Universal grammar

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There are rules of
language that all humans are bornwith, they are internal, not imitated.

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Universal grammar

  1. 1. Compiled &Organized by<br /> Dr ShamimAli<br /> National University of Modern Languages Islamabad<br />1<br />UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR<br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  2. 2. Foreign/Second Language Acquisition Theories<br />2<br />Theory:Universal Grammar Theory <br />Theorist: Noam Chomsky<br />Created for: MPhil Class 2011 Course Code: 602<br />Semester: First<br />Department of Advanced Integrated Studies<br />National University of Modern Languages<br /> Islamabad<br /> Source :www.wisegeek.com/what-is-universal-grammar.html<br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  3. 3. Universal Grammar Theory<br />3<br />Is the theory introduced by Noam Chomsky <br /> There are rules of<br /> language that all humans are born<br /> with, they are internal, not imitated.<br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  4. 4. Universal Grammar Theory<br />4<br />Nowadays UG means the initial state of a language learner.<br /> It is the “innate” (genetically transmitted) aspect of grammatical rules; the language instinct<br /> It is that aspect of the human mind that causes one to learn the language. <br /> UG qua initial state is biologically determined.<br /> As such, it does not belong to a specific language.<br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  5. 5. Language Acquisition<br />5<br />Universal Conditions<br /> They are not learned and must exist for language knowledge to be explained. <br /> They are the pre-requisite leading to knowledge:<br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  6. 6. Universal Grammar Theory<br />6<br />This contrasts with the empiricist view that<br />Our mind is a clean sheet, as though we obtained our capacity for dealing with objects from objects themselves<br />The mind is not a tabularasa.<br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  7. 7. LAD- Language AcquisitionDevice<br />7<br />According to Chomsky<br />LAD is the<br /> neurological system in the brain that<br /> facilitates language development.<br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  8. 8. General language-acquisition schema<br />8<br /> InputLADOutput<br /> (primary (Grammar consisting of<br /> linguistic data) principles, parameters and lexicon)<br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  9. 9. 9<br />Language acquisition is a matter of growth and maturation of relatively fixed principles under appropriate external conditions and training.<br /> Growth and maturation of bones: the structure of the bones is genetically programmed, yet it needs exercise to develop. <br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  10. 10. Universal Grammar<br />10<br /> When learning a new language we can rely on some structures common to our native<br /> language or even common to all language.<br /> According to the theories of Noam Chomsky there is an universal grammar which claims that all languages have a similar underlying abstract structure<br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  11. 11. Universal Grammar Theory<br />11<br />Two layers must be distinguished, the deep grammatical structure which is common to all language and the surface grammar applicable only to a specific language<br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  12. 12. 12<br />Deep structure is the abstract underlying form, which determines the meaning of a sentence. Surface structure is what we write or speak. The two are connected by transformations like combination, addition and deletion. There were two structures or trees: one for deep and one for surface sentences. Transformation rules linked the two.<br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  13. 13. Universal Grammar Theory<br />13<br />Ambiguous sentences had two deep structures. Now the sequence was: The base tree was constructed with building rules and a lexicon. The transformation component mapped deep structures onto surface structures. A phonological component intervened to convert surface structures to surface sentences. <br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  14. 14. Universal Grammar Theory<br />14<br />Chomsky's initial assumptions were fourfold. Firstly that transformations preserved meaning, i.e. that surface structure was linked to meaning only by deep structures. Secondly, that transformational rules were simple and did only one thing at a time. Thirdly that the deep structures were similar to surface structures. And fourthly that transformational rules were the only rules needed to link surface and deep structures. Now it appears that all four cannot be held jointly<br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  15. 15. Universal Grammar Theory<br />15<br />Generative Semantics holds to the first but not the third or fourth. Extended Standard Theory holds to the second, third and fourth. Trace Theory holds to the second, third and fourth again, but claims that all information on the deep structure is to be found in the surface structure. It envisages this generation sequence: deep structure to transformational component to surface structure to semantic component to semantic representation. Trace theory seems to be better supported by phonetic evidence, though complications arise with ambiguous sentences, which require two surface and two deep sentences<br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  16. 16. Universal Grammar Theory<br />16<br />Generative Semantics holds to the first that transformations preserved meaning, i.e. that surface structure was linked to meaning only by deep structures. <br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  17. 