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Term paper on,
GERBERA PRODUCTION IN NEPAL
Submitted to:
Umed Pun (Ph. D)
Department of Horticulture
IAAS, PG Campus, TU, ...
Table of Contents
1. History and background..................................................................................
1
Gerbera Production in Nepal
1. History and background
Flowers are considered as the adorable creation of God and insepar...
2
arrangements and are available in different shades and hues. Besides floral arrangements,
gerbera is widely used in bouq...
3
aerodynamically suited design to withstand winds. Polyhouse has some advantages like
controlled condition of RH, Tempera...
4
3.3 Soil treatment:
Sterilization of growing medium is required for reducing risk of Phytophthora, Pythium,
Fusarium. Am...
5
2007) can give the good result. After the preparation of beds planting is done. Planting is
done with root ball keeping ...
6
Table 2: Varieties and their color planted in Abloom Flora, Chitwan
S.N. Color Varieties S.N. Color Varieties
1. Red Red...
7
plain water (to maintain the pH 6-6.5) is given. Periodical clean of the fertigation system is
necessary to avoid the an...
8
Problems shared by grower:-
 Disease and pest problem is the main problem.
(Disease: root rot, Fursarium rot, botrytis,...
9
 Fluctuation in price is also problem realize by some retailer etc.
Challenges
Gerbera mainly produced in Kathmandu per...
10
tourism sectors including hotels etc. Hotels are the constant and regular consumer of cut
flower.
This increasing deman...
11
gradually. Entrepreneurs are realizing the value of high technology. New technologies are
welcoming by farmers and busi...
12
 It has aluminet shade which used for the better temperature control, save energy and
protect against fro
UV stabilizi...
References:
Acharya, A. K. 2010. Influence of location, season, variety and vase solution on quality and vase
life of Gerb...
NCPAH. 2011. Greenhouse- A Reference manual.National Committee on Pastcculture
Aplication in Horticulture (NCPAH), Departm...
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Gerbera

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Gerbera

  1. 1. Term paper on, GERBERA PRODUCTION IN NEPAL Submitted to: Umed Pun (Ph. D) Department of Horticulture IAAS, PG Campus, TU, Kirtipur Submitted by: Shankar Paudel M.Sc. Ag (Horticulture) Shankarpudel23@gmail.com R-2013-HRT-05M Department of Horticulture IAAS, PG Campus, TU, Kirtipur July 22, 2014
  2. 2. Table of Contents 1. History and background............................................................................................................................1 2. Production scenario..................................................................................................................................2 3. Cropping system .......................................................................................................................................2 3.1 Shed house preparation......................................................................................................................2 3.2 Land preparation.................................................................................................................................3 3.3 Soil treatment: ....................................................................................................................................4 3.4 Plant spacing:......................................................................................................................................4 3.5 Variety and Planting............................................................................................................................5 3.6 Fertilizer and irrigation management.................................................................................................6 3.7 Time of cultivation: .............................................................................................................................7 3.8 Harvesting, Packaging and transportation:.........................................................................................7 4. Problems and Challenges..........................................................................................................................7 5. Prospects of gerbera flower in Nepal .......................................................................................................9 6. Advances in Nepal...................................................................................................................................10 7. Conclusion...............................................................................................................................................12
