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A History of Enterprises with OSS


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'A History of Enterprises with OSS' is a talk delivered by Masahiro Date at the Japan OSS promotion forum on April 17.

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A History of Enterprises with OSS

  1. 1. © 2019 Masahiro Date A History of Enterprises with OSS April, 2019 Masahiro Date The Linux Foundation Japan 1
  2. 2. © 2019 Masahiro Date disclaimer This is a work of fiction. The characters, incidents and locations portrayed and the names herein are fictitious and any similarity to or identification with the location, name, character or history of any person, product or entity is entirely coincidental and unintentional. This presentation will be delivered under the Chatham House Rule, participants are free to use the information received, but neither the identity nor the affiliation of the speaker(s), nor that of any other participant, may be revealed. 2
  3. 3. © 2019 Masahiro Date This disclaimer informs readers that the views, thoughts, and opinions expressed in this presentation belong solely to the author, and not necessarily to the author’s employer, organization, committee or other group or individual. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds. IBM is a trademark or registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States and other countries. Microsoft® is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and other countries. Intel® is a registered trademark of Intel Corporation in the United States and other countries. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. 3
  4. 4. © 2019 Masahiro Date My experience 1970 - Operating Systems for Mainframes “Structural Validation in Queuing Network Models of Computer System,” Performance Evaluation Review, Volume 10 Issue 4, ACM, 1981 1980 – Operating Systems for FTC (Fault Tolerant Computers) “Operating System SXO for Continuous Operation,” Information Processing 92, volume I, IFIP 1992 “Development of an OS that can be maintained and operated without stopping the system,” NIKKEI ELECTRONICS, no.520, 2/18/1991 “Operating System SXO for Continuously Operable SURE SYSTEM 2000: An Overview,” Information Processing Society of Japan No. 42 National Convention, 1991 1990 – Operating Systems and DBMS for UNIX servers 2000 – Open Source Software “RepOSS: A Flexible OSS Assessment Repository,” LinuxCon Europe, 2012 4
  5. 5. © 2019 Masahiro Date Wave of Open Source Software Open Innovation, Henry Chesbrough, 2003 - Open innovation is a paradigm that assumes that firms can and should use external ideas as well as internal ideas, and internal and external paths to market, as the firms look to advance their technology - The goal is to attract outside users and contributors who bring in new ideas and help advance the technology at a faster pace Wikinomics, Don Tapscott & Anthony D. Williams, 2006 - The mass use of collaboration in a business environment - “According to Tapscott, Wikinomics is based on four ideas: Openness, Peering, Sharing, and Acting Globally”. By Wikipedia 5
  6. 6. © 2019 Masahiro Date The Beginning Hello everybody out there using minix - I'm doing a (free) operating system (just a hobby, won't be big and professional like gnu) for 386(486) AT clones. This has been brewing since april, and is starting to get ready. I'd like any feedback on things people like/dislike in minix, as my OS resembles it somewhat (same physical layout of the file-system (due to practical reasons) among other things). I've currently ported bash(1.08) and gcc(1.40), and things seem to work. This implies that I'll get something practical within a few months, and I'd like to know what features most people would want. Any suggestions are welcome, but I won't promise I'll implement them :-) Linus ( PS. Yes - it's free of any minix code, and it has a multi-threaded fs. It is NOT portable (uses 386 task switching etc), and it probably never will support anything other than AT-harddisks, as that's all I have :-(. — Linus Torvalds[15]  Linus Benedict Torvalds • The email from Linus Torvalds on 25 August, 1991 • Linux started as a hobby  Lou Gerstner, Chairman and CEO of IBM (1993 – 2002) • From “Proprietary Locked-in” to “Open Standard” ”Who Says Elephants Can't Dance?,” 11/12/2002 • “IBM company will spend $1 billion on Linux next year” @eBusiness Conference Expo, NY, 12/12/2000 6“Rebel Code: Linux and the Open Source Revolution,” Glyn Moody , 7/10/2002
