This the project which I has prepared for the project which I think
covers most of the common basic thinks which are related to the French
cuisine. It has also covered the history of the French cuisine and it will be
providing a short brief on the Historical France chef’s who had given their
best to provide the world a best foods. This is the collection of mine from
internet, newspaper, magazines, and books. While reading this I think that
you will probably understand the basic platform of the French cuisine.
French cuisine is a word which has been used from centuries. It has given the
world different taste in the form of its different unique varieties of foods.
French cuisine is considered as the world best cuisine due its uniqueness.
From Veg to Non veg he has win the game due to its multi talented skill of
cooking foods. It has been undertaken because of the efforts given by the
skilled chef’s of the France. Banqueting system of eaten foods are came from
their pocket as the aristocracy families in France prefers to do so. French
cuisine is the longest cuisine in eating also as it contains so many dishes from
starters to main coarse to desserts. This project contains all the things which
I has described here in short. I want to thanks the Faculty who had given me
such an interesting and challenging task of preparing my works.
French has been developed from centuries. The national
cuisine started from the middle age due to the increase of skilled
chefs and various social and political movements. Over the years
the style of French Cuisine have been given different names and
have been developed by many Master Chef’s. The national cuisine
developed primarily in the city of Paris with the chef’s of French
royalty, but eventually it spread throughout the country and also
well known all around world. Because of increase in skilled chef’s
new invention and technique of preparing food has been
developed and the foods were also been made taking into
consideration the dilatory requirement of the people and hence
French Cuisine was considered as the best cuisine around the
In French Medieval Cuisine, banquets were common among the
Aristocracy. Multiple courses would be prepared, but served in style called
service en confusion or all at once.
Foods were eaten by Hands, meat being sliced into large pieces held
between thumb and fingers.
The sauces were highly seasoned and thick in which heavily flavored
mustard was used.
The ingredient of the times were according to the seasons and many
items were preserved with salt, spices, honey and other preservatives.
Visual display was prized. They use many ingredients to decor the
dishes and try to make it attractive for eating that dish.
For example: They use juices of SPINACH and GREEN part of LEEKS.
YELLOW came from saffron or egg yolk, RED color came from SUNFLOWER.
The most well known French Chef of middle age was “Taillevent”.
Taillevent worked in numerous royal kitchen during the 14th century. His first
position was as a kitchen boy in 1326. He was chef to Philip Vl, then Dauphin
who was the son of John ll. The Dauphin became king Charles V of France in
1364, with Taillevent as a chief cook. His career spends 66years, and upon his
death he was buried in grand style between his two wives. His Tombstone
represents him in armor, holding a shield with three cooking pots, marmites on
During ancient time Paris was the main central hub of
cultural and economic activity, and the most highly skilled culinary
craftsmen were to be found there. Market in Paris such as “LES
HALLES” was very important for the distribution of food. This
market gave French produce its characteristic identity which was
known as “GUILD SYSTEM” which developed in the middle age.
There were two basic groups of guilds:
1) First group were those who supplied Raw Materials, Butchers
(kasaai), Fishmongers (Fish seller), Grain Merchants, Gardeners.
2) Second group were those who supplied prepared foods,
Bakers, Pastry cooks, Sauce makers, Poulterers and Caterers.
There were also guilds that offered both Raw materials and
prepared foods such as “CHARCUTIERS” (for e.g. Pork Butchers,
Saw Bones) and “ROTTISSEURS” (for e.g. Roast meat). They used
to supply both cooked meat pies as well as Raw meat and Poultry.
17th Century – Early18th Century
Haute cuisine was established during 17th century with a
chef named “La Varenne”. He was the author of the book “Le
Cuisinier Francois” and thus he is credited with publishing the
first true French Cook Book.
His book include the preparation of “Roux” (a mixture of
wheat flour, fat and clarified butter ) using pork fat.
His recepies changed the style of cookery known in the
Middle Age. He introduced a new techniques aimed at creating
somewhat lighter dishes and more modest presentation of Pies
as individual Pastries.
La Varrene also published a book on pastry in 1667
entitled “Le Parfait Confitvrier”.
Some important refinement were introduce such as a glass
of wine added to Fish Stock during 17th century.
Late 18th Century– 19th Century
After the Revolution a new rule was introduced that any
chef can produce and sell any culinary items he wished.
The chef of this period was Marie-Antoine Crème was
born in 1784, five years before the French Revolution. He
was called “King of Chef’s.”
