Creating customer value, satisfaction and loyalty


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Creating customer value, satisfaction and loyalty

  1. 2. <ul><li>Made By: </li></ul><ul><li>Mohammad Zeeshan Baloch </li></ul>
  2. 3. Ch # 5
  3. 4. Building Customer value, Satisfaction and loyalty <ul><li>Customer Value: </li></ul><ul><li>The level of priority the customer gives to a product. </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Satisfaction: </li></ul><ul><li> When the customer perceive expected value from the product is called customer satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Loyalty: </li></ul><ul><li> The totality of feelings or attitudes that would incline a customer to consider the re-purchase of a particular product, service or brand or re-visit a particular company, shop or website. </li></ul>
  4. 6. Determinants of Customer Perceived Value Image benefit Psychological cost Personal benefit Energy cost Services benefit Time cost Product benefit Monetary cost Total customer benefit Total customer cost
  5. 7. Customer Value Analysis Steps <ul><li>Identify the major attributes and benefits that customers value </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the quantitative importance of the different attributes and benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the company’s and competitor’s performances on the different customer values against their rated importance </li></ul><ul><li>Examine how customers in a specific segment rate the company’s performance against a specific major competitor on an individual attribute or benefit basis </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor customer values over time </li></ul>
  6. 8. Delivering High Customer Value <ul><li>1.Value proposition </li></ul><ul><li>2. Value delivery system </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Total Customer Satisfaction: </li></ul><ul><li> Customer satisfaction depends on the offer’s performance that meets customer expectation. </li></ul><ul><li>1.If the performance matches the expectations, the customer is satisfied. </li></ul><ul><li>2. If the performance exceeds the expectations , the customer is highly satisfied or delighted. </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction is a person’s feeling of pleasure or disappointment that result from comparing a product’s perceived performance to their expectations. </li></ul>
  8. 10. How do Buyers form their Expectations <ul><li>Expectations result from past buying experience; friends’ and associates’ advice and marketers’ and competitors’ information and promises. </li></ul><ul><li>1.If marketers raise expectations too high, the buyer is likely to be disappointed. </li></ul><ul><li>2.If the company sets expectations too low, it won’t attract enough buyers. </li></ul>
  9. 11. Monitoring Satisfaction <ul><li>Companies should measure systematically that how well they treat with the customers, identifying the factors shaping satisfaction, and making changes in their operations and marketing as a result. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring satisfaction is very important because one key to Customer Retention is Customer Satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>A highly satisfied customer generally stays loyal longer, buys more as the company introduces new products and upgrades existing products, talks favorably to others about the company and its products, pay less attention to competing brands and is less sensitive to price, offers products or service ideas to the company, and costs less to serve than new customers. </li></ul><ul><li>High customer satisfaction has also been linked to higher returns and lower risk in the stock market. </li></ul>
  10. 12. Rated Customer Satisfaction on a Scale from One to Five <ul><li>At a level one, customers are likely to abandon the company and even bad-of-mouth. </li></ul><ul><li>At level two to four, customers are fairly satisfied but still find it easy to switch when a better offer comes along. </li></ul><ul><li>At level five, the customers is very likely to repurchase and even spread good word of mouth about the company </li></ul>
  11. 13. Measurement Techniques <ul><li>Periodic Surveys is way to measure the customer satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Customer loss rate also tells about the customer satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire from customers who have stopped buying or who have switched to another supplier to find out Why ? </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, companies can hire mystery shoppers to pose as potential buyers and report on strong and weak points experienced in buying the company’s and competitors’ products. </li></ul>
  12. 14. Companies that do achieve high customer satisfaction ratings make sure their target market knows it. Once they achieved number-one status on J.D Power’s customer satisfaction ratings, Maruti in India advertised that fact.
  13. 15. Quality: Quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs . Conformance Quality: If the product is giving its promise quality then it is called conformance quality. Performance Quality: Quality that is based on the product features is called performance quality.
