Poultry status and its contribution
Submitted to- Dr. Kulvir Sra Dhindsa
( HOD) Department of Zoology
Submitted. By- Chetna ,Jahanavi, Shara,
Himani, Ishita, Vibhas, Ayush, Zareena ,
• A minimum of 40-50 g of
feed per chick is required.
• Quality of feed : Crumb
• Science and research has
proved that chicks like a
size between 2mm and
3mm. Pans are shallow ,
more feed in the center
• Lighting is atleast 10ft. above but the intensity from these led
lights is very important and bright.
• Light intensity is of no less than 20 Lux during the light phase for
the first 3 days of life to help birds locate feed and water .
• Darkness benefits birds by allowing them to sleep and develop
24hr day/ night rhythms which is important in immune function,
growth rate, digestion, lameness and general health .
• From 5 day of placement a dark period of atleast 4 hrs in each
24hr period is required.
• Dark periods must be no more than 20%of the intensity of the
• Average of 20-30 chicks per nipple ( Brooding ) .
• Average of 10-15 birds per nipple ( Grow out ) .
• Broiler’s chicks water intake : 1ml /bird /hr for the last 24 hrs .
Cross bred of plymouth rock and cornish
• Broiler is a bird of about 8 weeks of age of either sex with an
average body weight of 1.5 to 2.0 kg
• Today India is the 5th largest producer of broiler meat in the
world with an annual production of 2.47 million MT
• Despite this achievement,the per capita availability per annum
of poultry meat in india is only 2.96kg (ICMR recommendation
Advantages of broiler farming
• Initial investment is a little
• Rearing period – 35 days
• More numbers of flocks can be taken in the same shed
• Broiler has high FCR
• Faster return from the investment
• Demand for poultry meat
• It is the set of all management practices including housing
,feeding ,watering , vaccination etc from receiving of day old
chick to the day of selling them
• It is necessary as poultry is highly prone to various diseases which
often leads to heavy losses
• Efficient management will lead to multifold increase in the
production and profits
Pre-arrival management :housing
• Housing should be cost effective , durable and provide a
• Select a well drained site that has plenty of natural air movement
• The house should be oriented on an east-west axis to reduce the
effect of direct sunlight on the sidewalls during the hottest part of
• The main objective is to reduce the temperature fluctuation
during any 24-hour period
Pre-arrival management :preheating
• The preheating must be sufficient to heat the whole
surface area to a level of 28-30°
• Prevents ammonia production and anaerobic
• According to climatic conditions , insulation of the
house and quantity of litter , the preheating time can
vary between 36hrs in summers and 48 hours in winters
• Cold litter when the chicks arrive can be the origin of
nephritis , diarrhea and leg problems
• in addition to the performance and profit considerations,
correct stocking density also has important welfare
• To accurately assess stocking density , factors such as climate
housing types, ventilation systems , processing weight and
welfare regulations must be taken into account
• In warmer climates a stocking density of 30kg/m2 is closer to
House type density
Open sided 30kg/m2 (6.2lb/ft.2)
Solid wall 35kg/m2 (7.2lb/ft.2)
• During brooding, the litter acts as insulation and comfort for the
• The type of litter used can be : shavings, chopped straw , rice
hulls , recycled paper should be dry, non corrosive and good
• Shavings or chopped straw can be used in a temperature climate
2kh/m2 in summers , 5kg/m2 in winters
• Pre-warm the litter to eliminate condensation due to nits contact
with the cold floor
Pre-arrival management :housing
Organising the house
• This will depend on 3 principal elements:
• The type of house and level of insulation
• The heating system (whole house or local)
• The watering system (round-type, nipple or trough)
• Whole house
• If the house is well insulated (or in a warm climate) use 80 to 100% of the
• Start the chicks in the center of the house with a fence on each side , 2-3
meters from the wall
• Organising the house
• For 1000 chicks :5 plates , 5 new egg trays, 6-7 m of paper under the
nipples 0.70m wide, 40-50 nipples, 5 minicups
• Localized heating
• In poorly insulated houses , do not exceed 40 chicks per m2 in the brooding
area (650 chicks in a 5 m diameter circle)
• The placement of the equipment should be such that the chicks can always
find water and feed
Pre-arrival management : disinfection
• Final disinfection
• carried out 24 hours before the chicks arrive
• Spraying of insecticide permethrin
5.7% EC spray , dilute 7 tsp./gal or 1 qt/25 gal for .05%
• Painting walls with calcium carbonate
