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Presentation joaquim nunes (en)


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Presentation joaquim nunes (en)

  1. 1. Joaquim Pintado Nunes Labour Inspection Senior Specialist ILO/ Budapest
  2. 2. Elimination of discrimination at work as a core principle for ILO <ul><li>Declaration of Philadelphia (1944) </li></ul><ul><li>Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work (1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Declaration on Social Justice for a Fair Globalization (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Global Jobs Pact (2009) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Main International Labour Standards on Equality and Discrimination Other relevant ILS: C1981 (No.156) on Workers with Family Responsibilities C 2000 (No.183) on Maternity Protection C 1999 (No. 175) on Part-Time Work C 1996 (No. 177) on Home Work Convention 1951 (No. 100) Equal remuneration 168 countries Convention 1958 (No. 111) Discrimination 169 countries
  4. 4. Labour Inspection and gender equality Enforcement through control Information and counseling Keeping the mission in mind: Promotiing the improvement of working conditions Cooperation Enrichment of the legal framework <ul><li>Social partners </li></ul><ul><li>NGO’s </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized bodies </li></ul>A FUNDAMENTAL APPROACH: Joint action
  5. 5. Why is Labour Inspection in a better position to tacke gender equality than other actors? <ul><li>The mandate allows to act proactively (vs. judiciary system) </li></ul><ul><li>Labour inspectors have free access to all workplaces </li></ul><ul><li>Labour inspectors keep secrecy of all origins of complaint </li></ul><ul><li>the risk of enforcement is an incentive for less willing employers to comply with the law </li></ul><ul><li>LI can inform and advise on legal rights and obligations </li></ul><ul><li>LI can “educate” as mentioned in Article 7, a of Recommendation 100 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Where can Labour Inspectors find problems regarding gender?
  7. 7. Forms of discrimination <ul><li>Direct discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Where in a comparable situation a person is treated less favourably on grounds of sex than another is. </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Where an apparently neutral provision, criterion or practice would put persons of one sex at a particular disadvantage compared with persons of the other sex, unless the provision, criterion or practice is objectively justified by a legitimate aim and the means of achievement of that aim are appropriate and necessary (art. 2.1 b Directiva 2006/54/CE). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Discrimination on access to employment An enterprise (iron and steel industry sector) searches for a male forklift truck driver. A hotel searches for cleaning ladies, bellboys, storage boys... <ul><li>Security enterprise offers 10 vacancies as security guards: </li></ul><ul><li>- Both gender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between 25-40 aged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum height: 1,70 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good physical shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal defence knowledge </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Sexual harassment Harassment: where an unwanted conduct related to the sex of a person occurs with the purpose or effect of violating the dignity of a person, and of creating an intimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensive environment. Sexual Harassment: any form of unwanted verbal, non-verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature, with the purpose or effect of violating the dignity of a person, in particular when creating an intimidating, degrading or offensive environment. What is punished by LI is not the harassment situation in the workplace but the company tolerance with these behaviours.
  10. 10. Sexual harassment <ul><li>Commission Recommendation 92/131: Code of Practice on Measures to Combat Sexual Harassment </li></ul><ul><li>Company policy statement which states expressly that sexual harassment will not be permitted or condoned. What is considered inappropriate behaviour at work. </li></ul><ul><li>Training to managers and supervisors on how to detect and deal with such situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Clear and precise procedures to deal with sexual harassment if occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Informal resolution methods </li></ul><ul><li>Advice and assistance to victims </li></ul><ul><li>Complaints procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Investigations </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Integrated visits on both OSH and labour relations </li></ul><ul><li>Inexistence of horizontal or vertical segregation on the Labour Inspectorate </li></ul><ul><li>Reverseal of the burden of proof </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitating tools to tackle discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation with other organizations. For instance, addressing equal pay for </li></ul><ul><li>jobs of equal value with use of a job evaluation conducted by the Public </li></ul><ul><li>Employment Service </li></ul><ul><li>Precise methods to spot discrimination </li></ul>