He spent his younger years in working at Patisserie
(Baked product such as cakes, tart, breads etc). Crème has
refined the French Cuisine.
He focused on basis of style of making Sauces and he
was the person who named the sauces as the “Mother
Sauces". Such as Espagnole, Veloute and Béchamel.
Crème had over one hundred sauces in his working data
Late 19th century – early20th century
In this period “George Auguste Escoffier” recognized to the
modernization of haute cuisine and organizing what should be the national
cuisine of France. “Cesar Ritz” was the first hotel he worked, but much of his
influenced came when worked to the management of the kitchen in “Carlton”.
He created a system of “Parties” which is called “Brigade System”, which
separated kitchen into five separate departments. These five station includes :
(1) “Garde Manger” that prepared cold dishes such as Salads, Appetizers,
(2) “Entremettier” prepared Starches and Vegetable item foods.
(3) “Rotisseur” prepared roasts, grilled and fried dishes.
(4) “Saucier” prepared sauces and soups.
(5) “Patissier” prepared all pastry and desserts items.
Escoffier’s largest contribution was the publication of “Le Guide
Culinaire” in 1903, which established the fundamental of French Cookery.
Firstly “Le Guide Culinaire” emphasize the use of heavy sauces and
leaned toward lighter “Fumets” (can be said as Stock), which are the essence
of flavor taken from meats, fishes and vegetables.
The second source of recipe conclude the use of common ingredient
instead of Expensive ingredients.
The third source of recipe was Escoffier himself, who invented many
dishes, such as “Peche Melba” (it’s a kind of dessert) and “Crepes Suzette” (it’s
a kind of dessert).”
Mid20th Century – Late20th Century
1960’s brought innovative thought to the French Cuisine due to the
contribution of Portuguese immigrants. Many new dishes were introduced as well as
This period was marked due to the appearance of “Nouvelle Cuisine”, which was
came up by two author named “Henri Gault” and “Christain Millau”. This type of
cuisine has certain consideration which are as follows :
The first characteristic was a rejection of excessive complication in cooking.
Second, the cooking times for most fish, seafood, game birds, veal, green vegetables
and pâtés was greatly reduced in an attempt to preserve the natural flavors.
The third characteristic was that the cuisine was made with the freshest possible
Fourth, large menus were abandoned in favor of shorter menus.
Fifth, strong marinades for meat and game ceased to be used.
Sixth, they stopped using heavy sauces such as espagnole and béchamel
Seventh, they used regional dishes for inspiration instead of haute cuisine dishes.
Eighth, new techniques were embraced and modern equipment was often used.
Ninth, the chefs paid close attention to the dietary needs of their guests through
Tenth and finally, the chefs were extremely inventive and created new combinations
French regional cuisine is characterized by its extreme diversity
and style. Traditionally, each region of France has its own distinctive
Paris and lle-de-France are the central regions where almost
anything from the country is available as everything starts and end
here. Over 9000 restaurant exist in Paris and almost every cuisine can
be had here. High quality Michelin Guide restaurant were reproduce
• Game and Ham are popular in Champagne.
• Beside this the special sparkling wine simply known as Champagne
were also from this region.
• Fine Fruit preserves are known from Lorraine as well as “Quiche” are
also found here.
• Alsace is heavily influenced by the German food culture. The wines and
Beers made in the area are similar to the style of Germany in it.
The coastline supplies many Crustaceans, Sea Bass, Monk Fish and
Herring. Normandy has top quality seafood such as Scallops and
Brittany has a large supply of Lobster, Crayfish and Mussels.
Buckwheat are also grown here on large scale.
Nord grows ample amounts of Wheat, Sugar Beat and Chicory.
Cauliflower and Artichokes considered some of the best in the
High quality fruits come from the Loire Valley and Central France
which includes Cherries grown from the liqueur “Guignolet.”
Strawberry and Melon are also produce of High quality here.
Fish cuisine are served here with Beurre Blanc sauces as well as
high quality goat cheese.
Vinegar is the specialty ingredients used here.
High quality Mushrooms are also used as a young vegetable.
Burgundy are known for its “Wines”.
Pike, Perch, Crab, Snails, Charolais beef, Red currant, Black
currant, Honey cake, Chaource and Epoisses cheese are all
specialities of local cuisine for both Burgundy and Franche-
Crème de Cassis is a popular liquor made from the Black
Dijon mustard is also a specialty of Burgundy cuisine.