• Use 400ml of formaldehyde and 200 g of potassium
permanganate for each 1000 cubic ft. or air space .fumigate for
• Footbath of calcium carbonate outside house and allowing
entrance only of authorizes workers
All in all out system
• All birds in the shed/farm should be of the same age group and
preferably of the same breed and source of supply. If this is not
possible minimize the no of age groups on the farm
• This system is strongly recommended for maximum exploitation of
genetic potential of birds
• Efficient management , sanitation and vaccination programs
become more complicated and less effective in multiple age sites
Receiving the chicks
• Managing the flock
• The signs of a good quality chick are:
• Its activity
• Some chirping
• Absence of respiratory anomalies
• A properly healed navel
• Weight and uniformity are also important
• Weigh 200 chicks at random for an accurate average
Receiving the chicks
• The flock record
• In organizations where all information is required , this record should
contain all the data about the flock
• The principal data required:
• Hatch date
• Chick origin, donor flock , hatchery
• Daily mortality split into its different types (heart attack, locomotion, etc)
• Body weight taken at their arrival and thereafter , each 5 days
• Feed company, delivery date , type of feed, quantity
• Daily feed and water consumption
• The vaccination dates , batch no, treatment , products, (dosage and dates)
Post arrival of chick
Starting the chicks
• House environment
• Brooder management
• Feeding and watering
• Vaccination schedule
• Carcass disposal
Starting the chicks:environment
• Temperature humidity ventilation
• Temperature zone for the baby chick is
very tight (31-33°C). Below 31°C the
chicks is not capable of maintaining its
• Brooder management
• the chicks position relative to the heat is
an important indication to judge whether
the house environment is comfortable
Starting the chicks:environment
• Lightning for brooders
• Radiants of 3500 watts capacity and higher can be hung at a height of 1.50-
2.50 m in well insulated houses and used for whole house heating
• Radiants of 1700 watts capacity operated in poorly insulated should only be
used for localised brooding and hung at a height of 1.20m – 1.50m
• Use 23-24 hours light for the first 3-5 days to encourage feed and water
• Light intensity should be 5 watts/m2 when using incandescent bulbs and 60
lux for fluorescent tubes
Nutrition :feed and feeding
• Feed being the major expenditure that is around 60-70% and
also significantly affects the production performance
• During early brooding period feed should be provided in
crumble form on supplemental feeders (1/100chicks) so chicks
have easy access
• Types of feeds:
Age in days type
28-till the day of selling finisher
• Diets and dietary treatments
• Diets primarily compose of corn ,wheat, soybean, vitamins
Nutrition : watering
• First 10-14 days
• This water should be available in chick waterers (minidrinkers etc) which
should be frequently cleaned and filled
• 7days until market
• Allow 2cm of watering space per chick when using trough type waterers
• When determining drinker placements ensure that birds need not to travel
over 8ft. To get water
• Drinkers should be washed daily with KMnO4 water solution
• The height of drinkers should be adjusted in such a way that the
brim of the drinkers should be in a level corresponding to the birds
• The immediate burning or burying of dead birds is an imp
part of a good disease prevention program
• Dead birds act as a source of disease that can be spread by
rats ,dogs, mosquitoes, and insects that may act as carriers
of the disease .the two most acceptable methods are
2. Disposal pits
• Good incinerators is probably the best means of disposal especially in an
area where there is poor soil drainage or a danger of contaminating the
• Disposal pit
• Birds decompose fairly rapidly without the use of chemicals pit 6 ft. in
diameter and 6 ft. deep is large enough to take care of one 10000-capacity
• Hydarate lime at 1 kg or super phosphate of
lime at 0.75kg per sq.m can be used for wet
• Leaky or over flowing waterers not to be used.
• Change the wet litter with fresh dried ones
• Proper ventilation to remove excess moisture.
M.Sc. (Zoology) II
Roll No 32228
• Effective cleaning and disinfection are key components of routine
biosecurity measures in poultry farming.
• Cleaning and disinfection together comprise decontamination and
should be carried out from time to time to reduce the build-up of
• Decontamination kills any disease organisms like virus, bacteria,
parasite, mold etc that might be present in a farm at the end of a
production cycle or after a disease outbreak. It allows for safe re-
population of farm.