  3. 3. 1 Gerbera Production in Nepal 1. History and background Flowers are considered as the adorable creation of God and inseparable from the social fabric of human life. Flowers have very important value in different occasion like birth, marriage, death, festival etc. celebrated in human life. Importance of flower is even increasing in these days due to change in life style of human. In past, flowers were offered for sale to meet the special requirement of people. With the passage of time drastic changes have come about in the life style of people leading to commercialized cultivation (Sudhagar, 2013). Flowers plants in these days are not only for garden but has important role in the decoration of home, office, hotel and other important place. Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) is a member of composite family. It is also known as Transvaal daisy or Barberton daisy. This is a native flower of South Africa and Asiatic region and inhabits in the temperate mountain region (Karki, 2004). Robert Jameson, a Scotsman, first discovered gerbera daisies while operating a gold mine near Barberton in the Transvaal area of South Africa in1980. He donated plants to the Durban Botanical Gardens, and the curator of the gardens, John Medley Wood, sent specimens to Harry Bolus in Cape Town, South Africa, for identification. Bolus then sent specimens to the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew in England, with the suggested scientific name Gerbera jamesonii. The genus name Gerbera is in honor of the German naturalist Traugott Gerber and the species jamesonii was named after Robert Jameson. Beginning about 1890 in England, Richard Irwin Lynch carried out breeding programs that resulted in many improvements. Gerberas soon became popular in the Netherlands, where much of the modern breeding has been accomplished (Kessler, 1999). In Nepal, formally D.K. Shrivastav of Flora Nepal Pvt. Ltd. is the pioneer persons for Gerbera introduction. He introduced 8000 tissue cultured gerbera plants in 1998 (2055 B.S.) for the first time in Nepal. He imported these plantlets from Holland to promote cut flower business in Nepal. Up to that time there were no commercial flower shops for the marketing of gerbera cut flower. There were only few shops but gerbera was not found in these shops. When he introduced gerbera and cultivated in 1000 m2 in his farm, no flower shops were involved in the trade of gerbera. There was no market for the gerbera cut flower. After the production of cut flower Flora Nepal Pvt. Ltd. distributed its product freely for the promotion of gerbera cut flower. Commercialization of gerbera cultivation was started after this. Later, Mandip Shrestha from Flora incorporate in 2002(2058/59 B.S.) imported 2000-3000 tissue cultured plants from Florist company of the Netherland in Nepal for multi-location trail in different location, Naubise, Kabhre and Kathmandu. Then after, Gerbera cut flower business is becoming more channelized as many growers came in this business. Flowers of gerbera are available in different color, including yellow, orange, pink, crimson, red, purple and white. It is most important cut flower in world as well in Nepal and occupies fourth place among the cut flower. The blooms are attractive, suitable for any type of floral
  4. 4. 2 arrangements and are available in different shades and hues. Besides floral arrangements, gerbera is widely used in bouquets and in dry flower crafts (Nair et al. 2003). 2. Production scenario According to the FAN report, area under gerbera cultivation is 87 ha in 2012/13, 45 ropanies in 2011/12 while it was only 15 ropanies in 2005/06(Table 1). This data shows that the production area of gerbera is highly increases in recent area. It is about double in 2012/13 as compared to 2011/12. Exact data of volume of production was not obtained but around 35, 00,000 (including wastages) sticks are predicted in fiscal year 2070/71 B.S. Production will be more in this year as new farm started to produce gerbera in Chitwan. Table 1: Estimated production and demand of gerbera in different years (FAN, 2014) Description/years 2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2011/12 2012/13 