Case study development & teaching

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This presentation in briefr describes analysizing and discussing cases, also how to develop our ow cases

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  • 2. V has a violent relationship with her partner, D. One day, D threatens her with a knife in the kitchen. In fear for her life, V runs out of the house and towards the road. She collides with a passer-by and the impact throws her into the path of oncoming traffic. She is struck by a passing truck. The truck driver realises what he has done but reverses in panic and runs over V a second time. V dies on arrival at hospital. The cause of death was severe head trauma resulting from the injuries received when the truck reversed over V. Discuss D’s criminal liability.
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Case study development & teaching

  1. 1. CASE STUDY TEACHING & DEVELOPMENT By: Shashi Tiwari 28/02/12
  2. 2. CONTENTS <ul><li>What is a Case? </li></ul><ul><li>Case Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Our approach as a Reader </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Case situations </li></ul><ul><li>Discussing the Case </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines to Develop a Case </li></ul><ul><li>Steps in Case Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Note </li></ul><ul><li>Case Discussion & Presentation </li></ul>28/02/12
  3. 3. WHAT IS A CASE? <ul><li>Cases are the verbal representations of reality that put the reader in the role of a participant in the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>A business case imitates or simulates a real situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Any problem may be developed as case. </li></ul>28/02/12
  4. 4. CASE CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>A significant business issue or issues </li></ul><ul><li>Sufficient information on which to base conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>No stated conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>BUT, many cases have these complicating characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Information that includes “noise” </li></ul><ul><li>Unstated information that must be inferred from the information that is stated </li></ul><ul><li>A non linear structure in which related evidence is scattered throughout the text and is often disguised and left to inference </li></ul>28/02/12
  5. 5. OUR APPROACH AS A READER <ul><li>Construct conclusions from the information in the text </li></ul><ul><li>Filter out irrelevant or low value portion of the text </li></ul><ul><li>Furnish missing information through inferences </li></ul><ul><li>Associate evidence from different parts of the case and integrate it into a conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Active reading – Think as you read </li></ul>28/02/12
  6. 6. TYPES OF CASE SITUATIONS <ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>Rules </li></ul>28/02/12
  7. 7. HOW TO ANALYZE A CASE? <ul><li>A case is a text that refuses to explain itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the situation. To analyze a case, an individual needs ways of identifying and understanding important aspects of a situation and what they mean in relation to the overall situation </li></ul><ul><li>The major dilemma that confronts everyone who reads a case is they don’t know what to look for in a case. </li></ul><ul><li>In an active approach to solving a case, thinking and reading must go hand in hand </li></ul>28/02/12
  8. 8. CONTD………. <ul><li>Active reading is interrogative & purposeful. Questions give a purpose for reading, they direct and focus study on important aspects of a study </li></ul><ul><li>Active reading is iterative, meaning an individual needs to make multiple passes through a case. With each iteration, the purpose of reading changes. An individual looks for new information or looking at old information in a new way. </li></ul><ul><li>Three concepts contribute to active reading: a goal, a point of view and a hypothesis. </li></ul>28/02/12
  9. 9. CONTD……. <ul><li>Goal: Understanding the situation with the information in the case, come to a conclusion, show why your conclusion is reasonable, and discuss about other possible solutions that might have existed. </li></ul><ul><li>Point of view: Adopt the point of view of the protagonist. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis: Cases don’t allow any just any hypothesis. The available evidence in the case sets the rational limit on the range of hypothesis. </li></ul>28/02/12
  10. 10. ANALYSIS OF THE CASE : THE PROCESS 28/02/12
  11. 11. DISCUSSING THE CASE : CASE DISCUSSION SKILLS <ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Overcome classroom risks </li></ul>28/02/12
  12. 12. CONTD…….. <ul><li>Read actively </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the social factor </li></ul><ul><li>Remember how to laugh </li></ul><ul><li>Listening is participating </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect on what you learn </li></ul><ul><li>Be patient with yourself </li></ul>28/02/12
  13. 13. <ul><li>What is the focus? Or the Case Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Parts of a case : Introduction, Body & Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching notes </li></ul>GUIDELINES TO DEVELOP A CASE 28/02/12
  14. 14. WHAT IS THE FOCUS? / CASE OBJECTIVES <ul><li>What theories & concepts are you going to reach through the case? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there is a hook (theme), an overriding issue that pulls all the parts together? This can be a managerial issue or a decision that requires attention </li></ul><ul><li>The hook must be linked to the concept that are we are teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the target audience </li></ul>28/02/12
