Dynamic stretching is a form of stretching beneficial in sports utilizing momentum fromform, static-active stretching stre...
muscle into stretches in a similar way to how they‟re going to move them in a workout.For example a martial arts practitio...
Frankenstein march or the Toy Soldier"Keeping your left leg straight, kick it up in front of you as high as you can, tryin...
Scorpion"Lie face down on the ground with arms extended out to the sides, palms facing down,so your body forms a „T‟ shape...
http://www.elitesoccerconditioning.com/Stretching-Flexibility/DynamicStretchingvsStaticStretching.htmDynamic Stretching vs...
5. Gerard van Der Poel stated that static stretching caused a specific decrease in      the specific coordination of explo...
1. Mike Boyle uses a dynamic warm-up with his athletes. He goes through about      26000 workouts over the course of a sum...
Modern Stretching is great manual to learn more about static stretching. Its free.A sports performance program could look ...
8.     Mann, Douglas, Jones Margaret 1999: Guidelines to the implementation of a      dynamic stretching routine, Strength...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Dynamic stretching is a form of stretching beneficial in sports utilizing momentum from form

1,517 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

Dynamic stretching is a form of stretching beneficial in sports utilizing momentum from form

  1. 1. Dynamic stretching is a form of stretching beneficial in sports utilizing momentum fromform, static-active stretching strength and the momentum from static-active stretchingstrength, in an effort to propel the muscle into an extended range of motion notexceeding ones static-passive stretching ability. Anything beyond this range of motionbecomes ballistic stretching. It is a type of stretching while moving, as opposed to staticstretching in which one stands still.This form of stretching prepares the body for physical exertion and sports performance.In the past it was the practice to undertake static stretching before exercise. Dynamicstretching increases range of movement, blood and oxygen flow to soft tissues prior toexertion. Increasingly coaches and sports trainers are aware of the role in dynamicstretching in improving performance and reducing the risk of injury.Dynamic stretching is a technique gaining in popularity due to recent studies whichshow that traditional static stretching techniques do little to increase flexibility or reduceinjury when performed before a workout. In fact, many studies show that static stretchesactually have a detrimental effect on explosive movements and strength output. [1][2][3]There are two types of flexibility receptors, a static receptor, which measures magnitudeand a dynamic receptor, which measure speed and magnitude. As one would expect,dynamic activities that require movement, such as running , jumping, or kicking use thedynamic receptor to limit flexibility. Therefore, a dynamic stretch that stresses thedynamic receptor is more beneficial when preparing for a warm-up when performing adynamic activity.[3] Dynamic stretching also includes constant motion throughout thewarm-up, which maintains the core body temperature, whereas static stretching can seea drop in temperature of several degrees.[1] Another benefit of dynamic stretching is thatit prepares the muscles and joints in a more specific manner since the body is goingthrough motions it will likely repeat in the workout. It also helps the nervous system andmotor ability since dynamic motions do more to develop those areas than staticstretches.[1] It is important to note that although many studies show the lack of benefit ofstatic stretching before a workout, there is still much data to support the benefits ofstatic stretching after a workout.[2]Current research work [Medicine & Science in Sport and Exercise 33(3), pp354-358 andJournal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol 15 (1): 98-101] suggests that theuse of dynamic stretches - slow controlled movements through the full range of motion -are the most appropriate exercises for the warm up. By contrast, static stretches aremore appropriate for the cool down.How to do Dynamic stretchingDynamic stretching works by the practitioner gently propelling their muscles towardstheir maximum range of motion. It is very important to note the practitioner should notuse jerky, forced movements to try to increase the range of motion beyond what iscomfortable as it can easily cause injury.[3] In general the practitioner wants to move the 1 kmy/upjss/june2011