  12. 13. Stereotypes and gender-based division of labour Sex discrimination originates from values, beliefs and stereotypes entrenched in people’s minds and behaviours as to what male and female roles are Sex discrimination occurs when these stereotypes prevail over the law The right not to be discriminated against consists on the right to be treated according to one’s own merits and capabilities and not to suffer prejudice on the grounds of characteristics that social stereotyping imposes on a giving sex
  13. 14. Enterprise analysis
  14. 15. Enterprise analysis
  15. 16. Enterprise analysis: step 1 <ul><li>Identification of issues to be analyzed </li></ul><ul><li>access to employment </li></ul><ul><li>job classification </li></ul><ul><li>promotion and training </li></ul><ul><li>wages </li></ul><ul><li>working times </li></ul><ul><li>personal and family life </li></ul><ul><li>sexual harassment </li></ul><ul><li>(…) </li></ul><ul><li>It will depend on the type of company, sector, depth of diagnosis </li></ul>
  16. 17. Enterprise analysis: step 2 <ul><li>Contextualization </li></ul><ul><li>characteristics of the company </li></ul><ul><li>sector to which belongs </li></ul><ul><li>activity in which is engaged </li></ul><ul><li>socio-economic situation of the surrounding area </li></ul>
  17. 18. Enterprise analysis: step 3 <ul><li>Quantitative data </li></ul><ul><li>may be regarded as circumstancial proof of discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>If statistics provide data that indicate equality, the diagnosis report </li></ul><ul><li>will be favourable </li></ul>
  18. 19. Enterprise analysis: step 4 <ul><li>Qualitative data </li></ul><ul><li>procedures, criteria, practices and actions of the company </li></ul><ul><li>QUESTION: WHAT TO ANALYZE, HOW TO DETECT, HOW </li></ul><ul><li>TO ASSESS </li></ul>
  19. 20. Enterprise analysis: step 4 Subject Procedures, criteria or practices Access to employment Recruitment, contracting, interviews Job categories Formal or informal systems for assessing jobs and determining the salary for each post Pay Wage, fringe benefits, subsidies, rewards, non statutory pay Career Promotion procedures, access to life-long training Incidence of temporary contracts Recruitment practices, incidence of part/time work, types of contracts
  20. 21. Enterprise analysis: step 4 <ul><li>How to detect discriminative procedures, criteria or practices </li></ul><ul><li>Information provided by the company can be complemented by </li></ul><ul><li>staff questionnaires on wether: </li></ul><ul><li>men and women have the same access opportunities in staff selection </li></ul><ul><li>processes </li></ul><ul><li>there is equal access to training </li></ul><ul><li>perception if one person earns less than their colleague </li></ul><ul><li>conciliation with family and personal life is considered </li></ul><ul><li>a procedure is in place if someone suffers sexual harassment </li></ul><ul><li>(…) </li></ul>
  21. 22. Enterprise analysis: step 4 <ul><li>How to assess the procedures, criteria or practices </li></ul><ul><li>have to be compared with legal requirements </li></ul><ul><li>consider direct and indirect discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>compare quantitative and qualitative results: identify quantitatively measured </li></ul><ul><li>negative effects and practices, criteria or procedures based on sex or </li></ul><ul><li>apparently neutral situations which cause negative effects </li></ul>
  22. 23. Enterprise analysis: step 5 Discrimination test The principle of equality does not forbid all inequality of treatment but only those that are injustified because not based on reasonable objective criteria. The inspector must assess if a given practice, criteria or action is justified or discriminatory, through the discrimination test , by judging on its suitability , necessity and proportionality .
  23. 24. Enterprise analysys <ul><li>Access to employment </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative data </li></ul><ul><li>Review with sex disaggregated data the number and percentage of workers hired and granted access to training </li></ul><ul><li>2. Qualitative data </li></ul><ul><li>Examination of previous selection processes: channels of recruitment, systems used to collect information from job seekers (job application forms, job offers on the internet or press), content of interviews or examinations, job profile </li></ul><ul><li>A possible tool: questionnaire </li></ul>
  24. 25. Enterprise analysys Professional categories Comparing the number of W and M in each job and professional category according to the job requisites demanded and considering if the requisites are masculinised or feminised according to stereotypes, values, etc. Requisites shouldn’ t be masculinised or feminised: example, strenght CONV. 100: equal remuneration for work of equal value Category Men Women Requisites Salary A % % B % %
  25. 26. Enterprise analysys Job promotion Are vacancies made known to all male and female workers? The assessment criteria are known by all employees? The results are published once the promotion process has ended? Transparency Vertical segregation? Category Men Women Total A % % % B % % %
  26. 27. Enterprise analysys Employment relationship (temporary contracts) According to category and job Breakdown by type of contracts Category Job Women % Men % Total A A1 A2 B B1 B2 Job Women % Men % Total Full-time temporary Part-time temporary Full-time permanent Full-time temporary
  27. 28. Enterprise analysys Conciliation of personal, familiy and professional life Situation Women % Men % Total Parental leave Adoption Flexible working times Leave for family reasons