Area (Ropanies) 15 15 20 30 35 41 45 87 Demand(stick/day) 500- 1000 800- 1500 1500- 2000 1500- 2500 1500- 2500 3000- 4000 5000- 7000 5000- 7000 Around 15 growers are involved in the production of gerbera in Nepal. Nine growers are the member of Global flora wholesale market, four (including Abloom Flora, Chitwan) grower are of United Flora Wholesale market, one Flora Nepal wholesale market and other. According to Nepal’s largest wholesale market of cut flower Global Flora Pvt. Ltd., 75000 plants are planted by the growers (member of this wholesale market only) in Kathmandu valley. Production from the member of Global flora is about 30, 00,000 sticks/year. By excluding 30% wastages and considering the average price 10, sell from this wholesale is about 2.10 crores. Sales record of United Flora which is second largest wholesale shop of cut flower in Nepal shows the sale of 19948 stick with worth Rs. 12, 19, 881 in fiscal year 2070/71. 16,208 sticks of cost Rs. 2, 60,948 of gerbera were imported from India in winter season in same fiscal year by united Flora. Sales record and import record of Global Flora Pvt. Ltd. was not found during the study. Production of gerbera is limited in Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Lalitpur. Recently, outside the valley one farm is running in Chitwan district. 3. Cropping system 3.1 Shed house preparation Generally, gerbera is grown in shed house. In protected conditions, gerbera grows faster and produces larger and greener leaves with high dry matter content. As a result, the yield of the flowers increases and more side shoots will be formed (Naveed et al., 2013). Shed house or polyhouse is a greenhouse covered with UV stabilized thick transparent white polyethylene. The structure is made of galvanized iron pipes or locally available bamboo with
  5. 5. 3 aerodynamically suited design to withstand winds. Polyhouse has some advantages like controlled condition of RH, Temperature, Light as required for best results, protection from rains and sunlight, and protection from pests and diseases. Condition most suitable for Gerbera cultivation are, RH 70-75% (High RH increases disease incidence and flower deformity), temperature 20-30˚C (less than 12˚C and higher than 35˚C adversely affects flowers production) and shade net for 50-70% sunlight (400 watt/sq.m is required) (Ladaniya and Thangam, 2008). National Committee on Plasticulture Aplication in Horticulture (NCPAH) India recommended the temperature, humidity and light intensity as, temperature, Day (20-24˚C), Night (18-21˚C); Humidity 60-65% and light intensity 40000-50000 lux (NCPAH, 2011). Selection of good area which has level land, near to market, facility of electricity and good quality are important before constructing greenhouse for commercial cultivation. For commercial production, the units of the size of 500-1000 sq. m and above are viable (Ladaniya and Thangam, 2008). Some standards of greenhouses are given by KF Bioplants Pvt. Ltd. which are given as,  Height of Greenhouse : 5 to 6.5 m  Length : North-South  Gutter direction : North –South  Polythene thickness : 200 microns  Vent opening : Along the wind direction  Distance between two adjoining poly houses should be minimum 4 m Nepalese farmer also used shed house for the production of gerbera. In the study of Acharya (2010), wide variation on shed house preparation, bed size, polyhouse constructing material and planting system of gerbera was found. Among the sample he found 67% growers using full closed shed house and 33% growers using half closed shed house. And the study revealed that the quality of flower found higher in full closed shed house. 3.2 Land preparation Soil is important parameter for the production of gerbera. The soil with organic matter, porous and well drained soil with appropriate ph is considered good for production. Soil pH should be in between 5.5 to 6.5 or it should be maintained at this level to get maximum efficiency in absorption of nutrients. Similarly, the salinity level of soil should be less than 1 ms/cm with high porous and well drained soil to have better root growth and better penetration of roots. The roots of gerbera go as deep as 50-70 cm. Land should be ploughed deep 2-3 times and brought to a fine tilth. Soil and FYM to be mixed in 2:1 proportion for this well rotten FYM should be mixed thoroughly in the soil before sterilization. Recently, Gerbera farm of Chitwan (Abloom flora farm) used 10% FYM in beds of gerbera.
