Indian Parliament enacted a comprehensive Disaster Management Act in December 2005. The Act stipulates that a National Disaster Management Authority under the Chairmanship of Prime Minister of India shall be responsible for national policies, strategies and guidelines for disaster risk reduction and management. Similarly a State Disaster Management Authority under the Chairmanship of Chief Minister shall be responsible for the preparation of State plans of action. In each of the six hundred plus districts a District Disaster Management Authority under the Co-Chairmanship of District Magistrate and Chairman of the elected Zilla Parishad shall be responsible for the preparation and implementation of District Disaster Management Plan.
India sees considerable value in the International Strategy for Disaster reduction as a movement for promoting Global Disaster Risk Reduction. Hence India has worked closely with ISDR in developing the HFA, and in promoting the Asian Strategy for Disaster Reduction As South Asia region is vulnerable to multiple hazards, India seeks to work closely with SAARC members for promoting regional framework for disaster risk reduction. The NIDM in New Delhi will host the SAARC Disaster Management Centre .This meeting provides a valuable opportunity o share experiences with my colleagues from Sri Lanka and Pakistan so that we can work jointly towards reducing disaster risks in our region.
We have miles to go before we can say that we have developed a nation and communities that are resilient to the frequent natural Hazards`that are endemic to our geo climatic conditions. Recent disasters like Tsunami and Mumbai floods have demonstrated that much needs to be done in many fronts to prevent and mitigate disasters. Our growing economy and urbanization are exposing more and more areas, assets and people to risks. Enforcement of hazard resistant building codes and zonal regulations in rural and urban areas is still a huge task. We have to work more till we can claim that we are communicating early warning to the last mile. Diversifying livelihood opportunities in disaster prone areas when people loose their traditional occupation is a challenging task. Finally promoting effective regional cooperation in South Asia under the Hyogo framework is one of the tasks that has just began.
Hospital disaster manual is the written statement of
disaster plan which need to be activated at the time of
To provide prompt and effective medical care to the
maximum possible in order to minimize morbidity and
To optimally prepare the staff and institutional resources
for effective performance in disaster situations.
To make the community aware of the sequential steps to
be taken at individual and organizational levels.
A disaster drill isan exercisein which
disaster so that they havean opportunity to
First Aid and sorting ( Triage )
Management Color of
2 Urgent surgery Yellow Em. Ward
3 First aid and
Green First Aid
4 Brought dead Black Mortuary
Drugs and equipments
Air way devices
Linen & blankets
Stretchers & wheel chairs, O.T. tables
Protective personal kit
The key should be available with the Sister- in charge
on duty and also with DNS & ANS of casualty.
As an immediate measure buffer stock should be used.
Medical & surgical stores should be opened immediately.
Essential drugs , crystalloids etc should be issued.
Medical supplies , basic equipments should be kept
prepared , and properly labeled and updated.
Emergency blood bank
Clinical services ( lab, radiology )
Documentation center : special record for
General section ( CSSD, Ambulance)
Maintenance service (Water, electricity)
Disaster plan-duties of staff
Chief Nursing Officer -CNO
In a major disaster she will do the Administrative
Responsible for notifying all Dept. heads and alternates .
Responsible to see that families of victims are notified as
soon as possible.
She can take help from Social Worker .
Attempt to find out adequate number of nursing
Organization of medical and surgical items required for
Disaster plan – Pre Hospital
Quick Response Medical Team ( QRMT)
Will be formed to be deployed in case of crisis situation
ranging from natural disaster to complex humanitarian
Primary first aid at the site
Stabilization of the casualties
Disaster plan – mitigation
Sanitation officer and the administrators ensure proper
sanitation and waste management .
Psychiatrist and psychiatric nurses work to reduce the effect
Internal Hospital disaster plan
The evacuation of patients , visitors & staffs should be
All the fire escape routes & emergency exit doors should
be clearly marked with luminated paints.
Keys of all emergency exit doors should be kept in the box
near the door. One key will be with sister on duty.
Internal Hospital disaster plan
Large display boards will be placed at prominent places
showing display roots in case of fire.
The locks of the emergency doors should open by one
master key which will be kept in the central fire control
Evacuation can have either vertical or horizontal flow to
move the patient to a safer area.
Blankets can be used as improvised stretcher.
Details of evacuation plan need to be discussed with fire
Activation of disaster plan as for external disaster.
Mental health services to victims
Critical Incident Stress Defusing
It is an abbreviated form of CISD and it takes place as soon as
possible after the critical incident is finished. The process
typically last for 1 hr.
Problem solving : help to identify specific concerns,
problem solving and decision making
Advocacy : Help the survivors in contacting appropriate
Role of nurse in D.M
Preparation of area for patient triage, morgue, relatives
and media .
Provide current information regarding the number of
available beds, nursing staffs and locations & type and
quantities of supplies available.
Assess the state of patients for potential discharge and
Arrangements for extra staffing and period of duty ( 12
Accurate inventories and supplies to be established.
Activate a telephone cascade system.
Guidelines for hospital nursing
Remain calm .
Inform patients and family of disaster situation & request
Notify on – duty staff & call off – duty staff as needed.
Obtain initial account of available beds.
Reallocate the resources to the treatment areas.
Conserve supplies and resources left on the unit.
Avoid use of lifts and telephone except for disaster activities.
A disaster can leave many people handicapped amidst the
panic and fear, many of the victims either loose any of
their limbs or sight or may go for severe forms of
The nurse can teach such people to return to their normal
life style by using prosthesis and cope with it for the rest
of the life.