  2. 2. muscle into stretches in a similar way to how they‟re going to move them in a workout.For example a martial arts practitioner who wants to stretch a hamstring for a kick mayswing a straight leg forward to gradually increase the height they can obtain. Doing lightkicks, with little explosive acceleration, while gradually increasing height, could also beconsidered a dynamic stretch.Ankle pops"Lightly bounce off both toes while keeping the knees very slightly bent. This is verysimilar to a skipping motion, except that it is performed while moving forward. and Theidea is to introduce progressively more range of motion as you move through theprescribed distance."High knees"This is basic running form while bringing the knees up higher than normal – ideallybeyond your waistline. Aim to keep your feet moving as fast as possible and yourankles, knees, hips and shoulders facing forwards."Butt kicks"Similar to high knees except you keep your thighs perpendicular to the ground whilekicking your heels up towards your backside. Again, move fast and keep ankles, knees,hips and shoulders in alignment."Carioca"Moving laterally to your left, cross your right foot in front of your left, then step with yourleft, then cross your right foot behind the left and repeat. Aim for as much hip rotation aspossible and keep those feet moving fast." [1]Glute walk"In the process of your walk, put your left hand on your left knee and right hand on yourleft ankle, then pull both in towards your chest. Take a step and repeat on the other leg."[1]Back pedal"Run backwards maintaining a little bit of a forward lean (shoulders over your toes) toprevent falling. Really „reach back‟ as far as you can with each step to help stretch thehip flexor muscles." [1] 2 kmy/upjss/june2011
  3. 3. Frankenstein march or the Toy Soldier"Keeping your left leg straight, kick it up in front of you as high as you can, trying totouch the fingertips of the opposite arm – basically a straight leg march – then repeatwith the right leg. This is an excellent way to increase hamstring flexibility." [1]Knee hug"While walking forward, hug your left knee into your chest, then step and repeat on theright leg, continuing with alternate legs. This is an excellent way to loosen up the glutesand hips." [1]Pointers"Keeping your left leg straight (and right leg bent) and left foot pointed upwards, reachdown with your right hand to try to touch your left toe. Then take a step and repeat onthe other side. This is another excellent movement for enhancing hamstring and lowback flexibility." [1]Quad walk"While walking forwards, pull your left heel in to your butt, then step and repeat with theright leg, continuing with alternate legs. This is ideal for loosening up the quadricepsand hip flexors." [1]Low lunge"Step forward with your left leg into a lunge position (ankles, knees, hips and shouldersfacing forward, torso upright) trying to place your left elbow on the ground as close toyour left heel as possible." [1]Over the fence"Facing in the opposite direction to the way you want to travel, raise your left knee ashigh as possible and rotate it behind you as if you were trying to walk backwards andstep over an imaginary fence. Repeat on the right leg and continue with alternate legs."[1]Inchworm"Assume a push-up position on the ground, and walk your feet close to your handswhile keeping the legs as straight as possible. Then return to the start position. Repeatover the prescribed distance, making sure your hands and feet never leave the ground."[1] 3 kmy/upjss/june2011
  4. 4. Scorpion"Lie face down on the ground with arms extended out to the sides, palms facing down,so your body forms a „T‟ shape. Maintaining this facedown position and keeping yourshoulders flat on the ground, bring your left heel and swing it back towards your righthand in a reverse twisting motion. Repeat on the other leg." [1]Static stretching is used to stretch muscles while the body is at rest. It is composed ofvarious techniques that gradually lengthen a muscle to an elongated position (to thepoint of discomfort) and hold that position for 30 seconds to two minutes. 30 seconds isthe minimum duration to get the benefits of stretching, whereas two minutes is themaximum (if a position can be held for more than two minutes, a farther stretch shouldbe performed). During this holding period or directly afterwards, participants may feel amild discomfort or warm sensation in the muscles. Static stretching exercises involvespecialized tension receptors in our muscles. When done properly[citation needed], staticstretching slightly lessens the sensitivity of tension receptors, which allows the muscleto relax and to be stretched to greater length.There is doubt over the effectiveness of static stretching, with some circles of sportstrongly recommending against it, such as soccer, slamball and rugby league. Recently,there has been a controversy[citation needed] over static stretching saying that it gets youready but makes you weaker. 4 kmy/upjss/june2011
