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REFLECTIVE
JUDGMENT MODEL
Shane Young
Patricia M. King
Recent Positions Held
• Assistant Vice President for Student
Services at The Ohio State
University (1979-...
Karen S. Kitchener
Recent Positions Held
• Assistant Professor in Counseling at
University of Minnesota
• Director of Coun...
Underlying Assumptions
• Well-structured vs. ill-structured problems
• 2+2
• World hunger
• Why a stage model?
• Able to s...
Overview
• Pre-reflective Reasoning
• Stages 1-3
• Quasi-Reflective Reasoning
• Stages 4-5
• Reflective Reasoning
• Stages...
Stage 1 (Pre-Reflective)
• “I believe only what I have seen and thus know to be true”
(Love and Guthrie, 1999, p. 44).
• K...
Stage 2 (Pre-Reflective)
• Knowledge is absolutely certain, but not readily available
to everyone (King and Kitchener, 200...
Stage 3 (Pre-Reflective)
• “Knowledge is assumed to be absolutely certain or
temporarily uncertain” (King and Kitchener, 1...
Stage 4 (Quasi-Reflective)
• Knowledge is no longer certain
• There is always a layer of ambiguity
• Incorrect reporting o...
Stage 5 (Quasi-Reflective)
• Knowledge is contextual and subjective
• Interpretations are different and so knowledge is di...
Stage 6 (Reflective)
• Knowledge is constructed through evaluation
• Solutions to ill-structured problems
• Based on “comp...
Stage 7 (Reflective
• Knowledge as an outcome
• Process of evaluation- similar to stage 6, but with one important
differen...
Criticisms
• Generalizability outside of higher education
• Reflective Judgment
• Does not say anything about gender, ethn...
References
• Arnold, K., & King, I. (Eds.). (1997). College student development and academic life:
Psychological, intellec...
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This is a presentation that I gave in my College Student Development Course in Fall 2014.

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King and Kitchener's Reflective Judgment Model

  1. 1. REFLECTIVE JUDGMENT MODEL Shane Young
  2. 2. Patricia M. King Recent Positions Held • Assistant Vice President for Student Services at The Ohio State University (1979-1980) • Professor at Bowling Green State University (1995-2000) • Director of School of Leadership and Policy Studies at BGSU (2000) • Director ( 2003-2006) and Professor (2000-Present) of Center for the Study of Higher and Postsecondary Education at University of Michigan Awards & Recognitions • Wise Woman Award • Scholar in Residence • Diamond Honoree • Contribution to Knowledge Award • Senior Scholar • Robert Shaffer Award for Contributions of a Graduate Faculty Member to Student Affairs • Faculty Scholarship Award • Research Award
  3. 3. Karen S. Kitchener Recent Positions Held • Assistant Professor in Counseling at University of Minnesota • Director of Counseling Psychology at University of Minnesota (25 years) Awards & Recognitions • Ralph Berdie Memorial Award • Colorado Psychological Association Lifetime Achievement Award • APA Ethics Committee’s Ethics Educator Award Publications • APA Handbook of Ethics in Psychology • Corsini’s Encyclopedia of Psychology • Ethics and HIV related psychotherapy • Foundations of ethical practice, research and teaching in psychology (2000, 2010).
  4. 4. Underlying Assumptions • Well-structured vs. ill-structured problems • 2+2 • World hunger • Why a stage model? • Able to see changes between assumptions • Showed the difference between the assumptions • Allowed there to be consistency between all stages • Reflective Judgment vs. critical thinking • Critical thinking is a process • Reflective judgment focused entirely on ill-structured problems
  5. 5. Overview • Pre-reflective Reasoning • Stages 1-3 • Quasi-Reflective Reasoning • Stages 4-5 • Reflective Reasoning • Stages 6-7
  6. 6. Stage 1 (Pre-Reflective) • “I believe only what I have seen and thus know to be true” (Love and Guthrie, 1999, p. 44). • Knowledge is absolute • No reason to ask why • Transition • Begins when the student is exposed to diversity and admits that there are alternatives
  7. 7. Stage 2 (Pre-Reflective) • Knowledge is absolutely certain, but not readily available to everyone (King and Kitchener, 2004). • Either observed or taught by an authority figure • Similar to Perry’s dualism (1970)
  8. 8. Stage 3 (Pre-Reflective) • “Knowledge is assumed to be absolutely certain or temporarily uncertain” (King and Kitchener, 1994, p. 14- 15) • Example: Love and Guthrie (1999) give us a good example: • “I was stopped between classes today by a reporter from the college newspaper and asked whether a proposed new college regulation would benefit students. How am I supposed to know that? No one will know the effect on students for years—long after I’ve graduated! So I don’t know. I think I’ll find out how my housemates feel about it before I sign the petition for or against. . . . or maybe I just won’t sign at all.”
  9. 9. Stage 4 (Quasi-Reflective) • Knowledge is no longer certain • There is always a layer of ambiguity • Incorrect reporting of data • Data lost over time • Disparities in access to information
  10. 10. Stage 5 (Quasi-Reflective) • Knowledge is contextual and subjective • Interpretations are different and so knowledge is different
  11. 11. Stage 6 (Reflective) • Knowledge is constructed through evaluation • Solutions to ill-structured problems • Based on “comparing evidence and opinion across contexts” (Arnold & King, 1997, p. 147). • Describes advanced graduate student
  12. 12. Stage 7 (Reflective • Knowledge as an outcome • Process of evaluation- similar to stage 6, but with one important difference • Reevaluation • New evidence, methods of inquiry, or perspectives become available over time
  13. 13. Criticisms • Generalizability outside of higher education • Reflective Judgment • Does not say anything about gender, ethnicity, race, or other demographic factors that likely affect development
  14. 14. References • Arnold, K., & King, I. (Eds.). (1997). College student development and academic life: Psychological, intellectual, social, and moral issues. New York: Garland Pub. • Dr Karen Strohn Kitchener. (2013, January 1). Retrieved September 30, 2014. • Godin, E. (Ed.). (2014, July 16). Patricia M. King. Retrieved September 30, 2014. • King, Patricia. Curriculum Vitae. Retrieved from http://www.soe.umich.edu/files/cv_king.pdf • King, P.M. & Kitchener, K.S. (1994). Developing reflective judgment: Understanding and promoting intellectual growth and critical thinking in adolescents and adults. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass • King, P.M., & Kitchener, K.S. (2004). Reflective judgment: Theory and research on the development of epistemic assumptions through adulthood. Educational Psychologist, 39(1). • Liddell, D. (1995). [Review of the book Developing reflecting judgment: Understanding and promoting intellectual growth and critical thinking in adolescents and adults]. Journal of College Student Development, 36, 94-96. • Love, P. G. and Guthrie, V. L. (1999), King and Kitchener's Reflective Judgment Model. New Directions for Student Services, 1999: 41–51. doi: 10.1002/ss.8804 • Merriam, S., Caffarella, R., & Baumgartner, L. (2007). Cognitive Development in Adulthood. In Learning in adulthood a comprehensive guide, 3rd ed. (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey- Bass. • Perry, William G., Jr. (1970). Forms of Intellectual and Ethical Development in the College Years: A Scheme. (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.)
  • AliceAlesi

    Aug. 19, 2020
  • MayraLopezPerez

    Oct. 5, 2017

This is a presentation that I gave in my College Student Development Course in Fall 2014.

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