Fruits and Young vegetables are popular in the cuisine from the
Lyon supply high quality Sausages, while Alpes region supply
their specialty cheeses like Beaufort, Abondance, Reblochon,
Tomme and Vacherin.
Liquor name “Chartreuse” is produced here which is named
after Chartreuse mountains in this region.
Bordeaux is known for its Wine, as some areas offering specialty
Grapes for its Wine.
Gascony and Perigord areas cuisine includes high quality Pates,
Terrines, Confits and Magrets. This is one of the regions who are
famous for the Foies Gras (it’s a liver of duck or goose).
Armagnac (a type of brandy) is also from this region, as are high
quality Prunes (dried plum) from Agen.
This areas in France has high quality Poultry and offers high
quality Hams and Dry Sausages (it is usually made from ground
meat mixed with salt, herbs, spices).
White corn and Haricot Bean are grown heavily in these areas
which are useful in making dishes like Cassoulet.
These areas produce high quality “Black Wine” as well as high
quality “Truffles” and “Mushrooms.”
Here the volcanic soil creates flinty cheeses and lentils.
Provence and Cote d’Azur region is rich in quality Vegetables,
Fruits and Herbs.
The region also produces a large amount of olive and creates
superb Olive Oil.
Thirteen desserts in Provence are the traditional Christmas
Honey is the prized ingredient in this region.
Truffles are commonly seen in Provence during winter.
Cheeses are produced here in which “Brocciu” is most
Clementines (orange variety), Lemons, Nectarines and Fig are
Corsica offers a variety of wines and liqueurs including Cap
Corse, Patrimonio, Rappu and many more.
Specialty by Seasons
In summer, Salads and Fruits dishes are popular
because they are refreshing and produce is inexpensive
At the end of summer, Mushrooms are grown plentiful
and appear throughout the France.
The hunting season, starts from September and end in
February. During this time all the Game animals are
eaten in a large quantity.
When winter turns to Spring, Shellfish and Oysters are
served at a large quantity.
Common Breads of France
Baguette is "a long thin loaf of
“French bread” that is commonly made
from basic lean dough. It is distinguish
by its length and crisp crust.
Pain Poilâne is most famous for a
round, two-kilogram sourdough country
bread. This bread is often referred to as
whole wheat but in fact is not the flour
used is mostly so-called grey flour.
Common Savory Dishes
Steak Frites meaning steak fries, is a
very common and popular dish served in
Brasseries (a place where a particular item
are served and prepared). The steak is an
Entrecote, Pan fried rare in a pan reduction
Blanquette de veau is a combination
of one stew piece of veal and Mire pox
(mixture of celery, onion, carrot) and bloster
the broth with flour, butter, cream, and egg
Coq au vin is a French braise of
chicken cooked with wine, lardons,
mushrooms, and optionally garlic.
While the wine is typically “Burgundy”
many regions of France have variants of
coq au vin using the local wine, such as
“coq au vin jaune” (Jura), “coq au
Riesling” (Alsace), “coq au Champagne”,
and so on.
Pot-au-feu ("pot on the fire") is a
French beef stew. It is made from low-
cost cuts of beef, Morteau sausage,
carrots, turnips, leeks, celery, and
onions, bouquet garni, salt, black
pepper and cloves.
Cassoulet is a rich, slow-cooked bean
stew or casserole originating in the south of
France, containing meat (typically pork
sausages, pork, goose, duck and sometimes
mutton), pork skin (couennes) and white
haricot beans. The dish is named after its
traditional cooking vessel, “the cassole”, a
deep, round, earthenware pot with slanting
sides. Cassoulet is also sold in France as a
commercial product in cans and can be found
in supermarkets and grocery stores across the
Boudin Blanc is a white sausage made of
pork without the blood. Pork liver and
heart meat are typically included. It is a
delicate dish as Milk is used in French
version. It is Sautéed (fry briefly over high
heat) and grilled.
Common Desserts and Pastries
Mousse ae chocolat is a form of
creamy dessert typically made from egg and
cream. Coco is also used to add a flavor of
chocolate in it.
Mille-feuille is made up of three layers
of puff pastry (pâté feuilletée), alternating
with two layers of pastry cream (crème
pâtissière), but sometimes whipped cream,
or jam are substituted. The top is usually
glazed with icing or fondant in alternating
white (icing) and brown (chocolate) strips,
and combed. Alternatively the top pastry
layer may be dusted with confectioner's
sugar, cocoa, or pulverized nuts.
