more subversion in the unions, schoolsand associations, more strikes, fewer investments, moreunemployment, more trouble. Lim Chin Siong and FongSwee Suan would soon work on the Chinese- speakingground again to undermine us”Adapted from “The Singapore Story”: Memoirs of Lee Kuan Yew.By Lee Kuan Yew.

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