2. LOCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL CONTE
Located in southern Europe, Greece forms an
irregular-shaped peninsula in the Mediterranean with
two additional large peninsulas projecting from it: the
Chalcidice and the Peloponnese.
The country has the largest coastline in Europe
(13,676km) due to its numerous islands. Greece has
a total of 2,000 Greek islands but only 168 are
The country is washed to the east by the Aegean
Sea, to the west by the Ionian and to the south by the
Greece has a rich diversity in flora and fauna and
many species are original in this country, which
means that they are found only there in the world.
The mountains of Greece divide the agricultural lands
into discrete geographical units, limited at all sides by
sea and mountains. This topographical arrangement
favors not only a sense of regionalism from a purely
spatial point of view but also, an organizational
3. Weather in Greece is fairly uniform throughout the mainland and the
Greek islands. Due to its geographical position, Greece has mild
winters and warm summers, cooled by different kind of seasonal
winds. The summers are characterized by sunshine and very little
In the winter, temperatures again were influenced by the surrounding
water. Typically temperatures did not go below 40° F (4.4° C) with the
exceptions in the high mountains. In the mountains, snow was typical
during the wet winter months.
The Greeks' life was closely related to landscape as a large part of
the population lived in the urban centre and commuted daily in the
outskirts of the city, in order to work in the farmlands.
Much of the soils in Greece are made up of silty, sandy soil.
Limestone is a characteristic type of soil found in this country. The soil
is not very fertile. Only about 30 percent of the total land area in
Greece can support crops. Most farms are small because there are no
major valleys in Greece. Wheat is Greece’s main crop.
CLIMATIC CONDITIONS :
SOIL NATURE :
4. EvolutionOfGreekGardens CULTURE AND SOCIETY :
Life of women in ancient Greece were closely tied to domestic work
spinning, weaving and other duties.greece was male dominating society
Greek people made their living from farming. Citizen had land outskirts of
urban area which provided farmlands. Greek landscape and climate difficult
There were grape gardens, olive trees majorly since it was criminal offense
to cut olive trees.
Honey was probably was the only sweetening that exited at the time so
beehives were kept in terracotta pots.
Painting depicting the ancient
Greek ladies spending their
leisure time in garden.
5. HISTORY OF ANCIENT GREEK GARDENS :
Landscape design of ancient Greece (VI B.C. - IV A.D.)
was in essence garden design. The presence of a good
combination of utilitarian, religious and aesthetical features
was typical to the gardens of that time.
Greeks originally had characteristic tendency towards
harmony with nature, use of a relief as by topographical
component and the landscaping design of ancient Greece
was characterized by considerably freer planning and
structure of composition.
Greeks learned to harmoniously combine the
construction of cities with the natural landscape, mutually
supplementing each other. Gardens and parks became
similar to living organisms, which have a close connection
with the natural environment and man.
Acropolises, theatres, forums, squares, seemingly
grow from nature, harmonizing and merging with the
The most extensive characteristic exclusively for ancient
Greek forms of re-planting ,such as Herron, are more
Built structures like gazebo
and fountains in ancient
6. PRINCIPLES AND CHARACTERESTICS
In the landscaping construction of ancient Greece a strict symmetry
predominated. Alleys and parks were decorated with fountains, columns, vases,
stepped gardens were also built, on which fountains were arranged and flowers
and trees were planted. The Hellenic garden had many components: massive
amounts of plants, spiral staircases and many decorations
Greek landscape dictated a pre-defined course through the built and unbuilt
environment, which was perceived as an inseparable unity.
Components like water feature and
vases in gardens.
7. Hardy plants, protective walls, and shaded patios are ubiquitous
In smaller villages, there was no tradition for a home to have a backyard, there
was no soil even,The place that people had when they went outside was the street.
They had to put pots with plants in the street. That's a typical garden."
A neutral backdrop. If you have hot summers, whitewashed walls and light-
colored stone facades function as effective scrims to reflect the sun's heat and
create a serene structure for a garden.
An accent of bright color.
with colorful accents of
10. SPECIAL FEATURES
colorful dashes on white or earthen background, pergolas with
vines and other climbing trees creating deep shades.
columns and sculptures ,vases ,fountains.
The religious gardens were of two varieties: the cultivable type, which could be
rented out while also being a pleasant gathering place, and the rustic shrine,
where statuary and trees coexisted; a subspecies of this latter type consisted of
natural grottoes embellished by rock-cut sculpture, votive offerings and at times.
12. • Herron - the memorial garden - grove, planted on the spot of the burial of a hero.
Gardens had a racetrack, a hippodrome, an area for gymnastic games and
competition in the memory of heroes. With time Herrons began to be decorated
with statues and colonnades which became the accents of parks. In the majority of
cases Herrons had a memorial nature, they were made with the process of the
creation of different architectural structures and forests. Over time these sacred
groves ceased to bear a memorial nature and became sports parks.
• Philosophical gardens were created specially so that philosophical
conversations could be conducted in them. On the terraces were created straight,
wide alleys with space for sports, statues, vases and fountains. In such gardens
school and gymnasium lessons were conducted by the famous philosophers
Plato, Aristotle, etc. Academy Garden on the Ilisos river in the outskirts of Athens
(460 B.C.). Philosophical gardens were isolated from the public parks. The largest
squares of all of the cities belonging to the state were surrounded with
13. • The public garden was located in the main area of the city near temples and
• The private gardens of prosperous owners most frequently bore an
exceptionally utilitarian nature.
• Nymph - sacred oak, cedar or olive grove located in center of an artistic
water source or grotto with a regular planning style. Over time new
decorations such as columns and sculptures appeared and enriched the
nymphs. These places were thought to be inhabited by gods, nymphs and
muses, because of this people brought sacrifices here. The flow of water,
which fell into the pond, was the prototype of the water features in the parks of
• The pleasure gardens like those of the Persian's - appeared
after Alexander of Macedon victoriously marched into Persia (336-323 B.C