  6. 6. 4 3.3 Soil treatment: Sterilization of growing medium is required for reducing risk of Phytophthora, Pythium, Fusarium. Among this Phytophthora is most destructive fungus which damages the gerbera. Mostly there are 3 methods for the disinfection; they are steam, solar and chemical disinfection. Stem disinfection is not so feasible in Nepalese condition other two methods can be done. Solar disinfection is done by covering the soil with white plastic for 6-8 week which increases the temperature and kill most fungi. Chemical method is mostly used in farmer level. In chemical method, there four methods can be used for the sterilization of soil (Kumar Florists,2007). Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) with silver, Formalin, Methyl Bromide and Basamid (Dazomet) are the chemical for sterilization. Hydrogen peroxide with silver mixed with water at the rate of 35ml per liter of water and used 1 liter for 1 m2 area. It has some advantages like very easy and safe to use without any hazardous effect on human heath, economical, eco-friend method and does not produce any phyto-toxic effect on plants, plantation can be carried out 4- 6 hours after fumigation as well as it destroys almost any fungal, bacterial and larva and eggs of the insects in soil (Kumar florist, 2007). Formalin is used at the rate of 7.5-10 lit/100m2 . This pure chemical should 10 times dilute in water. Formalin or Formaldehyde (1 lit. in 10 lit. water) is sprinkled (1-2 lit/sq m) with rose can on mixed growing medium layer of 1-1.5 feet height and covered with plastic. Plastics can be removed after 1 week, flush the traces of formalin with water 50-80 lit/m2 ) and then waiting up to 1 week is good (Ladaniya and Thangam, 2008). Similarly, Methyl bomide (20-30 gm/m2 ) and Basamid (Dazomet) (30-40gm/m2 ) are used. In Nepal Acharya (2010) on his field observation found 25% not aware about the soil treatment practice and did not disinfect the soil while 8.3% (one grower) used Trichoderma while 66.7% used formalin for disinfection. In the present context most farmers disinfect the soil before planting. Some grower like Abloom Flora used H2O2 with silver also. 3.4 Plant spacing: Study on plant spacing found different among the farmers. Plant spacing 1foot×1 foot, 1.5×1 foot, 0.83×0.5 and 1×0.5 foot were observed Acharya (2010). Most of the farmer used 1×1 foot. He found the standard recommended spacing 12 to 18 inches apart by the review of Tija et al. (2008).Spacing 40×30 cm and bed height 1.5 feet is practiced by Abloom flora Chitwan. Bed height should be maintained according to the water level to avoid the root rot disease in gerbera. It is different with field condition. Similarly bed height was also found different among the farmers ranging from 0.3 to 2.5 feet. Bed width 2 ft and pathways between beds 1 ft (30 cm) is considered as standard (Kumar florists, 2007). Some writer recommended raised beds of 80 cm width for planting, base with 90 cm and height 45-60 cm (Ladaniya and Thangam, 2008). The composition of bed material should be such that it should be highly porous, well drained and provide proper aeration to the root system. Adding and mixing 2.5 Kg single super phosphate and 0.5 Kg Magnesium sulphate for 10 sq. m. bed area for nutrient (Ladaniya and Thangam, 2008) and neem cake @ 1 KG/m2 against nematode (Kumar florists,
  7. 7. 5 2007) can give the good result. After the preparation of beds planting is done. Planting is done with root ball keeping the crown above the soil surface and then irrigate lightly. Figure 1: Bed preparation as recommended by Kumar Florist (2007)/ K.F. biotech 3.5 Variety and Planting Different varieties from different companies of gerbera were grown in Kathmandu valley. In Kathmandu, there are different company/agent supplying planting materias of gerbera like Flora Incorporated Trade, Tripureswar; Crop-Protech Nepal, The Standard Nursery, Bansbari; Flora Nepal Pvt. Ltd, Kupandole, and Kumari Flora, Paknajol. These are involvedin selling of the plants of different companies, K. F. Bioplants Pvt. Ltd.(India); Florist, Schreurs (Holland). Two types of variety are available in market mini and standard. Among this many variety are introduced in Nepal but grower are unknown about the variety they are growing in their field. Gerbera can be propagated through desuckered (division) and tissue cultured. Most of the farmer used tissue cultured plant than desuckered plant in Nepal. Two types of variety are found in Nepal i.e. Mini and Standard type. Acharya et al. (2010) listed 68 varieties grown in Nepal of different color and vase life. In recent, Abloom Flora, Chitwan imported variety from K. F. Bioplants Pvt. Ltd. (A Kumar- Forist (Holland) Joint Venture) India are given (Table 2).