  14. 16. Impact of Quality <ul><li>1. Quality is the key to value creation and customer satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>2. High level of quality means high satisfaction of customer which support high prices and (often) low cost. </li></ul><ul><li>3. There is a high correlation between relative product quality and company profitability. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Total Quality Management <ul><li>Total quality management is continual improvement and responding to customer needs and expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>Marketer’s role in delivering Quality </li></ul><ul><li> to target customers </li></ul><ul><li>Identify customer needs and requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate customer expectation </li></ul><ul><li>Fill customer order on time </li></ul><ul><li>Check that customer know the use of product </li></ul><ul><li>Stay with customer after selling </li></ul><ul><li>Gather information for further improvements </li></ul>
  16. 18. Maximizing Customer Life-Time Value <ul><li>  CLV  is the  net present value  of the cash flows attributed to the relationship with a customer. </li></ul><ul><li>The well known 20-80 rule says that the top 20 of customers often generates 80% or more of the company’s profit. </li></ul><ul><li>The least profitable 10% to 20% of customers , on the other hand, can actually reduce profits between 50% and 200% per account, with the middle 60% to 70% breaking even. </li></ul>
  17. 19. The 150-20 Rule
  18. 20. Maximizing Customer Life-Time Value <ul><li>Customer Profitability </li></ul><ul><li>A profitable customer is a person, household, or company that over time yields a revenue stream that exceeds by an acceptable amount the company’s cost stream of attracting, selling, and servicing that customer. </li></ul><ul><li>Customer profitability can be assessed individually, by market segment, or by channel. </li></ul><ul><li>Most companies fail to measure individual customer profitability. </li></ul>
  19. 21. MAXIMIZING CUSTOMER LIFETIME VALUE <ul><li>Customer Profitability Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Customer 1 is very profitable. </li></ul><ul><li>Customer 2 is mixed profitability. </li></ul><ul><li>Customer 3 is a losing customer. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What can the company do about customers 2 and 3? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It can raise the price of its less profitable products or eliminate them. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It can try to sell them its profit-making products. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It can encourage customer 3 to switch to competitors . </li></ul></ul></ul>Profitability Analysis
  20. 22. MAXIMIZING CUSTOMER LIFETIME VALUE <ul><li>Customer profitability analysis (CPA) is best conducted with the tools of an accounting technique called Activity-Based Costing (ABC). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Platinum customers (most profitable). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gold customers (profitable). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron customers (low profitability but desirable). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead customers (unprofitable and undesirable). </li></ul></ul>Profitability Analysis
  21. 23. MAXIMIZING CUSTOMER LIFETIME VALUE <ul><li>Competitive Advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive advantage is a company’s ability to perform in one or more ways that competitors cannot or will not match. </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Porter urged companies to build a sustainable competitive advantage. </li></ul><ul><li>Few competitive advantages are sustainable, at best they may be leverage able. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A leverage able advantage is one that a company can use as a spring-board to new advantages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any competitive advantage must be seen by customers as a customer advantage. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. MAXIMIZING CUSTOMER LIFETIME VALUE <ul><li>Simple Example </li></ul><ul><li>Customer acquisition cost: </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of average sales call (including salary, commission, benefits, and expenses) :$300/call </li></ul><ul><li>Average number of sales calls to convert an average prospect into a customer: 4 times </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of attracting a new customer: $1,200 </li></ul><ul><li>(perhaps other costs e.g., ads, promotion, probability of failure case that may probably end up become a cost of success case, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate Average Customer Lifetime Value </li></ul><ul><li>Annual customer revenue: $500 </li></ul><ul><li>Average number of loyal years: 20 years </li></ul><ul><li>Company profit margin: .10 </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Lifetime value = $1,000 </li></ul><ul><li>This mean co. is spending more to attract new customers than they are worth. </li></ul><ul><li>Unless the co. can sign up customers with fewer sales calls, spend less per sales call, stimulate higher new-customer annual spending, retain customers longer, or sell them higher-product products, it is headed for bankruptcy. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Cultivating Customer Relationships <ul><li>Maximizing customer value means cultivating long-term customer relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Relationship Marketing: </li></ul><ul><li> CRM is the process of carefully managing detailed information about individual customers and all customer “touch points” to maximize customer loyalty. </li></ul><ul><li>A customer “touch point” is any occasion on which a customer encounters the brand and product—from actual experience to personal or mass communications to casual observation. </li></ul><ul><li>Customer relationship management enables companies to provide excellent real-time customer service through the effective use of individual account information. </li></ul>
  24. 26. Cultivating Customer Relationship <ul><li> One To One Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>One-to-one marketing is a customer relationship management ( CRM ) strategy emphasizing personalized interaction with customers. </li></ul><ul><li>Four Step framework for one to one marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Identify your prospects and customers </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate customers in terms of their needs and their value to your company </li></ul><ul><li>Interact with individual customers to improve your knowledge about their individual needs and to build stronger relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Customize products, service and messages to each customers. </li></ul>
  25. 27. Cultivating Customer Relationship <ul><li>Reducing the rate of customer defection </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing the longevity of the customer relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing the growth potential of each customer through “share-of- wallet”, cross-selling and up-selling </li></ul><ul><li>Making low profit customers more profitable or terminating them </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing disproportionate effort on high-value customers </li></ul>
