Educational Planning & Evaluation
Nur Shahidah Mardhiyyah G1012396
Articulating Vision Statement And Strategic Guiding
Analyses Of Environment Factors
Identification Of Strategic Issues
Critical Success Factors
Strategic Goals And Objectives
Term strategic is applied to planning activities to
denote linkages with the goal setting process, the
formulation of more immediate objectives to move
on an organization toward its goals, and the
selection of specific actions or strategies
required in allocation of organizational resources to
assist in achieving objectives (Steiss, 2003).
Strategic planning as a disciplined effort to produce
fundamental decisions and actions that shape
and guide what an organization is, what is does
and why it does it (Bryson, 2004).
Vision describe how the organization should look
when it is working well with environment and key
Developing vision is more time consuming than
formulating mission statement (Senge, 1990;
It is more difficult because most organizations are
coalitional and thus the vision must usually be a
treaty negotiated among rival coalitions.
Vision statement present a guiding image of what
success will look like.
Should be appropriate to the organization’s
mission and consistent with organization’s value
Should clarify the organization’s purpose and
direction, action oriented and future oriented, reflect
high ideals and challenging ambitions.
Decision makers must be courageous in order to
construct a compelling vision of success.
They must be disciplined enough to affirm the
vision in the present, to work hard to make the
vision real in the here and now (Collin & Porras,
1997; Terry, 1993,2001).
BENEFITS OF VISION STATEMENT
Give image of what it should do and how it should
do it to achieve success.
Organizational members should be given specific,
reasonable and supportive guidance about what is
expected of them and why.
A clear vision provides an effective substitute for
Vision provides a way to claim the future in the
present and to invent one’s own preferred future.
to achieve Islamization, Internationalization, Integration
and Comprehensive Excellence. (I.I.I.C.E. or “Triple-I”
To be a leading international centre of educational excellence.
Inspired by the world-view of tawhid and the Islamic
philosophy of the unity of knowledge as well as its
concept of holistic education,
The IIUM aims to become a leading international centre
of educational excellence which:
Revitalizes the intellectual dynamism of Islam and the
Integrates Islamic revealed knowledge and values in all
academic disciplines and educational activities;
Seeks to restore a leading and progressive role of the
Muslim Ummah in all branches of knowledge; thereby,
Contributing to the improvement and upgrading of the
qualities of human life and civilisation.
STRATEGIC GUIDING PRINCIPLES
Ten step of strategic planning process: (Bryson)
Initiate and agree on a strategic planning process
Identify organizational mandates
Clarify organizational mission and values
Assess the external and internal environment to identify
Identify strategic issues facing the organization
Formulate the strategies to manage the issues
Review and adopt the strategies or strategic plan
Establish an effective organizational vision
Develop an effective implementation process
10. Re-assess the strategies and the strategic planning process.
ANALYSES OF ENVIRONMENT FACTORS
Identifies strengths that are available to implement
strategies and tactics.
Identifies weaknesses which can be corrected or
minimized in order to achieve ideal vision.
Identifies opportunities exist which have not be utilized.
Discovers the threats which can be avoided.
To determine the organization’s strength,
weaknesses, opportunities and threats exist within
the organization and external environment
It involve external factor (opportunities and threat)
internal factors (strength and weaknesses).
Internal factor (strength and weakness)
It is a comprehensive evaluation of the organization’s
distinctive core competencies. With identification of its
strengths and weaknesses.
Three basic element:
Present strategy (process)
Strength: What are the organization’s advantages, how does it
Weakness: what area need improvement? What should be
External factor (opportunities and threat)
Explore environment outside the organization.
Identify the opportunities and challenges the
Opportunities: where are the best chances for
change n improvement?
Threats: what are the obstacles does the
organization face? (Steiss, 2003)
IDENTIFICATION OF STRATEGIC ISSUES
Strategic issue described as “a forthcoming development,
either inside or outside the organization which is likely to have
an important impact on the ability of an enterprise to meet its
Identifying strategic issues is the heart of the strategic
Strategic issue involves conflicts over ends (what), means
(how or how much), philosophy (why), location(where),
timing (when) and who.
It creates useful tension necessary to prompt organization
change. Organization rarely change unless they feel some
need, pressure or tension to change. (Bryson, 2004)
STRATEGIC ISSUE DESCRIBE AS:
The issue should be phrased as a question the organization can
do something and that has more than one answer. Some of the
If there is nothing the organization can do about the situation, then
there is no strategic issue.