• Cleaning referes to physical removal of foreign materials like dust,
soil and organic material such as: droppings, blood, secretions etc
which protect the farm birds from disease causing agents.
• A good cleaning job can remove up to 80% disease causing agents.
Types of Cleaning
• Cleaning can be divided into two types:
1. Complete or terminal house cleaning: practiced after removal of
2. Partial/concurrent house cleaning: done while the birds remain
inside the shed
Points to be considered in complete cleaning
• After removing the flock, remove the left over feathers, droppings,
• It should be then followed by complete disinfection of the shed. Firstly
the house should be fumigated and then it should be subjected to an
• Keep the shed empty for a minimum period of 10 days before arrival of
new flock. Before introduction of new flock it should be ensured that
there should be no extra moisture in litter, otherwise chances of fungal
growth are more.
Points to be considered in partial cleaning
• Thoroughly cleaning of the fans,lights etc. and it should be a regular
• Sweeping the house, removal of the caked litter, provision of clean litter
should be there.
• Regularly disinfecting the brooder guards, feeders, jugs, drinking water
containers using iodophores and 5% sodium hypchlorite, sometimes other
effective chemicals like sodium dodecyl sulphate, formalin and iodine
compounds may also be used.
• Regularly sanitize the drinking water. Drinking water for poultry as well
as cooling water used in poultry sheds must meet appropriate water
Step 1: Dry Cleaning
• It should be performed inside and outside the buildings,
including storage and entry rooms, egg rooms, egg coolers,
hallways and stairways.
• Fans and other air inlets should be cleaned from the
outside. Inside the building, dust and other dirt on ceilings,
light fixtures, beams, ledges, walls, cages, fan parts, air
inlets, floors (especially in corners), pit ends and walkways
should be brushed, swept, vacuumed, scraped and wiped.
• Note: Dry cleaning should not be used for cleaning poultry
houses infected with air-born diseases such as: Avian born
diseases such as: Avian Influenza or Newcastle it may cause
aerosolization of the virus and increase the risk of
spreading the disease.
Step 2: Wet Cleaning
• It involves soaking, washing and rinsing. Detergents and
other surfactants of alkaline pH (8.5-10) are often added
to washing solutions to loosen debris and films and improve
the penetration of cleaning agents.
• Using detergent/soap and water, we soak the area and
scrub to remove remaining organic material as well as dirt
• For washing we can use common detergent powder sold for
cloth laundering – is cheap and effective
• Wet cleaning reduces the risk of aerosolization of virus
• Wash every surface in the building, especially window
sills, ceiling trusses, wall sills and any surface where dirt
and dust may accumulate.
• The washing solution can be either a neutral detergent
(ph between 6 and 8) or an alkaline detergent (ph above
• Alkaline substances vary in their strength with the
strongest causing burns and internal injuries if
swallowed. A mild alkali is baking soda (sodium
bicarbonate) and moderate alkalis include household
ammonia, borax and trisodium phosphate. Strong alkalis
include washing soda (sodium carbonate) and lye
(caustic soda). Mix in hot water—160oF or hotter is best.
We must make clear that disinfection is not a substitute
for cleaning and that it must also have certain
• Highly germicidal.
• Non-toxic for man and birds.
• Effective in the presence of moderate amounts of
• They must not stain or be corrosive.
• Soluble in water.
• Capable of penetrating materials and crevices.
• Not associated with foul odors.
• Cheap and easily available.
• Disinfectants are the chemical compounds which are
commercially sold and each has its own properties for
specific applications. The various disinfectants are as
• Cresols: They are derived from the distillation of
petroleum. They are cheap and effective biocides when
applied to soil or buildings. They cannot be used where
there are live chickens, processed meat or eggs as they are
going to be tainted by the chemical’s odour.
• Organic phenols which are recommended for use in
hatcheries for equipment decontamination.
• Quaternary ammonium compounds also known as “QAT”.
They are highly suitable to decontaminate equipment,
housing, and in hatcheries on the condition that an
anionic detergent is used before applying QAT.
• Chlorine compounds: They are mostly used in processing
plants and to purify water on livestock farms.