  8. 8. 6 Table 2: Varieties and their color planted in Abloom Flora, Chitwan S.N. Color Varieties S.N. Color Varieties 1. Red Red Explosion Ruby red Zingaro 2. White Balance Dalma 3. Pink Pink Elegance Rosalin 4. Yellow Paradiso Amulet 5. Others Candela Picobello Cacherell 3.6 Fertilizer and irrigation management According to the guide line, during vegetative growth, N:P:K:: 20:20:20 @0.4gm/plant every alternate day for three months and once flowering commences N:P:K:: 15:08:35@ 0.4gm/plant every alternate day were recommended (Kumar Forists, 2007). Fertilizer calculation is very difficult as farmers used fertilizer in their own way. DAP, Urea, potash for the fulfillment of NPK; bone meal; oil cake; CaNo3; ash; and micronutrients having CA, Zn, B were extensively used in the field of gerbera, but doses and time of applied in the gerbera field is varied (Acharya, 2010). He also reported that the good quality flower can be produced with the abundant use of compost and organic matter rather than chemical fertilizer. Many growers in these days are using drip irrigation. Irrigation is important for the gerbera but over watering should avoid. Water quality of 6.5-7 pH is recommended. Gerbera pant required 300 to 700 ml per plant per day depending upon the season. Immediately after plantation overhead irrigation system up to 3 weeks is good to enable uniform root development. There after the drip irrigation is given. Drip irrigation is important for the correct doses of fertilizer also. One drip per plant is required and water should apply before noon (Kumar Florist, 2007). Fertigation is important in these days as drip irrigation system is used. In Nepal many farmer used the solid fertilizer like DAP, Urea and Potash for drip irrigation. Liquid fertilizer is recommended for the fertigation. Abloom Farm of Chitwan used liquid fertilizer as recommended by the company. Method for fertigation is recommended by KF Bioplants Pvt. Ltd. According to this fertigation should be given early in the morning at 6 am for better utilization by the pants. Recommended dose of fertilizer and some acid to reduce the pH of
  9. 9. 7 plain water (to maintain the pH 6-6.5) is given. Periodical clean of the fertigation system is necessary to avoid the any type of malfunctioning. 3.7 Time of cultivation Generally gerbera is grown during Falgun-Chaitra (February-March) or Shrawan-Bhadra (July-August) in Kathmandu valley and production starts after 3 months of planting. In winter, especially, from October–February (Kartik-Falgun), there is high demand and low supply of cut flowers (Acharya et al.,2010). Planting in Baishakh is practiced in Chitwan condition and result is yet to be waited. 3.8 Harvesting, Packaging and transportation: Gerbera flowers are harvested when outer two rows of disc florets opened which is important for the longevity of the cut flower. But in practice farmers do not always used this method due to the varying in demand which determined the amount to be harvested and package of transportation (Acharya et al., 2010). Gerbera has the life of 30-36 month. The first flower is produced 7-8 weeks after plantation when plants are with 14 to 16 leaves. The average yield is 240 flowers per m2 (6 plants/m2 ). One plant gives 40 stick per year (Kumar florist, 2007). Harvesting date is ranges from 60 to 90 days after planting and in harvesting is done in evening or morning. Gerbera flowers are harvested by twisting (not by cutting) the stems off near the point of attachment of the rhizome, this thought to encourage subsequent flower production. Immediately after the harvest flowers are kept in 2-3 cm water for 4 hours at 14- 15˚C. Sodium hypochlorite @7-10ml/lit of water is added as a preservatives. But this practice is only limited in wholesale market. The inflorescence part is kept in a plastic cap to avoid the loss of petal before packaging. Then, flowers are arrange in bunch by putting 20 sticks per bunch by rubber band and wrapped with newspaper or wrapping paper. Transportation is done by general bus, taxi, motorcycle. Refrigerated vain are not used in Nepal. So, postharvest loss occurs more in transportation. 4. Problems and Challenges Its demand in both domestic and export markets is high. Keeping quality is an important parameter for evaluation of cut flower quality, for both domestic and export markets. One of the most important problems of postharvest of Gerbera is bent neck and less vase life (Acharya et al., 2010 and Mohammadiju et al., 2014). Post harvest problem is the major problem. Scratching, breaking, bending and petal damages are important postharvest problem found in gerbera. More damages (> 14%) of cut flowers even only during packaging and transportation would discourage to growers and affect for the promotion of export (FAN Study Team, 2013). Low production due to fungal diseases and high postharvest losses due to lack of postharvest treatment are the burning problems of gerbera production and marketing in Nepal (Acharya et al., 2010). Some problem shared by different sectors during the field survey are given below,