  5. 5. http://www.elitesoccerconditioning.com/Stretching-Flexibility/DynamicStretchingvsStaticStretching.htmDynamic Stretching vs. Static Stretchingby Taylor TollisonAs coaches and trainers we will perform anything from plyometrics to sprinting to reduceinjury and increase performance. The real question is whether the type of stretching wechose to perform before activity will have an affect on the performance and injury levelsof our athletes.STATIC STRETCHINGMany coaches advocate the use of static stretching prior to exercise. Static stretchinginvolves reaching forward to a point of tension and holding the stretch. Static stretchinghas been used through out the years for two main reasons: injury prevention andperformance enhancement. (1) Does static stretching prior to activity achieve the goalsof injury prevention and performance enhancement? Research has shown that staticstretching can be detrimental (MENJEJASKAN) to performance and doesn‟t necessarilylead to decreases in injury. Below are a few studies done on the topic of staticstretching: 1. Rod Pope an army physiotherapist in Australia, recently carried out a wide study to assess the relationship between static stretching and injury prevention. Pope monitored over 1600 recruits over the course of a year in randomised controlled trials. He found no differences in the occurrence of injury between those recruits who statically stretched and those who did not. (1, 2) 2. “Gleim & McHugh (1997), would also challenge the premise that stretching, or indeed increased flexibility, reduces the risk of injury” (1,3) 3. New research has shown that static stretching decreases eccentric strength for up to an hour after the stretch. Static stretching has been shown to decrease muscle strength by up to 9% for 60 minutes following the stretch and decrease eccentric strength by 7% followed by a specific hamstring stretch. (4) 4. Rosenbaum and Hennig showed that static stretching reduced peak force by 5% and the rate of force production by 8%. This study was about Achilles tendon reflex activity. (5) 5 kmy/upjss/june2011
  6. 6. 5. Gerard van Der Poel stated that static stretching caused a specific decrease in the specific coordination of explosive movements. (4) 6. Three 15-second stretches of the hamstrings, quadriceps, and calf muscles reduced the peak vertical velocity of a vertical jump in the majority of subjects (Knudson et al. 2000). (6,7) 7. Moscov (1993) found that there is no relationship between static flexibility and dynamic flexibility. This suggests that an increased static range of motion may not be translated into functional, sport-specific flexibility, which is largely dynamic in most sporting situations (1) 8. Static based stretching programs seem best suited following an activity. (8)In soccer it is vitally important to have explosive muscles that allow a player to jumphigher for the winning header or to explode past an opponent to get to the ball quicker.Almost every movement in soccer is preceded by an eccentric movement. Forexample, when you run you bend your legs first then explode forward. In jumping youmust bend your legs first then jump. Finally, cutting in soccer requires a lot of eccentricpower. Wouldn‟t it make sense to have optimal power, coordination and eccentricstrength to succeed in soccer? If we shouldn‟t static stretch before a game or practicethen how can we stretch to optimize performance on the field? The answer is dynamicstretching.DYNAMIC STRETCHINGMany of the best strength coaches support the use of dynamic stretching. Dynamicstretching consists of functional based exercises which use sport specific movements toprepare the body for movement. (8) “Dynamic stretching, according to Kurz, "involvesmoving parts of your body and gradually increasing reach, speed of movement, orboth." Do not confuse dynamic stretching with ballistic stretching! Dynamic stretchingconsists of controlled leg and arm swings that take you (gently!) to the limits of yourrange of motion. Ballistic stretches involve trying to force a part of the body beyond itsrange of motion. In dynamic stretches, there are no bounces or "jerky" movements. (9) Several professional coaches, authors and studies have supported or shown theeffectiveness of dynamic stretching. Below are a few examples of support for dynamicstretching: 6 kmy/upjss/june2011