Hypochlorite is effective only when pH value range
between 6.5 and 7.5 in organic matter free water and
you need to expose it to inactive bacteria for 10-20
• Formalin: It is a corrosive and carcinogenic compound
that is recommended for fumigating eggs in cabinets
designed for this purpose. However, there are special
precautions to be followed by the applicator to avoid
being exposed and injured.
Fumigation of Poultry Houses
• Fumigation is a method of disinfection or destruction of
harmful disease organisms in an environment by using
fumigants. Fumigants are chemicals that are released into
the atmosphere in the form of gas or fume.
• The purpose for fumigation is to destroy disease organisms
that could infect chicks, poults or ducklings, especially
transmissible diseases such as fowl typhoid, pullorum,
epidemic tremor, infectious bronchitis and chronic
respiratory disease (CRD).
• It is also important to fumigate brooding houses or pens
especially previously used houses before they are stocked
with new day old chicks or poults. Fumigating your
brooding house or pen prior to brooding or stocking is
beneficial and does a lot of good for the coming chicks or
Steps in Fumigation
• Take the internal dimension of the brooding house; i.e. the
length, breadth, and height of the house.
• Close up every opening such as windows and vents with a
polyethene material to prevent further air from coming in.
• Provide an unbreakable wide-mouth container such as an
enamel or ceramic dish of fairly large size, able to
accommodate the volume of formalin and more.
• Ensure the ambient temperature is about 24C and 75%
relative humidity. Formaldehyde gas works best in a warm
and humid environment.
• Weigh out the quantity of potassium permanganate
(KMnO4) needed into the container. For single strength
fumigation, the quantity needed is 20 g per 2.83 m3
• Measure the corresponding volume of formalin needed.
The volume is usually double the weight of the potassium
permanganate numerically. For example, for single
strength fumigation, the volume of formalin needed is 4 cl.
• Gently add the formalin to the KMnO4(and not vice versa).
Thereafter, lock up the brooding house.
• Leave the house locked for 1 week. After a week of locking
up the house, open it and the windows and allow the
residual gas to escape. Then reclose it up for the arrival of
• Specific over all clothing for employees must be provided.
• Wash hands thoroughly before and after entering the farm
area. Washing of hands can be done with soap or
detergents with contact time of 10 minutes.
• Wear clean clothes while working with birds in the farm.
The clothes should be washable with laundry detergent.
Preferably for this purpose detergents or oxidizing agents
Dirty clothes should be washed with detergent and hung
out to dry in the sun.
• Since disease in poultry can be transmitted easily through
boots, therefore, boots should be used after cleaning and
disinfection. The best approach would be disinfecting
footwear before and after working with birds or keeping a
separate pair of shoes to work around birds and changing
into other shoes when leaving the premise.
• When the care personnel needs to attend to chickens or
other poultry (e.g. collecting eggs, feeding or watering,
change of bedding or repair of fencing material), a change
of clothes/ boots should be required.
• Medical check up of all workers coming in contact with
livestock and feed should be done
• Complete sterilisation of a site is impossible under most
practical farming conditions, but every possible measure
which helps to reduce the challenge is worthwhile.
• Practical experiences show very clearly that the efficacy of
and the benefit gained from, all procedures are
determined by the planning, organisation and accurate
performance of the various steps of the sanitation
• It is essential that all those involved in poultry farming
should understand the importance of all cleaning and
disinfection procedures and should apply it for getting
disease free production.
poultry farming, raising of birds domestically or
commercially, primarily for meat and eggs but also for
feathers. Chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese are of
CONCLUSION : -
Commercial poultry feeding is a highly
perfected science that ensures a maximum
intake of energy for growth and fat
production. High-quality and well-
balanced protein sources produce a
maximum amount of muscle, organ, skin,
and feather growth
that avoids crowding,
chilling, overheating, or
frightening is almost
universal in poultry
• Poultry breeding is an outstanding
example of the application of basic
of inbreeding and crossbreeding as well
as of intensive mass selection to effect
faster and cheaper gains in meat and
maximum egg production for the egg-
The advantages of broiler farming are
• a) Initial investment is lower than layer farming
• b) Rearing period is 5-6 weeks only
• c) More number of flocks can be taken in the same
• d) Broilers have high feed conversion efficiency i.e. the amount
of feed required for unit body
• weight gain is lower in comparison to other livestock
• e) Faster return from the investment
• f) Demand for poultry meat is more compared to sheep/goat