  10. 10. 8 Problems shared by grower:-  Disease and pest problem is the main problem. (Disease: root rot, Fursarium rot, botrytis, crown rot etc. Pest: white fly, mites, aphides and Physiological disorders: leaf folding, pseudo flower, twins flower, scape pitting or cracking and stalk bending)  Manpower related to floriculture and cut flowers are very few and problem related to this like disease pest are some time unsolved.  Due to the lack of advance training on cut flower production, harvesting, packaging and handling, grower are getting loss.  Lack of loan and subsidy from government.  Weak shade house and use of low technology.  Fluctuation in demand and supply is main problem in case of marketing.  Post harvest loss of cut flower. Problems experienced by wholesaler:-  Lack of space is main problem in Kathmandu. As fresh flower are bulky and required large space, it became a problem.  High rent value  Poor infrastructure  Barrier in operating and expanding the business as they have no own building. Problems of retailer:-  Loss during packaging and handling. About 20-30 sticks among 100 are seen break or bend when taken from the wholesale. It is due to lack of knowledge about the post harvest handling.  Post harvest loss occurs due to improper handling during transportation. Tight tide of cut flowers in cycle and motor cycle, cause breaking of cut flowers in retail market.  Retailers have to sell their product within a weak otherwise they accrued loss as they lack cold store.
  11. 11. 9  Fluctuation in price is also problem realize by some retailer etc. Challenges Gerbera mainly produced in Kathmandu periphery and produced in summer season but the demand is low. The demand is high in winter season and that import should be done to meet the demand. Winter production of gerbera is one of the major challenges in this industry. Though one farm in Chitwan started high tech, other farm of Kathmandu are still run in low technology so, they should go for high tech. Though the production is increasing, gerbera are not exports in foreign market. So, it is one of the big challenges for Nepalese entrepreneur. Mostly, planting material are imported from foreign country, therefore provision should made to produced within a country. 5. Prospects of gerbera flower in Nepal Dictionary meaning of prospects means the potential things that may come to pass, often favorable or hope. Cut flower business in Nepal increases year by year as explain above, this increasing business also show the higher prospects of cut flower business. There are some reasons which show the prospects of cut flower in Nepal which are given below, a. Increasing demand of cut flower Demand of cut flower is increasing in the country. if we analyzed the data, the demand of Gerbera was 500-1000 sticks per day which is increases now and it is 5000-7000 sticks per day. There may be many reasons to explain this sentence. Some reason like change in culture, change in official habits, urbanization, tourism sectors development etc might be major reasons. With the modernization, awareness and globalization there is change in culture. Now a day for formality and fashion people mostly used cut flowers as a gift. In addition to worship of god, people used flower for different ceremonies like birthday, wedding ceremonies, in death, to meet patient, reception to guest or for welcome, farewell, and other party. For the decoration of house, room, car in wedding ceremony most of cut flower demanded. Similarly with globalization, Nepalese are interested in western culture. Nepalese now days celebrate western festival like Christmas, valentine day, new year etc. In this festival, demand of cut flower is very high. Rose is consider as the symbol of love and its demand is much high in valentine day. In Christmas day along with the Christmas plant fresh cut flower are demanded for garland purpose. Along with these festival use of cut flower is increasing in national big festival like Daishain, Tihar, Chhath etc. Urbanization is one of the causes which increase the demand of cut flower. With the urbanization there is less space for natural pleasure. So, people are attracted toward fresh flower and natural things. Awareness in people is upgrading in recent year and this has positive impacts on demand of cut flower. Official habits in different office in country are going to change and people use fresh flower gift for welcome, farewell. Also fresh flower are used to decorate their office. Another reason for increasing demand may be due to expanding