Crème brûlée is a dessert
consisting of a rich custard base topped
with a contrasting layer of hard
caramel. It is normally served cold.
Madeleine are very small sponge
cakes with a distinctive shell-like shape
acquired from being baked in pans with
shell-shaped depressions. Traditional
recipes include very finely ground nuts,
usually almonds. A variation uses
lemon zest, for a pronounced lemony
Tarte Tat in is an upside-down tart
in which the fruit (usually apples) are
caramelized in butter and sugar before
the tart is baked. In history it was made
by mistake of being tart overcooked.
Éclair is a pastry made with choux
dough filled with a cream and topped
with icing. Once cool, the pastry then is
filled with a coffee- or chocolate-flavored
pastry cream (crème pâtissière), custard,
whipped cream, or chibouks cream and
iced with fondant icing. Other fillings
include pistachio- and rum-flavored
custard, fruit-flavored fillings, or
Profiterole is a choux pastry ball
filled with whipped cream, pastry
cream, or ice cream. The puffs may be
decorative or left plain or garnished
with chocolate sauce, caramel, or a
dusting of powdered sugar.
Quiche is a savory, open-faced
pie of vegetables, cheese, or meat in
custard, baked in a pastry crust.
Some Regional Dishes
Potée Lorraine is composed of pork,
carrots, turnips, leeks and a whole cabbage
previously blanched. These are barely
covered with water or stock and simmered
for three hours. Half an hour before it is
removed from the heat, a large sausage is
added. Plain boiled potatoes are often
served as an accompaniment.
Chou croute garnie is a famous
Alsacian recipe for preparing sauerkraut
(finely shredded cabbage) with sausages
and other salted meats and charcuterie,
and often potatoes.
Baeckeoffe is a mix of sliced potatoes,
sliced onions, cubed lamb, beef and pork
which have been marinated overnight in
“Alsatian white wine” and “juniper berries”
and slow cooked in a sealed ceramic
casserole dish. Leeks, thyme, parsley, garlic,
carrots and marjoram are other commonly
added ingredients for flavor and color.
Gugelhupf is a big cake, derived from the
Groninger Poffert, and has a distinctive ring
shape or the shape of a torus. It is usually
eaten with coffee, at coffee breaks.
Gugelhupf consists of a soft yeast dough
which contains raisins, almonds and
Kirschwasser cherry brandy. Some also
contain candied fruits and nuts. Some
regional varieties are also filled, often with
a layer of sweetened ground poppy seeds.
Tarte flambée is an Alsatian dish
composed of bread dough rolled out very
thin in the shape of a rectangle
(traditionally) or circle, which is covered
with fromage blanc or crème fraîche,
thinly sliced onions and lardons. It is one
of the most famous gastronomical
specialties of the region.
Rum baba or baba au rhum is a
small yeast cake saturated in liquor,
usually rum, and sometimes filled with
whipped cream or pastry cream. It also
includes eggs, milk, and butter.
Andouillette is a coarse-grained
tripe sausage made with pork (or
occasionally, veal), chitterlings,
pepper, wine, onions, and seasonings.
It is produced both as a mild sausage
in French cuisine and as a spicier.
Potjevleesch is a traditionally made
in a ceramic dish - from three or four
different types of meat and held
together either with gelatin or natural
fats coming from the meats used. The
meat along with sliced onions, salt,
pepper, thyme and bay leaves is
covered in water or water and
vinegar and then cooked.
Waterzooi’s original form is made
of fish though today chicken waterzooi
(kippenwaterzooi) is more common.
The stew is made of the fish or chicken,
vegetables including carrots, leeks and
potatoes, herbs, eggs, cream and
Rillettes is a preparation of meat.
Originally made with pork, the meat is
cubed or chopped, salted heavily and
cooked slowly in fat until it is tender
enough to be easily shredded, and then
cooled with enough of the fat to form a
paste. They are normally used as spread
on bread or toast and served at room
Crêpe is a type of very thin
pancake, usually made from wheat
flour (crêpes de Froment) or
buckwheat flour (galettes). In
Brittany, crêpes are traditionally
served with “cider” (type of drink).
Beef bourguignon is a stew
prepared with beef braised in red
wine, traditionally “red Burgundy”,
and beef broth (stock made from
beef), generally flavored with garlic,
onions and a bouquet garni, with
pearl onions and mushrooms added
towards the end of cooking.