17. Generative Semantic Theory<br />17<br />Based on the doctrine that syntactic and semantic structure are of the same formal nature and that there is a single system of rules that relates surface structure to meaningGenerative semanticists took Chomsky's concept of Deep Structure and ran with it<br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  18. 18. Generative semanticists<br />18<br /> Argued that interpretations were generated directly by the grammar as deep structures, and were subsequently transformed into recognizable sentences by transformations<br /> Offered a powerful mechanism for explaining synonymity. In his initial work in generative syntax, Chomsky motivated transformations using active/passive pairs such as “I hit John” and “John was hit by me”, which despite their identical meanings have quite different surface forms<br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  19. 19. Universal Grammar Theory<br />19<br />Extended Standard Theory holds to the second, third and fourth. <br />Second, Transformational rules were simple and did only one thing at a time.<br />Third, That the deep structures were similar to surface structures. And <br />Fourth that transformational rules were the only rules needed to link surface and deep structures. <br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  20. 20. Universal Grammar Theory<br />20<br />Standard Theory is a distinction between two different representations of a sentence, called Deep Structure and Surface StructureThe two representations are linked to each other by Transformational Grammar<br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  21. 21. Deep Structure<br />21<br />The deep structure of a sentence is its underlying semantic content, an abstraction decoded from the actual syntactic sequence of its surface structure .<br />eg: She wrote an article<br /> or<br /> An article was written by her .<br /> Shares the same deep structure.<br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  22. 22. Surface Structure<br />22<br /> The structure that corresponds with the actual form of a sentence Is the final stage in the syntactic representation of a sentence It provides the input to the phonological component of the grammar<br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  23. 23. Transformational Grammar<br />23<br />A theory of grammar that accounts for the constructions of a language by linguistic transformations and phrase structures.<br />transformationalists wanted to unlock the secrets of language: to build a model of our internal rules, a model that would produce all of the grammatical--and no ungrammatical--sentences."<br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  24. 24. Universal Grammar Theory<br />24<br />The deep structure is converted by transformational rules into a Surface Structure that corresponds more closely to what is pronounced and heard.<br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  25. 25. Transformational Rules<br />25<br />Transformation Rules<br /> There are transformation rules operating from deep to surface structure. It is the linguist’s job to figure out these rules.<br /> 1. A base system generating deep structure.<br /> 2. A transformational system mapping these deep structures into surface structure.<br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  26. 26. Extended Standard Theory<br />26<br />Extended Standard Theory was formulated in the late 1960s to early 1970s.<br /> Features are:<br /> a)Syntactic Constraints<br /> b)Generalized phrase structures (X-bar Theory)<br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  27. 27. Universal Grammar Theory<br />27<br />Trace Theory holds to the second, third and fourth again, but claims that all information on the deep structure is to be found in the surface structure. It envisages this generation sequence: deep structure to transformational component to surface structure to semantic component to semantic representation<br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  28. 28. Trace Theory<br />28<br />Theory about traces left by movement. This theory assumes that if an element X has been moved in the course of a derivation, it has left a trace in its original position.<br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  29. 29. X-Bar Theory<br />29<br /> Theory which attempts to identify syntactic features presumably common to all those human languages that fit in a presupposed framework. It claims that among their phrasal categories, all those languages share certain structural similarities<br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  30. 30. I -Language &E-Language<br />30<br />I-language vs. E-language<br /> I(Internal) language knowledge of a particular speaker embodied in the mind/brain (relatively) systematic<br />E(External) language <br /> abstract notion set of grammatical sentences<br /> individual speakers have imperfect knowledge of it<br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  31. 31. Universal Grammar Theory<br />31<br />Competence vs. Performance<br />Competence knowledge of a particular speaker embodied in the mind/brain (relatively) systematic<br />Performance utterance in a particular situation<br />Acoustically ,perceptible, subject to accidental<br />and non-linguistic,constraints<br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />
  32. 32. Evidence32<br />32<br /> People can “lose their intelligence” and yet they do not loose their language: substantial retarded children (e.g. Williams syndrome) manifest a good grammatical and linguistic competence. <br /> On the other hand, highly intelligent people may lack linguistic capacity (e.g. aphasia).<br />5/17/2011<br />Subject: Foreign Language Acquisition Theories<br />

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