  15. 15. IDENTIFY THE ORGANIZATION <ul><li>Has the organization faced the issue that you propose to write? </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the major protagonist </li></ul><ul><li>Will the organization provide data? </li></ul><ul><li>Will the organization provide permission for publication? </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the sources of information </li></ul>28/02/12
  16. 16. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Set the general issue </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight a concise but interesting picture of the main issues in the case </li></ul><ul><li>Bring out the context and the purpose of the case </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce the principle protagonist </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight objectives </li></ul>28/02/12
  17. 17. BODY <ul><li>Tell the total story – the start, background of the company, background of the business environment </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain a chronological order </li></ul><ul><li>Detail the specific issues faced by the company </li></ul><ul><li>Bring out the different sides of the organization by quoting information from the interviews </li></ul><ul><li>The problems are generally not easy to resolve and have competing alternatives </li></ul>28/02/12
  18. 18. CONCLUSION <ul><li>Do not state the conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Leave questions for the readers </li></ul>28/02/12
  19. 19. STEPS IN CASE WRITING 28/02/12
  20. 20. STEP 1 : PLANNING <ul><li>Identify the purpose of case writing task </li></ul><ul><li>1. what are the learning outcomes for the case? </li></ul><ul><li>a. what students are expected to know? </li></ul><ul><li>b. what they are expected to be able to do, </li></ul><ul><li>value or feel at the completion of an </li></ul><ul><li>instructional task? </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually the learning outcome helps us to </li></ul><ul><li>determine the content of the case in terms of </li></ul><ul><li>concepts, rules and principles needed </li></ul>28/02/12
  21. 21. CONTD… <ul><li>How is the case used in terms of the instructional sequence? </li></ul><ul><li>1. May be presented at the beginning of the </li></ul><ul><li>instruction to elicit students’ attention </li></ul><ul><li>2. May also act as an anchor that supports the </li></ul><ul><li>learning of the content or skills of the subject </li></ul><ul><li>3. Students may be asked to read and analyze </li></ul><ul><li>the cases before coming to class </li></ul><ul><li>4. Employ a role play activity to involve students </li></ul><ul><li>in the problem solving process </li></ul><ul><li>5. May be used to assess students’ learning </li></ul>28/02/12
  22. 22. CONTD…… <ul><li>Identifying the learners </li></ul><ul><li>1. Search the common ground that you and your readers share </li></ul><ul><li>2. Awareness of the level of entry skills of the students is helpful in determining what learning issues should be pursued </li></ul><ul><li>Deciding what information should be put in the case </li></ul><ul><li>1. Determine the authenticity of the case </li></ul><ul><li>2. Determine the source of information </li></ul>28/02/12
  23. 23. STEP 2: ORGANIZING <ul><li>In this part you tackle the problem of how to </li></ul><ul><li>present case materials. Typically, cases are </li></ul><ul><li>presented in a narrative format. </li></ul><ul><li>Structuring in a narrative form </li></ul><ul><li>1. What does a narrative consist of? </li></ul><ul><li>It is a story of an event. It includes WHAT happened, WHO was involved, WHY it happened and HOW it happened. Therefore in a narrative style, the following are impotant: </li></ul>28/02/12
  24. 24. CONTD…. <ul><li>Details of a specific setting </li></ul><ul><li>A list of actors with names and descriptions of personalities </li></ul><ul><li>A progressive disclosure of actions </li></ul><ul><li>The problems or issues that evolve the case </li></ul><ul><li>How is narrative organized? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Chronologically </li></ul><ul><li>2. Order of importance </li></ul><ul><li>3. Start with and end, and tell the story through a series of flashbacks </li></ul>28/02/12
  25. 25. STEP 3 : DRAFTING <ul><li>What is the central idea of the case? </li></ul><ul><li>How should the central idea of the case should be supported? For example : If I am talking about positioning of a product, I should provide information about by current strategies of positing a product. </li></ul>28/02/12
  26. 26. STEP 4 : REVISING <ul><li>This involves re – reading, evaluating, and making </li></ul><ul><li>changes to improve the written case. Considering </li></ul><ul><li>The following questions may help: </li></ul><ul><li>Will the case produce the intended learning outcome? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the problems or issues presented in the case related to learning outcomes? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the case appear to be realistic? </li></ul><ul><li>Are all the elements of narrative style used in the case? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the events organized in a logical order? </li></ul>28/02/12
  27. 27. PREPARING A TEACHING NOTE <ul><li>A teaching note, usually, but not necessarily, </li></ul><ul><li>produced by the author of the case, is a document </li></ul><ul><li>designed to give other potential instructors </li></ul><ul><li>valuable insights into the case and the learning </li></ul><ul><li>which can be derived from the case. </li></ul><ul><li>Components of a teaching note: </li></ul><ul><li>Summary of the case </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching objectives & Target Audience </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching approach 7 strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Additional reading or references </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul>28/02/12
  28. 28. CASE DISCUSSION 28/02/12

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