First Chinese came here during the Gold Rush Days. In 1880 there were 320,000 Chinese people in the U.S. and they mainly lived on the West Coast. They left there homes as contract workers or “coolies” because conditions were harsh. They were miners and railroad track layers. Many intended to return home. As a result many held tight to their traditions and customs. They faced lots of discrimination and violence.Immigration was an important factor in there history in the U.S. when the Chinese Exclusion Act was passed. The Chinese were the first nationality to be singled out by the federal gov’t. California repeatedly passed discriminatory legislation to curtail the activities of the Chinese. In 1902 all immigration was illegal. That was not lifted until 1943 when China became our ally, and only 105 Chinese ppl were admitted a year. With restrictions lifted, ppl still felt the same about Chinese people. So Chinatowns were looked upon as negative places. Filled with corruption, narcotic addictions, and mystery. By the 1990’s Chinese people weren’t faced with as much discrimination. Chinatowns remain in large cities such as Los Angles, New York and San Francisco.
Came after the Chinese Exclusion Act was revoked. More Japanese came to America which was about 21 years later. They were basically farmers and miners. The japanese people started working hard and buying land. The natives of California were not happy so they started passing laws that stopped them from purchasing land. Such as the Alien Land Law of 1913. The Japanese reacted differently to discrimination then other immigrants, they fought “ghetto exisitence” they didn’t want to be defined to one spot or the Little Tokyo's. But with the attack of Pearl Harbor on dec. 7 1941 all Japanese americans were put into security camps. Eventually the order was rescinded and about 110,000 Japanese resettled across the u.s. Many lost everything they had, few could return to pre-war activities. By 1945 they had come along ways and by the 1960’s they were accepted much more.
From other shores
From Other Shores<br />Chapter 5 <br />Presented By: Paris, Deshante, Jorge, Kali, Ju’wan & Vivian<br />
Pacific Migrations<br />Orientals<br />AKA Asians<br />Consisted of Jews, Arabs and Americans from Asia<br />Similar attitudes & traits<br />
Chinese<br />Gold Rush Days<br />1880 –320,000 living in America<br />Mainly on west coast (Cali)<br />Immigration Officials<br />Chinese Exclusion Act<br />Immigration Reform Act of 1965<br />Chinatowns & Discrimination<br />1990’s<br />
Japenese<br />Pacific Shores in 1869<br />21 years after Chinese!<br />Alien Land Law (1913)<br />Pearl Harbor<br />1945<br />
Koreans<br />Mostly laborers. <br />A second wave appeared in the mid to late 1950s<br />Immigration Reform Act of 1965<br />Education<br />Koreans today<br />
Other Asians<br />Different from Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans<br />The first of the two are the Filipinos<br />The second are the south Asians<br />Little in common.<br />
South Asians<br />South Asians are recent arrivals<br />By contrast to Filipinos<br />Rights<br />Immigration reform bill of 1965<br />High-status group of immigrants<br />Caucasian, Asian American, or Asian<br />
Filipinos<br />Lemuel Ignacio (Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: Is There Such an Ethnic Group?)<br />The “Asians”<br />The meaning of color<br />A brief history<br />NOT Orientals<br />Migration and postwar newcomers <br />
Latinos<br /><ul><li>In this country Hispanics also called “Latinos” make up the same nationality group.
In 2003 they became the nation’s largest minority, outnumbering African Americans
Puerto Ricans who have been citizens since 1917</li></li></ul><li>-Descendants from very early settlers after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo at the end of the Mexican American war<br />Before being included as a separate census category many were forced to check “White”, “Black”, “Native American”, or other.<br />
Mexicans<br />2nd to Native “Indians” the Mexicans are hardly migrants<br />Their history dates back to the days of Spanish conquest , and they are often called Hispanos.<br />After the turn of the 20th century increasing numbers of laborers from Mexico crossed the border to the United States<br />Restrictions on overseas immigration during WWI gave cause for this migration and almost 1 million Mexicans entered the country between 1910-1930<br />
Most found work doing stoop labor on farms/ranches or became migrant workers<br />Over ½ took up residence in the United States gravitating to urban areas<br />Following WWII many would achieve middle class status, a success that has been largely overlooked.<br />Racism contended that Mexicans were only good for farm labor, and this widespread attitude served to keep many influential people in the southwest from making necessary changes in the educational system and in social welfare to assist the Mexican Americans<br />
There are two other recognized types of migrants from Mexico:<br />-Wetbacks (named so for crossing Rio Grande illegally)<br />-Braceros (those with permits to work as contract laborers under strict restriction)<br />In 1960 427,000 entered as guest workers<br />Present day there is now more surveillance of the border than ever before but Mexicans have continued to pour into country<br />Some are facilitated by “Coyotes”; Men & Women who make their living as smugglers of human beings<br />
Today Mexican Americans are the fastest growing “nationality group” in the United States and this fact has raised concerns in many quarters<br />To some, it is the “brown waves of Mexicans” coming across the border that is said to be poised, not only to undercut the farm labor market but to destroy American Civilization itself. <br />
Puerto Ricans<br />Puerto Rico has been in american possession since the end of the Spanish-American war <br />became united states citizen in 1917 by choice <br />migration began in early 20th century <br />migration with a prime objective of stayin in the USA has risen sharply due to increase job opportunities, popular culture, improved transportation <br />over 3/4 of their total number live in New York <br />
Census Bureau data provides evidence of difficulties PR have in succeeding they are more likely to come from urban areas and have higher proportion of skilled and semiskilled workers than the native population. <br />Unemployed PR go to New York primarily <br />They continue to come not to seek work but to seek better work, yet still find problems in nearly a third of PR families continue to live below poverty level. <br />PR were the first major group to migrate to Urban centers in the US <br />On the main land, color determines what class a person belongs in, in Puerto Rico the class a person belongs to determines his color.<br />
Cubans<br />Until Cuban revolution in 1959 most Americans knew Cuba only as a series of Snapshot images. <br />The few Cubans in America mostly lived in Florida <br />100,000 of Cubans sought and gained admittance to this country as exiles from the new communist regime. <br />Between 1959 and 1970 70,000 refugees entered the US mostly arriving and staying in Miami area <br />many minorities, especially African Americans say Cubans were elbowing into the system and taking jobs away from them <br />In 1980 a second large wave app.. 150,000 (boat people) made the 90 mile trip to Florida coast. <br />They were generally poorer and less educated than the first wave and many more were black. <br />
Among the boat people were a large subgroup who had been given permission to go by Fidel Castro, unlike the people who fled from Cuba prior <br />It's rumored, Castro saw his chance to rid the country of criminals and mentally retarded people among the Marielitos. <br />They were not given the same refugees status as their country men <br />The were deported or detained whenever they violated the law <br />It took 20 years to regularize their reputation of the vast majority who came from Mariel <br />In January 2005 the Supreme Court handed down the ruling that the Open ended policy was illegal. <br />In recent decades Cuban and other refugees and other immigrants from Latin America have succeeded in making Miami one of the cultural bilingual cities in the US. This reality, coupled with fears expressed by Anglos about the "Mexican Invasion" in the SW, especially California, is already the subject of debate about the future American society by the rights of groups and individuals and the long dominant majority culture.<br />