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Building software defined clouds - Boyan Ivanov


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Tactical advice on building software-defined clouds with Apache CloudStack.

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Building software defined clouds - Boyan Ivanov

  1. 1. Tactical advice on building software- defined clouds
  2. 2. Image by theaucitron Software-defined – why, what, how …and not “marketing-defined”
  3. 3. “Software Is Eating The World” Then Now Image by Erik (HASH) Hersman Image by Michael Casey Image by Alfred Image by Remko van Dokkum Image by Kārlis Dambrāns Image by Alfred
  4. 4. Single hardware platform. SW defined.
  5. 5. “Software Is Eating The World” – Indeed. True. Image by Bob Mical Image by derfian Software + Leonardo Rizzi Image by Bob Mical Then Now
  6. 6. Infrastructure is not going away… …but it’s becoming “software defined” Image by is van Zuijlekom Cloud = hardware + software
  7. 7. BUT WHY?! Because, innovation in the Cloud/IT stack can be used: 1. As a competitive advantage 2. To directly boost your bottom line (higher profitability + new revenue)
  8. 8. Types of companies there are on the market The Disruptor The “Me too” The Innovator The Laggard
  9. 9. Examples: AMZ, GOOG, Digital Ocean The Disruptor Takes an industry by storm. Hard to emulate and repeat.
  10. 10. The Innovator The Leaders on the market are built this way! Innovates systematically. Constantly improves business processes and technology
  11. 11. “I use Tier 1 vendors, thus I am a Tier 1 provider”. The “Me too” Valid strategy for the very high end of the market or specific segments Otherwise: good luck – you are falling behind & your stack is inefficient
  12. 12. The Laggard Resistant to change Do not have the vision, mindset & strategy Catch-up or close / sell the “business” Example: crappy web site; still using 1 GE network, local storage, no SSDs, etc.
  13. 13. Diffusion of Innovation & Chasm The Disruptor The Innovator The “Me too” The Laggard Chasm Source:
  14. 14. Hype vs. Stacks OpenStack CloudStack Source:
  15. 15. Building a Cloud – stacks & business case Traditional Stack: Branded servers Cisco / FC network VMware / Hyper-V Storage box (SAN) $1000+ / VM* or $27.8+ /VM/month “Software Defined” Stack: “White box” servers Standard Ethernet + SDN KVM + CloudStack Storage Software (SDS) ~$ 209 / VM* or $5.8 /VM/ month ROI: 39% ROI: 189% * Monthly and one-off costs amortized over 36 months. VM parameters used in the model: 2GB RAM, 2 CPU cores, 40GB SSD. Full details here:
  16. 16. Components: Servers (Compute) Component Unit Dell OEM Diff. CPU (Xeon Gold 6148 – 20 cores) $/core $150 $155 same RAM (32GB DDR4 ECC RDIMM) $/GB $24 $13 2.2x SSD (Intel S4510 3.84 TB) $/TB $852 $310 3.3x Estimated end-user prices as of Sep 2018
  17. 17. Components: Network Dell Z9100-ON 128-port with FTOS/DNOS White box 128-port 25G with Cumulus Linux $36k / $281/port $10.5k / $82/port 3.4x less-expensive
  18. 18. Is the Network a bottleneck? No! Latency test: UDP round-trip (ping) from an un-optimized application, all numbers in us (micro-seconds): Packet size 1 GE 10 GE 40 GE tiny (just ping) 64 41 42 4k 271 65 52 16k 490 108 80 32k 834 133 118 64k 1404 231 146 Datacenter SATA SSD: 50-150 us latency. Matching network latency Most common packet sizes
  19. 19. Components: Storage / SDS SAN Old stack New stack AFA arraysZFS (SDS 1.0) Ceph SDS 2.0 Example for 25 TB usable (50+ TB provisioned): All-flash Array (AFA) $250k for 25 TB usable (Software-Defined) SDS stack $25k HW + $2.5k month SW
  20. 20. Components: SDS Storage Best-of-breed SDS: just 12x Intel P4500 NVMe Read more:
  21. 21. Components: SDS Storage Best-of-breed SDS: just 12x Intel P4500 NVMe Read more: IOPS vs. Latency: 4KB random readIOPS vs. Latency: 4KB random write
  22. 22. Components: Hypervisors Alternatives: KVM Xen / XenServer / Citrix Hypervisor VMware / HYPER-V
  23. 23. Components: Cloud Management Alternatives: CloudStack OpenNebula OpenStack OnApp Proxmox Custom: scripts + libvirt/virsh
  24. 24. Putting it all together: entire Cloud reference design for free here:
  25. 25. Other Tactical tips (1) Other ideas on squeezing extra returns:  For hypervisors: use higher density hypervisors with 32-36 cores (E5-2697v4). Better unit economics ($/VM).  Put loads of RAM. 512GB. For running VMs, RAM is the usual bottleneck.  Avoid BASE-T. Switch to SFP+
  26. 26. Other Tactical tips (2)  Switches: 25/50/100 GE there are many very good price/quality options – (Mellanox, QCT, Arista, EdgeCore Cumulus).  Use larger SSDs. E.g. 4/8 TB or larger. The bigger the better - lowers price/GB.  Consider NVMe for critical apps. ~30-50% more expensive, but up 10x faster (rand read, latency)  Some components we tested and find better (in blue):
  27. 27. Other Tactical tips (3)  “Software-defined” technologies are only as good as the hardware (HW) they run on. For consistent performance and reliability use compatible HW or vendor’s prescribed configs. Otherwise: a trade-off between investment/cost and performance/results  SDS is not a silver bullet – it is a great solution but fits in some cases better than others. You may still need different products for different use cases. E.g. “unified storage” sounds great but in practice you’ll end up with different solutions for block, file & object to work well.
  28. 28. Other Tactical tips (4)  Look for end-to-end data-integrity functionality in SDS products. Maybe the most critical feature of an SDS product in terms of preserving your data.  Always use datacenter grade SSDs. Consumer grade drives usually have throttling (limit of IOPS) and no power- loss protection, making them unfit (and RISKY) for business use.  For high performance storage: go for triple replication with SDS, not double. 3x is the best trade-off between cost and extra data reliability/longevity for high- performance use cases.
  29. 29. Q&A StorPool Storage The best storage when building a cloud.