  7. 7. © 2019 Masahiro Date Linux Influences Enterprises IBM • Promote its middleware business • Linux on all servers: Chiphopper, FSG (Free Standard Group, LSB, 2000) • OSDL (Open Source Development Lab., 2000), DCL (Date Center Linux) • Telecommunication market • High-end servers like Mainframes and Unix servers • OSDL (Open Source Development Lab., 2000), CGL (Carrier Grade Linux) Intel “A history of IBM’s open-source involvement and strategy,” IBM systems Journal, vol44, no2, 2005 7
  8. 8. © 2019 Masahiro Date Linux Influences Enterprises Oracle • Supports only top 5 operation systems (1996) • OEL from RHEL (announced at Oracle OpenWorld San Francisco, 2006) “The Open Organization: Igniting Passion and Performance,” Harvard Business Review Press, Jim Whitehurst, 2012 Sun • IA Solaris, Open Solaris, Linux API (around 2000) Microsoft • Halloween documents (1998) published by Eric S. Raymond • Negative campaign (i.e. TCO: Total Cost of Ownership) “An open operating system does not only have benefits,” Microsoft’s advertisement In Germany, - 10/2000 8
  9. 9. © 2019 Masahiro Date Failure Teaches Success • CGL (Carrier Grade Linux) - Collaboration and co-working - The importance of “Upstream” • DCL (Data Center Linux) - Thread, LVM and so on - Collaboration with the community • OSDL (Open Source Development Lab.) - Relationship with the community - Linux center of gravity? 9
  10. 10. © 2019 Masahiro Date Reaching out to Linux Community Not to manage it, but to create “win/win relationship” How to collaborate with the Linux Kernel Community “10+ Years of Linux at IBM,” the keynote of Collaboration Summit, Dan Frye, 2010 • Dos and Don’ts lists to contribute source code - Communicate with the community in a relationship building manner rather than as a corporate transaction - Start to contribute with small patches rather than a big chunk of source code - Don’t demand patch adoption by saying “it is already in Solaris and other major venders’ UNIX OSes” • Upstream first 10
  11. 11. © 2019 Masahiro Date Finally The Linux Foundation  To address the challenges of Japanese venders • Meetings were arranged with maintainers in 2005 - DDI/DKI, RAS functions and so on • Engineers engaged with the community from 2006 - Japan Linux Symposium Japan in English from 2006 • The Linux Foundation was established in 2007 - Communication: “Events (C.S., E.M. with panels)” 11
  12. 12. © 2019 Masahiro Date Success story with community Version Release Source code 2.2.0 1/25/1999 1,800,847 2.4.0 1/4/2001 3,377,902 • LVM 2.6.0 12/7/2003 5,929,913 • Native POSIX Thread Library • AIO • 64bit Addressing • O(1) Scheduler • Memory management “Since the beginning of the git era (the 2.6.11 release in 2005), a total of 15,637 developers have contributed to the Linux kernel; those developers worked for a minimum of 1,513 companies.” “It is worth noting that, even if one assumes that all of the “unknown” contributors are working on their own time, well over 85 percent of all kernel development is demonstrably done by developers who are being paid for their work.” “2017 Linux kernel Development Report,” The Linux Foundation, 2017 12 Crossing the chasm Source: wp-content/uploads/2017/04/chasm-adoption- lifecycle.jpeg
  13. 13. © 2019 Masahiro Date Linux Foundation Recognizes Fujitsu and Mr. Masahiro Date By The Linux Foundation, November 29, 2012 Mission critical systems (i.e. TSE) with Linux - Upstream first: cfs (Complete Fair Scheduler), cgroups (Resource manager) - Distribution: Joint Development, Emergency patches, long term support “Fujitsu Gets, Gives Value to Linux,” January 7, 2010, LiNUX.COM 13 © 2019 Masahiro Date
  14. 14. © 2019 Masahiro Date Facing legal issues – Licenses - • GNU General Public License (1989) - challenging terminology and normative discussions from FSF i.e. “link” related issues: MySQL lawsuit (2002), and so on - (Sometimes raised challenges in supply chains) - GPL copyright troll: i.e. Patrick McHardy case • Open Source License Compliance - Standards and Tools (OpenChain, SPDX: Software Package Data Exchange, and so on) - Books (“Open Source Compliance in the Enterprise”: a free guide from The Linux Foundation) 14
  15. 15. © 2019 Masahiro Date Facing legal issues – Patents - • Patent cross-license agreements with Microsoft • Microsoft and Patent trolls - Lawsuit against TomTom with the FAT (File Allocation Table) patent (2009) • Oracle vs Google (JAVA API) • Preventive Measures - OIN (Open Invention Network) (2005) - Law interpretation sometimes changes On June 19, 2014 the United States Supreme Court ruled in Alice Corp. v. CLS Bank International that "merely requiring generic computer implementation fails to transform [an] abstract idea into a patent-eligible invention." 15 “Microsoft's General Counsel claims that free and open-source software (FOSS) violates exactly 235 Microsoft patents: Linux kernel (42), Linux GUI (65), Open Office suite (45), email (15), and then another 68 patents violated across a variety of FOSS wares,”, 05/14/2007 “Burning the Ships: Transforming Your Company's Culture Through Intellectual Property Strategy,” Marshall Phelps, 12/21/2010