  26. 28. Attracting and Retaining Customers <ul><li>Five levels of investment in customer relationship building. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Accountable Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership Marketing </li></ul>
  27. 29. <ul><li>Forming Strong Customer Bonds: </li></ul><ul><li>The basics </li></ul><ul><li>Cross departmental participation </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate the voice of the customer into all business decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Create superior offering for the target market </li></ul><ul><li>Organize and make a accessible a data base of customer information </li></ul><ul><li>Adding Financial Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency Programs(FPs) </li></ul><ul><li>Adding Structural Ties: </li></ul><ul><li>Create long term contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Charge lower price to high volume customer </li></ul><ul><li>Turn product into long term service </li></ul>
  28. 30. <ul><li>Reduce Customer Defection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define and measure retention rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinguish causes of customer attrition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate profit loss associated with loss of customer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess cost to reduce customer defection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gather customer feedback </li></ul></ul>Cultivating Customer Relationship
  29. 31. Customer Development Process Members Partners
  30. 32. Building Loyalty <ul><li>Create superior products, services and experiences for the target market. </li></ul><ul><li>Get cross departmental participation in planning and managing the customer satisfaction and retention process. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate the “Voice of the Customer” to capture their stated and unstated needs or requirements in all business decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Organize and make accessible a database of information on individual customer needs, preferences, contacts, purchase frequency and satisfaction. </li></ul>
  31. 33. <ul><li>Make it easy for customers to reach appropriate company personnel and express their needs, perceptions, and complaints. </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the potential of frequency programs and club marketing programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Run award programs recognize outstanding employees </li></ul> Building Loyalty
  32. 34. <ul><li>Customer Database: </li></ul><ul><li>A customer database is an organized collection of comprehensive information about individual customers or prospects that is current, accessible, and actionable for such marketing purposes as lead generation, lead qualification, sale of a product or service, or maintenance of customer relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Database Marketing: </li></ul><ul><li>Data base marketing is the process of building, maintaining and using customer databases and other data bases to contact, transact, and build customer relationship. </li></ul>
  33. 35. <ul><li>Data Warehouse: </li></ul><ul><li>Where marketers can capture, query, and analyze it to draw inferences about an individual customer’s needs and responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Data Mining: </li></ul><ul><li>Through data mining marketing statisticians can extract useful information about individual trends, and segments from the mass of data. </li></ul>
  34. 36. Use of Database <ul><li>To identify prospects </li></ul><ul><li>To decide which customer should receive a particular offer </li></ul><ul><li>To deepen customer loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>To reactive customer purchase </li></ul><ul><li>To avoid serious customer mistakes </li></ul>
  35. 37. Cases in which Customer Database would not be Worthwhile <ul><li>When the product is a once-in-a-lifetime purchase. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: A Grand Piano. </li></ul><ul><li>When customer show little loyalty to a brand. </li></ul><ul><li>When the units sale is very small. </li></ul><ul><li>For Example: A Candy Bar. </li></ul><ul><li>4. When the cost of gathering information is too high. </li></ul>
  36. 38. Four problem that prevent a firm effectively using CRM <ul><li>Large Investment </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in getting every one customer oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Not all customers want an ongoing relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Assumption behind CRM may not always hold true </li></ul>
  37. 39. Breaking Down CRM: What CRM Really Comprises Acquiring the right customer Crafting the right value proposition Instituting the best processes Motivating employees Learning to retain customer CRM Imperative You Get It When… <ul><li>Have identified most valuable customers </li></ul><ul><li>Have calculated share of their wallet for goods/services </li></ul><ul><li>Have studied what products/services customers need today, tomorrow </li></ul><ul><li>Have surveyed what competitors offer today, tomorrow </li></ul><ul><li>Have spotted what products/services we should offer </li></ul><ul><li>Have researched the best way to deliver products/services to customers </li></ul><ul><li>Including alliance need to strike, tech need to invest, and services capabilities that need to be developed or acquired </li></ul><ul><li>Know what tools our employees need to use to foster customer relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Have identified HR systems needed to boost employee loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Have learned why customers defect and how to win them back </li></ul><ul><li>Have analyzed what competitors do to win your high value customers </li></ul><ul><li>Senior management monitors customer defection metrics </li></ul>CRM Technology Can Help… <ul><li>Analyze customer revenue & cost data to identify current and future high value customers </li></ul><ul><li>Target direct-marketing efforts better </li></ul><ul><li>Capture relevant product/service behavior data </li></ul><ul><li>Create new distribution channels </li></ul><ul><li>Develop new pricing models </li></ul><ul><li>Build communities </li></ul><ul><li>Process transaction faster </li></ul><ul><li>Provide better info to the front line </li></ul><ul><li>Manage logistic and supply chain more efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>Catalyze collaborative commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Align incentives and metrics </li></ul><ul><li>Deploy knowledge management systems </li></ul><ul><li>Track customer defection and retention levels </li></ul><ul><li>Track customer service satisfaction levels </li></ul>Source: Darrel K., Reichheld F., and Schefter P., “Avoid the Four Perils of CRM” Harvard Business Review (Feb, 2002) pg. 106