Effective strategic planning has an action orientation. If strategic
planning doesn’t produce useful decision and action, then it probably
was a waste of time
Focusing on what the organization can do helps it attend to what
it controls, instead of worrying pointlessly about what it does not
Organization should focus on their most precious resource- the
attention of key decision makers-on the issue they can do something
Discuss the confluence of factors (mission, mandates,
internal, external environment aspects) that makes the issue
Strategic issue can arise in three situations:
Arise when the event beyond the control of the organization.
This situation called threats.
Arise when technological, cost, financial, staffing
management or political choices are changing.
Arise when changes in mission, mandates suggest present
and future opportunities.
SEVEN APPROACHES OF STRATEGIC ISSUES
Goes straight from a discussion of mandates, mission
and SWOTs to the identification of strategic issues.
Begins with brainstorming about different kinds of
option before identifying issues. This options include
actions the organization could take.
Start with goals and then identifies issues that must be
addressed before goals can be achieved.
Vision of success approach:
Start with the sketch of a vision in order to identify
issues that must be dealt with before vision can be
Enable organizational members to see what
change are necessary.
Oval mapping approach:
Involve creation of word and arrow diagram in
which ideas about actions the organization might
take, how it might take them, and why are linked
by the arrow indicating cause and effect or
There are four basic tension around any strategic
issue. (Nutt and Backoff, 1992)
Involve human resources (equity concern),
innovation and change, maintenance of tradition
and productivity improvement.
They suggest highlighting these tension in order to
find the best way to frame the issue.
System analysis approach:
Used to discern the best way to frame issues and
with issue areas can be conceptualized as a
CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS
Critical success factors refer to "the limited number
of areas in which satisfactory results will ensure
successful competitive performance for the
individual, department, or organization”.
“The things organization must do or criteria it must
meet in order to be successful in the eyes of
Six critical success factors:
CSF 1: be willing to move out of today’s comfort zone
and use new and wider boundaries for thinking,
planning, doing and evaluating.
CSF 2: differentiate between ends and means (focus
on what and how)
CSF 3: use all three levels of results (mega, macro,
CSF4: use and ideal vision as the underlying basis for
planning (don’t be limited by current restraints).
CSF 5: prepare objectives including mission
objectives-that include measures of how you will know
when you have arrived.
CSF 6: define “need” as a gap in results.
STRATEGIC GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
Goal statement of desired result or outputs
drawn from the broad purpose of the organization.
Objectives expected changes in condition,
welfare or behavior as a consequence of the
initiation of some program or activity.
It specifies what the organization proposes to do
and why it proposes to do so.
Strategic goals are statements of what you wish to
achieve over the period of the strategic plan.
It reflect the analysis that starts with creating a vision,
a role statement and a mission statement, and then
analysis of environment, strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities and threats.
Objectives are used to operationalize the mission
statement. That is, they help to provide guidance on how
the organization can fulfill or move toward the “high
goals” in the goal hierarchy-the mission and vision
KPI (KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATOR)
Key Performance Indicators, also known as KPI or Key
Success Indicators (KSI), help an organization define
and measure progress toward organizational goals.
Key Performance Indicators are quantifiable
measurements, that reflect the critical success factors of
an organization. They will differ depending on the
For example: A business may have as one of its Key
Performance Indicators the percentage of its income
that comes from return customers. A school may focus
its Key Performance Indicators on graduation rates of its
The know what is strategic direction identification is
all about, we must understand the is strategic
The planners must have mission and vision, goals
and objectives and strategic issue in order to create
a good plan.
The critical success factors and key performance
indicator is important to monitor and measure the
progress of the organization.
Bryson, J.M. (2004). Strategic Planning For Public And Nonprofit
Organizations: A Guide To Strengthening And Sustaining
Organizational Achievement (3rd Ed.). San Francisco: Josseybass Inc.
Kaufman, R., Herman, J. and Watters, K. (2002). Educational
Planning: Strategic, Tactical And Operational. NY: Prentice Hall.
Kaufman, R. (1992). Mapping Educational Success: Strategic
Thinking And Planning For School Administrators. California:
Corwin Press Inc.
Steiss, A.W. (2003). Strategic Management For Public And
Nonprofit Organizations. New York: Marcel Dekker.