  16. 16. © 2019 Masahiro Date Other (SCO – Linux disputes) • SCO v. IBM • SCO v. Novell • SCO v. AutoZone, DaimlerChrysler • Microsoft funding of SCO controversy SCO claimed that Linux was infringing the UNIX license by copying source code from SVRX. The case is now concluded with the SCO claims rejected 16
  17. 17. © 2019 Masahiro Date The End of Fictions and Chatham House Rule “Knowledge and knowhow to forge a win/win relationship between enterprises and communities” 17
  18. 18. © 2019 Masahiro Date “Cambrian explosion” for Manufacturing industry “Why Software Is Eating the World,” Marc Andreessen , The Wall Street Journal on August 20, 2011 “It’s actually open source software that’s eating the world,” John Vrionis, Lightspeed Venture Partners, December 6, 2015 Wave of “Internet of Things: IOT” 18
  19. 19. © 2019 Masahiro Date Microsoft is now an enthusiastic evangelist of open source Rank Company Employees Contributing 1Microsoft 4,550 2Google 2,267 3Red Hat 2,027 4IBM 1,813 5Intel 1,314 881 7SAP 747 8ThoughtWorks 739 9Alibaba 694 10GitHub 676 11Facebook 619 12Tencent 605 13Pivotal 591 14EPAM Systems 585 15Baidu 584 16Mozilla 469 17Oracle 455 18Unity Technologies 414 19Uber 388 20Yandex 351 21Shopify 345 22LinkedIn 343 23Suse 325 24ESRI 324 25Apple 292 291 27VMware 271 28Adobe Systems 270 29Andela 259 30Cisco Systems 233 “Which leaves us with Microsoft having twice the number of contributors of its next nearest competitor, Google. For those of us that were around when Microsoft castigated open source as a “cancer” and “anti-American,” this is a remarkable change of heart.” “Who really contributes to open source,” by Matt Asay InfoWorld, FEB 7, 2018 The number of employees actively contributing to open source projects on GitHub  Join OIN in Oct., 2018  Join OpenChain in Feb., 2019
  20. 20. © 2019 Masahiro Date How to get involved in OSS • Industry 4.0 requires that enterprises live with the OSS ecosystem • Enterprises have to learn as to how to create a win/win relationship with the community: - No time and resource to learn from many failures - Establish governance to handle OSS - Get involved in communities 20
  21. 21. © 2019 Masahiro Date Open source guides for The Enterprise 21
  22. 22. © 2019 Masahiro Date Establish governance for OSS in “Supply chains” ( 22 Copyright © 2019 The Linux Foundation®. All rights reserved
  23. 23. © 2019 Masahiro Date Q/A 23
  24. 24. © 2019 Masahiro Date Other references • “IBM exec says Linux is ready,”, February 01, 2001 After returning from the trip, Palmisano said he consulted with his management staff, most of whom were already in the process of investigating the Linux phenomenon. He quickly asked some of his advisers, including current vice president of technology and strategy, Irving Wladawsky-Berger, to do a feasibility study on Linux. "Sure enough, they came back very, very quickly," Palmisano said. "In fact, they says, 'We could have all our products Linux compatible within six months.' That, to me, seemed amazing, especially when you consider how many products we have." • “Wikinomics,” Anthony D. Williams, Don Tapscott, 2011 Its director, Dan Frye, says the toughest job in the early days was figuring out the right way to join the community. Linux ... By comparison, internal company communications, attentive to internal sensitivities, are frequently slow and measured. Frye ... Frye told his team: “I'm unplugging you from the network. ... And from then on the team used the same bulletin boards and chat rooms as Linux developers. 24
  25. 25. © 2019 Masahiro Date “Conference Reports, Linux 2.5 Kernel Developers Summit,” SANJOSE, CALIFORNIA, MARCH30-31, 2001, Summarized by Rik Farrow Ted Ts’o took the helm for this final official session. The focus was on bugtracking, which appears (to me) to be very lame at this point. The current mechanism is that someone posts a bug to the kernel developers mailing list, and then someone (usually Alan Cox) notices the bug, saves it, and perhaps dispatches it to the person who manages that portion of code. Ts’o said he tried this for a while and found it very difficult to do. Ts’o also made “a modest proposal. ”Rather than have long periods between releases, which leads to a last-minute rush of code submissions, he proposed that a date be announced for a feature freeze. While there was serious discussion of this, no date for 2.5 was announced 25
  26. 26. © 2019 Masahiro Date The first Japanese from Japan at Kernel Summit 26 “2006 Kernel Summit group photo” from, July 19, 2006, J. Corbet