  7. 7. 1. Mike Boyle uses a dynamic warm-up with his athletes. He goes through about 26000 workouts over the course of a summer. In 2002 he did not have one major muscle pull that required medical attention. (10) 2. Flexibility is speed specific. There are two kinds of stretch receptors, one measures magnitude and speed and the other measures magnitude only. Static flexibility improves static flexibility and dynamic flexibility improves dynamic flexibility which is why it doesn‟t make sense to static stretch prior to dynamic activity. There is considerable but not complete transfer of static stretching to dynamic stretching(11) 3. One author compared a team that dynamically stretched to a team that static stretched. The team that dynamically stretched had fewer injuries. (8) 4. There are few sports where achieving static flexibility is advantageous to success in the sport. Therefore according to the principle of specificity it would seem to be more advantageous to perform a dynamic warm-up which more resembles the activity of the sport.(12) 5. Dynamic Flexibility increases core temperature, muscle temperature, elongates the muscles, stimulates the nervous system, and helps decrease the chance of injury. (13) 6. Another author showed that dynamic stretching does increase flexibility. (11)As coaches, trainers and parents we all want our athletes to lower their incidence ofinjury and increase performance. Dynamic flexibility has been used successfully bytrainers and coaches to increase flexibility and possibly lower the incidence of injury. Itis the job of the coach or trainer to pick the method they feel is best suited for the sportand athletes. The above evidence suggests the possibility that static stretching prior toactivity is not the best solution. Static stretching doesn‟t necessarily lead to a decreasein injury and but may actually decrease performance. If one purpose of the warm-up isto warm-up the body, wouldn‟t static stretching actually cool the body down? If staticstretching is not the solution to a pre-game warm-up what is? Dynamic stretching. 7 kmy/upjss/june2011
  8. 8. Modern Stretching is great manual to learn more about static stretching. Its free.A sports performance program could look like this:Beginning- Dynamic warm upMiddle- Actual workoutEnd- Cool down/static stretchingAddition to the article-Nov 28th 2010Since the original writing of this article the strength and conditioning industry seems tohave gone in another direction than no static stretching before exercise. Beyond that,now many trainers incorporate foam rolling, static stretching and dynamic stretchingbefore exercise. The scientific principles mentioned above may still hold true but justlike other industries the knowledge we gain about improving and preparing our bodiesfor exercise always changes to. So now your sports performance program would looklike this:Beginning- Foam Roll, then static stretch, then Dynamic stretchMiddle- Actual WorkoutEnd- Cool Down/ Static Stretch.To expand your knowledge further on http://www.stretchingworld.com go towww.stretchingworld.com 1. www.pponline.co.uk, So what about dynamic flexibility. 2. Rod Pope, Skip the warm-up, New Scientist, 164(2214), p. 23 3. Gleim & McHugh (1997), Flexibility and its effects on sports injury and performance, Sports Medicine, 24(5), pp. 289-299. 4. Mick Critchell, Warm ups for soccer a Dynamic approach, page 5. 5. Rosenbaum, D. and E. M. Hennig. 1995. The influence of stretching and warm-up exercises on Achilles tendon reflex activity. Journal of Sport Sciences vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 481–90. 6. Knudson, D., K. Bennet, R. Corn, D. Leick, and C. Smith. 2000. Acute Effects of Stretching Are Not Evident in the Kinematics of the Vertical Jump. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport vol. 71, no. 1 (Supplement), p. A- 30. 7. Tomas Kurz, www.scienceofsports.com, 8 kmy/upjss/june2011
  9. 9. 8. Mann, Douglas, Jones Margaret 1999: Guidelines to the implementation of a dynamic stretching routine, Strength and Conditioning Journal:Vol 21 No 6 pp53-559. www.cmcrossroads.com10. Boyle, Mike, Functional Training for Sports, pg 2911. Kurz, Tomas, Science of Sports Training, page 23612. Hendrick, Allen, Dynamic Flexibility training, Strength and conditioning Journal, Vol 22 no 5, Pgs 33-38.13. Frederick Gregory 2001 Baseball Part 1 Dynamic Flexibility, Strength and conditioning Journal Vol 23 No 1 Pages 21-30. 9 kmy/upjss/june2011

×