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What are Internet Intermediaries
and their various types?
Shane Coughlan
Consultant, Opendawn
Asia Representative, OpenForum Europe
Contributor, FSFE Legal Department
An intermediary facilitates transactions
In traditional economics, an intermediary
was a conduit for services offered by
suppliers to consumers
There were rules for how these transactions
worked and where responsibility lay
Such regulation provides confidence by
creating certainty in transactions
If correctly applied
Internet intermediaries are a conduit
for data shared among parties
We are still working out how
they should be regulated
The question is who or what precisely
is an Internet intermediary?
In the early days of the Internet,
intermediaries were identified as ISPs
ISPs were gateways that could
regulate data flow in the network
It had to be decided how much responsibility
ISPs had for the data content
ISPs argued that phone companies are not
liable for the content of telephone calls, and
that they were in a similar position regarding
data content
In the US, lawmakers agreed with this
concept and granted near immunity to
Internet intermediaries
However, other types of Internet
intermediary like eBay were able to
seek protection under this law
That indicated that the real issue
is a broader question
The Internet has everything from
file-sharing to linking to (re)publication
We need to re-think what an Internet
intermediary is and our policies towards them
The Internet creates
intermediaries everywhere
An ISP can provide access to the Internet
A search engine can provide the results
displayed when seeking information
A financial institute can provide monetary
transactions between third-parties
A social network can provide access to
individuals
An individual can provide access to other
people's creative content
There are many ISPs, search engines,
financial institutions and social networks
There are hundreds of millions of individuals
“The question is no longer who is an
intermediary, but rather who isn't”
Michael Geist
In a centralized market there are
gateways to mediate transactions
In a decentralized market buyers
and sellers interact directly
The Internet has a vast number of gateways
across many legal jurisdictions
It has so many options for creating
transactions it is in effect decentralized
The intermediaries can take almost any form
Who is liable for the data transactions?
Who bears responsibility in a network where
everyone can have any role?
Allocating responsibility appears daunting
We can draw a line between passive
intermediaries and those with responsibility
for data in the network
This is the difference between providing
access to the Internet and directly providing a
link to illegal data
Remedies for actively (re)distributing
illegal data already exist
For material covered by copyright,
patents or trademarks international
treaties assist in regulation
It is more complex for jurisdictional
issues like the limits of free speech
Some intermediaries like search engines
attempt to implement jurisdictional specific
(self)regulation to address this
Jurisdictional (self)regulation can lead to
legitimate data being suppressed
We need to create more international treaties
regarding what should and should not be
regulated to address this
We are not living in a world of
producers and consumers anymore
On the Internet everyone can have any role
Our challenge is to address this strange and
wonderful new world where one person or
organization can be a producer, intermediary
and consumer at the same time
“We're at the dawn of a new technology
[…] we've built this space ship but we
really don't know where it will take us.”
Kent Walker, General Counsel, Google
References
http://www.wipo.int/meetings/en/2005/wipo_iis/index.html
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/30/magazine/30google-t.html?_r=1&pagewanted=1
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=696601
http://www.minterellison.com/public/connect/Internet/Home/Legal+Insights/Newsletters/Previous+Newsletters/A-A-
Liability+for+internet+intermediaries
http://www.citmedialaw.org/blog/2008/sam-bayard/role-internet-intermediaries-censoring-online-speech
http://www.michaelgeist.ca/content/view/213/159/
http://www.infolets.com/952892211/addPostingForm
http://www.internationaltaxreview.com/?Page=9&PUBID=210&ISS=25285&SID=717179
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.39.5779
http://www.webmasterworld.com/forum81/743.htm
http://www.grahamjones.co.uk/blog/web-business/internet-intermediaries-face-uncertain-future.html
http://econpapers.repec.org/paper/wpawuwpio/0409005.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supply_chain_management
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intermediary

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