The victims should be encouraged
to go on with life.
Explain them that all others are in the same situation.
Help the individual to identify his roles in the society and
indulge in him a spirit of well being by encouraging him
often of the potentials he has.
Discuss with the victim, how he can create a normal life
again, how to use his potential.
Educate about the community sources which are available.
Assess the physical strength attention, and concentration.
Make them to perform various activities like weaving, basket
making, stitching ,gardening and sell these products to earn
HISTORY OF DISASTER
MANAGEMENT IN INDIA
1. High Powered Committee set up in August 1999.
2. Until 2001 – Responsibility with Agriculture
3. Transferred to Ministry of Home Affairs in June
4. National Disaster Management Authority
5. Disaster Management Act passed in December 2005
Disaster Management Act 2005
To build a Safe and Disaster Resilient India by
developing a holistic, proactive, multi-disaster and
technology-driven strategy through a culture of
prevention, mitigation, preparedness and efficient
D.M in India
State Crisis Management Group: This is chaired by
the state relief commissioner or chief secretary.The
committee develops various contingency plan to deal with
various types of disasters .
District administration : Revenue department and the
Relief department are responsible.District collector, SDO,
Tehsildar and village officers are involved.
Role of various agencies in D.M
The central Government plays a supportive role in terms of
provision of financial and other resources.
The Ministry of Home affairs is the nodal agency for
The Central Relief Commissioner in the DAC coordinates
the relief operations.
Various agencies in D.M
National Disaster Management Authority
National Centre for D.M
Ministry of Agriculture.
Disaster Risk Management Programme
National Disaster Management Framework
Calamity Relief Fund
National Calamity Contingency Fund(NCCF)
Every country is a potential source of health humanitarian
assistance for some other disaster striken country.
United Nations Office for the Co ordination of
World Health Organization (WHO)
Food and Agricultural Organization
International Committee of Red Cross
International Council of Voluntary Agencies.
Enactment of Disaster Management policy and Act
Undertake large scale awareness measures/campaigns
Review and amendment of existing building codes and by
Inclusion of DM elements in school curriculum
Safe housing atlas (earth quake
resistant reconstruction in J&K).
Seismic zoning map
National core group for disaster
Decentralization of the disaster management process
Development of warning manual
Faculty members of civil engineering to undergo 6
week course in earth quake engineering
Special training in IPS,IAS…..
Special training for women in first aid, shelter,
management, water, sanitation, rescue and
Thermal imaging : This is a sophisticated sensor with
wires are pushed into the rubble. Body temperature of humans
provides thermal images of survivors caught under the rubble.
Sniffer dogs : Trained to bark when they detect any living
Multiple sensors : These sense very low sound waves
from the rubble and hence spot trapped people.
Electronic resources of information : Internet
connectivity and web utilization enhance resource availability.
Promoting Global and Regional
Cooperation in disaster Reduction
India worked closely with International Strategy for
Disaster Reduction in developing the Asian Strategy for
Disaster Reduction at the Beijing Conference.
India took proactive role in developing SAARC Regional
Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction in South Asia
India is hosting SAARC Disaster Management Centre at
Some recent disasters…..
Earthquake in Pakistan – 2005
Earthquake and tsunami in the
Indian coast - 2004
Gujarat Earthquake - 2001
Floods in Mumbai, West
Flash flood in Uttrakhand
Cyclone: Rita, katrina , phalian
Fire: Kumbakonam, Dabwali
Terrorist attack: Mumbai
And the list goes on and on……………
Government of India initiatives:
1) Inclusion of disaster management in school
Introduction of DM in Class VIII, IX and X as part of
the frontline curriculum by CBSE.
Many of the state Boards have already introduced DM
in school syllabi.
Disaster management bill -2005
Disaster management bill 2005 under the article 51( A)
of the constitution has been put up for implementation.
In this, mandatory training for all youth above 18 years
to be implemented by training institutes like Panchayats,
Municipal bodies .
All organizations and hospitals should have Disaster
Management plan for managing all type of casualties.
Recent disasters like Tsunami and Mumbai floods
have demonstrated that much needs to be done.
Growing economy and urbanization have exposed
more areas, assets and people to risks.
Enforcement of building codes and zonal regulations
in rural and urban areas still a huge task.
Communicating early warning to the last mile.
Diversifying livelihood opportunities in disaster
Every year 2nd
October has been designed as world Disaster
Reduction Day as part of International Decade for Natural
Disaster Reduction activities.(1980-1990)
Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) plays a key role in
forewarning the disaster. Disaster warning System receivers
have been installed primarily in the coastal areas of Tamil
nadu and A.P.
The Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment(SASE) in
Manali has been issued warning to people about
avalanches 24 to 48 hours in advance.
Dr. R.B Mathur “Disaster preparedness of major Delhi
No written disaster plan in major hospitals except for some
No written plan for evacuation during internal disasters in
hospitals other than AIIMS.
No plan for creating extra beds during disasters in many
hospitals except for AIIMS and Delhi Govt. Hospital.
P.K .Dave et al .Emergency Medical services & Disaster
Management - A holistic approach,Jaypee,2001
S.Seliger et al .Emergency Preparedness -Disaster planning
for health facilities,Aspen,1986
Peter Basket et al Medicine for disasters.Wright,1988
David E et al Disaster Medicine ,LWW,2002
Stanthope et al Foundations of community health Nursing
Suzane C Smelter et al Medical surgical Nursing
K. Park. Preventive and social medicine,2004
Disaster management plan – AIIMS ,2006