Escargot is typically the snails which
are purged, killed, removed from their
shells, and cooked usually with garlic
butter or chicken stock or wine and then
placed back into the shells together with
the butter and sauce for serving, often on
a plate with several shell-sized
depressions. Additional ingredients may
be added such as garlic, thyme, parsley
and pine nuts.
Raclette is both a type of cheese
and a Swiss and French dish based on
heating the cheese and scraping
("racler") off the melted part.
Gougère is a baked savory choux
pastry made of choux dough mixed with
cheese. There are many variants. The
cheese is commonly grated Gruyère,
Comté, or Emmentaler, but there are many
variants using other cheeses or other
Tartiflette is made with potatoes,
reblochon cheese, cream, and lardons
(small cube of pork fat). It is also
commonly found with onions. A
popular variation of this dish is to
substitute the lardons with smoked
Quenelle is mixture of creamed
fish, chicken, or meat, sometimes
combined with breadcrumbs, with a
light egg binding. It is usually poached
(process of gently simmering food in
liquid, generally milk, stock or wine).
Aligot is a dish traditionally made
in Aveyron (region of France). Aligot is
made from mashed potatoes blended
with butter, cream, crushed garlic, and
the melted cheese. The dish is ready
when it develops a smooth, elastic
Brandade is an emulsion of “salt
cod” and “olive oil” eaten in winter with
bread or potatoes. French it is sometimes
called “Brandade de Morue”.
Bouillabaisse is a seafood soup
made with various kinds of cooked fish and
shellfish and vegetables, flavored with a
variety of herbs and spices such as garlic,
orange peel, basil, bay leaf, fennel and
saffron. There are at least three kinds of
fish in a traditional bouillabaisse, typically
“scorpion fish” ,“sea robin” and “European
Ratatouille’s full name is
“ratatouille niçoise”. Tomatoes are a key
ingredient, with garlic, onions, courgettes
(zucchini), aubergine (eggplant), poivron (bell
peppers), carrot, marjoram and basil, or bay
leaf and thyme, or a mix of green herbs like
“herbs' de Provence.”
Niçoise salad is a mixed salad
consisting of various vegetables topped with
“tuna” and “anchovy”. It is a specialty of the
“Côte d'Azur” and named for the city of
“Nice”. Ripe tomato wedges, wedges of hard-
boiled eggs, are topped with canned “tuna”
(tinned in oil), and “Niçoise Cailletier olives”.
The salad is served with “” (is a mixture of
olive oil and vinegar). vinaigrette
Quince cheese is a sweet, thick, quince
jelly or quince candy. Quince cheese is
prepared with quince fruits. The fruit is
cooked with sugar, and turns red after a long
cooking time and becomes a relatively firm,
quince tart, dense enough to hold its shape.
The taste is sweet but slightly astringent
Pissaladière it can be considered a type of
white pizza, as no tomatoes are used. Dough
is usually a bread dough thicker than that of
the classic Italian pizza, and the traditional
topping consist of “sautéed” (fried quickly in
a little fat) onions, olives, garlic and
anchovies (is a species of fish). No cheese is
used in France in it.
Eggs eaten in France
Omelet is a dish made from beaten eggs
quickly cooked with butter or oil in a frying
pan, sometimes folded around a filling such as
cheese, vegetables, meat.
Hard boiled eggs with Mayonnaise is
prepared by boiling eggs and served it with
Mayonnaise (type of sauce) made up of oil,
egg yolk, vinegar or lemon juices.
Scrambled eggs is a dish made from
beaten whites and yolks of eggs (usually
chicken). Beaten eggs are put into a hot pot or
pan (usually greased) and stirred frequently,
forming curds as they coagulate.
So from above information we can observe the French
cuisine and their basic taste and their nature in food. It can be
said that they are very extravagant food maker which differs
them from other national cuisine. French cuisine has a wide
varieties of techniques and style in making foods differently
and more tastefully. The dishes are having wide variety
because of their ability to use almost everything to their food
item. French cuisine are having a large varieties of option from
leafy vegetables to meat. Their interest were also seen on
making sauce of each food item to make the item more tasteful
and attractive. Presentation is also focused due to the
emergence of the nouvelle cuisine and has been accepted all
around the world. So, after all the discussion we can conclude
that the French cuisine has proved to be the top category
cuisine to the world by their style and talent of making foods.
T H A N K Y O U .