  12. 12. 10 tourism sectors including hotels etc. Hotels are the constant and regular consumer of cut flower. This increasing demand of cut flower shows the ample scope for cut flower business in country. Still the demand of domestic market is not fulfill by the domestic product. Many hotels and traders import cut flower from India and other country. If domestic production is high import will be substituted. b. High Agro-climatic diversity and biodiversity Nepal can utilize the higher agro-ecological diversity for the production of cut flower. Nepal’s climate and abundant sunlight, appropriate soil and adequate quantities of water are some benefits for cut flower production. All types of flower can be produce in the country. Production is possible all round the year. Gerbera is now produced in Chitwan to produce the flower for winter. c. Government supports for floriculture Floriculture Promotion Policy 2069, which was approved by Government of Nepal in 2069- 8-29. The main goal of this policy is to increase production of flower and ornamental produce and expanding floriculture business for creating employment opportunities, imports substitution and export promotion by utilizing agro-biodiversity. This policy accepts floriculture business as other business. So, governmental support in floriculture business is increasing. This policy encourages foreign investment in Nepal in floriculture business. Government has separated some budget for floriculture development from this year. d. Utilization of cheap labor Comparatively labor cost is low in Nepal as compared to other developed country. This can be one opportunity for foreigner to invest in Nepal as well for Nepalese investor. Now expert believe that the production focus has moved from traditional growers to countries where the climate are better and labor cost is lower. For instance, the Netherland has already sifted attention from flower production to trade and new center of flower production are Kenya, Colombia, Ethiopia, India etc. We can attract them in Nepal, for investment. e. Export potentialities Nepal is a 147th member of WTO since 2004. As a member of WTO it has much opportunity in world market for export. By the utilization of abundant diversity and modern technology Nepal can compete in world market. 6. Advances in Nepal In recent year, Nepalese floriculture sector is blooming. From the long term experience and introduction with technology of foreign country growing practices has been changes
  13. 13. 11 gradually. Entrepreneurs are realizing the value of high technology. New technologies are welcoming by farmers and business becoming more competitive in recent year. Gradual changes in cultivation practices and postharvest practices are shows the advances. There was wide variation even in shed house preparation in size, height, wide etc. In the field survey of Acharya (2010), 33% growers were found to be used half closed shed house. With the passage of time mostly farmer are using fu closed shed house. Bamboo was used for the constructing the green house which is still in practices in many farm. The trend of using iron constructed green house increases in Nepal. Adaptation of drip irrigation system increases from traditional irrigation system. Growers are becoming aware about the post harvest. Research on ‘packaging and handling method of cut flower (Gerbera and Carnation) using different technique’ was conducted by FAN. In this research higher no. of fresh flower found in the method in which flowers wrapping with wrapping paper, kept in Cartoon and transported by vehicles (FAN Study Team, 2013). Some growers are turning toward this method. in recent days wholesale shops used preserving material Sodium hypochlorite instead of pure water for storing flower. Step forward in gerbera cultivation in Nepal is taken by Abloom Flora, Chitwan by implementing the high-tech. Gerbera was limited in Kathmandu valley, production was not in Terai before this. There is reverse condition between the production and demand in Kathmandu. Demand is very high in winter season and flower can get higher price but the production is not at that time. So, to meet the challenge this nursery was established just a year before in 2080 sq. m (52×40) area with the planting of 12,400 tissues cultured plant and the product yet to be come. It is only one farm which is conducted in high technology for the production of gerbera in Nepal. Some of features of this high-tech greenhouse are given below,  Use of UV protected plastic instead of silpoline pastic. This plastic was introduced from Agriplast Company India which was produced by Ginegar Company Israel. This plastic have other important also, it has anti-static property and repels dust, dirt and smog which facilitate light transference.  GI iron used for the construction  Can withstand the speed of 150 km/hr wind  Side net along with plastic  Double door system  Open ventilated green house  Drip irrigation system along with use of liquid fertilizer as recommended by breeding company K.F. Biotech
  14. 14. 12  It has aluminet shade which used for the better temperature control, save energy and protect against fro UV stabilizing plastic is tough, clear, high PAR light transmission greenhouse films made by using hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS). Besides the high light transmission it has other benefits also. We know that Insects have compound eyes and they can see in the UV range as well as in the visible domain up to (but not including) the red section (600-700 nanometers wave length). Blocking out the UV blocks a significant part of the visible range of insects. Since the insects cannot see many of the signals which they normally would see outdoors. When they are under UV blocker film, a considerable decrease in white fly, thrips and other insect activity has been observed inside the greenhouse covered with UV Blocker films. One of the subsequent positive results has been a marked reduction in the use of insecticide spray. Though this is expensive its lifespan is high as compared to normal silpoline. So, many growers are attracted toward this UV stabilizing plastic to obtained higher yield of gerbera. 7. Conclusion Gerbera is the 4th important cut flower in Nepal as well as in world. Its demand and production is increasing. Import of high tech in Gerbera cultivation in Chitwan is the good sign for the promotion of gerbera business which will reduce the import volume in winter season. Still man power specialized in gerbera are lacking. Research and extension system is poor and need to develop. Research should focus on the need of grower like post harvest, disease/pest, production technology suitable for Nepalese condition, marketing etc. The industry should conduct in high-tech and entrepreneur should think toward the export of gerbera. Study shows that the future of gerbera cultivation is good more specially in winter season.
  15. 15. References: Acharya, A. K. 2010. Influence of location, season, variety and vase solution on quality and vase life of Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii, Hook). M. Sc. Thesis. Tribhuvan University Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan. Acharya, A.K., D. R. Baral, D. M. Gautam and U. K. Pun. 2010. Influence of seasons and varieties on vase life of Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Hook.) cut flower. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology. 11:41-46. Ahmad, N., M. A. Mahamood and M. S. A. Khan. 2013. Comparative evaluation of growth, yield and quality characteristics of various Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii L.) cultivars under protected condition. Journal of ornamental plants. Pp: 235-241. Das P, Singh PKS (1989). Gerbera. In : Commercial Flowers. (Eds. T.K. Bose and L.P. Yadav). Naya Prokash, Culcutta, pp. 601-622. FAN Study Team. 2013. Short study on packaging and Handling methods of cut flowers using different techniques. Final report. Floriculture Association Nepal(FAN)/ Project for Agriculture Commercialization and Trade (PACT), Kathmandu, Nepal. Karki, A. 2004. Micro propagation of Gerbera. floriculture trade fair Souvenir. Floriculture association Nepal, Battsputali, Kathmandu, Nepal.pp 5-6. Kesser, J.R. 1999. Greenhouse production of Gerbera Daisies. The Alabama Cooperative Extension System (Aabama A & M University and Auburn University), United States. Kumar Florist. 2007. Gerbera cultivation guide. KumarFlorist Gerbera’s Pvt. Ltd., Pune. Ladaniya, M.S. and M. Thangam. 2008. Gerbera cut flower. Extension folder no. 33. ICAR research complex for Goa.-403 Mohammadiju, S., M. Jafarapoor and A. Mohammadkhanl. 2014. Betterment vase life and keeping quality of cut Gerbera flowers by post harvest nano silver treatments. International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences. 3(1): 55-59. Nair, S.A., V. Singh, T.V.R.S. Sharma. 2003. Effect of chemical preservatives on enhancing vase-life of gerbera flowers. Journal of Tropical Agriculture 41:56-58.
  16. 16. NCPAH. 2011. Greenhouse- A Reference manual.National Committee on Pastcculture Aplication in Horticulture (NCPAH), Department Of Agrculture And Cooperation, Ministry Of Agriculture, Government Of India, New Dehli, India Sudhagar, S. 2013. Production and marketing of cut flower (Rose and Gerbera) in Hosur Taluk. International Journal of Business and Management Invention. 2(5): 15-25. Tija, B., R.J. black and S.P. Brown. 2008. Gerberas for Florida. University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.

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