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Foreign Policy of Pakistan Part 1


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Every state aims to keep on improving the quality of life of its citizens

Quality of life means a better standard of living, internal stability, external security, political empowerment, social harmony, etc. For this purpose, the state formulates a comprehensive set of interdependent policies in several fields-social, economic, political, etc

Foreign policy is one such policy formulated to achieve the objectives by utilizing the foreign relations of a country

This presentation is an attempt to explain the concept, practices, instruments and other different aspects of foreign policy

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Foreign Policy of Pakistan Part 1

  1. 1. Shahid Hussain Raja February14 , 2020
  2. 2.  Introduction  What is Foreign Policy  Features of Foreign Policy  Determinants of Foreign Policy  Tools/Instruments of Foreign Policy  What is National Interest  Components of National Interest  Conditions for Successful Foreign Policy  Conclusion
  3. 3.  Every state is to keep on improving the quality of life of its citizens  Quality of life means better standard of living, internal stability, external security, political empowerment, social harmony etc  For this purpose, state formulates comprehensive set of interdependent policies in several fields-social, economic, political etc  Foreign policy is one such policy formulated to achieve the objetives by utilising the foreign relations of a country  This presentation is an attempt to explain the concept, practices, instruments and other different aspects of foreign policy
  4. 4.  There are neither permanent friends nor permanent enemies in international relations, only permanent interests.  Lord Palmerston  Biggest lesson of history is that we seldom learn from history  A nation which forgets its past is condemned to live in the past
  5. 5.  Strategies chosen by a nation-state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve its goals by interacting with other countries and with non-state actors.  “Foreign policy is the key element in the process by which a state translates its broadly conceived goals and interests into concrete courses of action to attain those objectives and preserve its interests.” Padelford and Lincoln
  6. 6.  Formal but not documented-practices and statements  State policy, rather government policy-stable over period  Obverse of domestic policy-thus same goals, different means  Formulated by the elected representatives-like all policies  Implemented by foreign office-help from defence/ commerce  Foreign policy effectiveness=f(domestic strength+diplomacy)
  7. 7.  No country issues a formal documented version of its foreign policy  It issues various statements, carries out different activities and takes/refuses to take decisions on any matter requiring attention  Job of analysts and academia to sift out patterns of relations and behaviour from this and describe it as the foreign policy of country  These statements, activities & decisions are result of countless meetings & lot of paperwork by multiple stakeholders  This provides us clues to the formulation of foreign policy process
  8. 8.  Any issue requiring action is first examined by the concerned ministry which solicits the opinions of other stakeholders  After examination, it lists the options and recommends its preferred option with cogent reasons to cabinet through foreign office for recording its observations en route.  Elected representatives discuss these options and suggestion of the foreign office in select committes/cabinet meeting  Once an option is approved, the statement is issued as the response of the state to that issue
  9. 9.  Diplomacy-establishing/terminating diplomatic relations, bilateral visits, summit meetings, protest notes  Trade-access/denial to market/rsources, MFN status, FTA, Trade war  Economic aid-grants, concessional loans, multilateral assistance  Military aid- arms/ammunition, bases, training, joint exercises  Threat of uses of force  Use of force-terrorism, limited war, total war
  10. 10.  Geographical Imperatives-location is 80% of foreign policy; small country with geostrategic location can play larger than life role  Historical Legacies-historical country or a post-colonial state? what you inherited at independence? Memories !  Stage of economic development-developed countries have more clout. export surplus or import dependent?  Resources-availabiity or lack of them-too many resources but less population is biggest curse
  11. 11.  Institutional profile- who are the decision makers? for Armed forces security interest, for elected representatives, well being  Sociopolitical structure-democratic or authoritarian? democratic is slow but stable; authoritarian is quick but may be short term  Global Trends and Events-response to these affects the direction and content of foreign policy-positively or adversely  Societal norms and preferences-what the public feels important? Muslim countries to have greater contact with Muslims etc
  12. 12.  Morgenthau-“survival—the protection of physical, political and cultural identity against encroachments by other nation-states”,  Charles Lerche-“general, long term and continuing purpose which the state, the nation, and the government all see themselves as serving.”  Brookings Institute defines it in the following way “What a nation feels to be necessary to its security and wellbeing … National interest reflects the general and continuing ends for which a nation acts.”
  13. 13.  Ultimate aim of foreign policy is realisation of objectives set under the national interest by the public representatives  Same for all policies but with different means to achieve them  Formulated under four components of the national interest ◦ Territorial Integrity and Sovereignty ◦ Economic Well being of the People ◦ Internal Cohesion and Harmony ◦ Regional Peace and Stability
  14. 14.  Maintaining a well-trained and well equipped defense forces by ensuring reliable access to sources of defence equipment suppliers  Building indigenous defense armaments capability to attain self- sufficiency in the production of conventional arms and ammunitions  Acquiring an effective nuclear capability to compensate it for the lack of adequate strategic depth/conventional defence parity  Ensuring requisite diplomatic support in case of external aggression by cultivating friendly relations with powers that matter
  15. 15.  Achieving a sustainable and inclusive growth whose gains are distributed equitably among all regions of the country and all the sections of the society.  Access to foreign markets to ensure un-interrupted supply of essential resources/technology and to sell its exportable surplus at competitive rates  Attracting Foreign Direct investment to develop its human and natural resources, modernization of its economy and up scaling its technology base.  Obtaining foreign economic assistance from bilateral or multilateral sources to bridge the resource gap
  16. 16.  Formulating a shared vision of a just and prosperous country enshrined in a duly formulated with consensus and formally approved constitution  Ensuring that this shared vision is implemented by well-functioning vibrant institutions to create stakes for everyone to feel satisfied in a united contry.  Mainstreaming marginalized/disgruntled elements of society by ensuring good governance and taking affirmative action on selective basis where needed  Strengthening democracy by promoting true political culture, strengthening its democratic structures and letting democratic processes continue uninterruptedly
  17. 17.  Maintaining of good neighbourly relations with all the regional countries particularly with immediate neighbours, bilaterally or through multi-lateral forums  Regional/bilateral cooperation to eliminate terrorism by denying safe havens to terrorists within the country or allowing them in neighbouring countries.  Promotion of regional trade and investment by creating business/investment friendly environment by providing economic and other incentives and facilities  Adopting common regional approch to the challenges emanating from outside the region- globalisation, environmetal issues, climate change, global terrorism etc
  18. 18.  Litmus test of success of any policy is the realisation of goals/ objectives determined under components of national interest  Every institution formulates strategies to achieve the goals and objectives falling in its jurisdiction  Success depends on quality of strategies, their managerial capabilities and the available environment,internal/ external  Foreign policy is also subject to these rules and can be a success if following conditions favour it
  19. 19.  Political/executive commitment-Ultimate test of any policy; how sincere and serious are its architects/implementers  Resources-availability of enough human and financial resources, capable to deliver pays handsome dividends  Internal consistency-policy must be coherent, well thought out, options selected consistent with well researched findings  External consistency- trying to achieve overall objectives of national interest, not in conflict with other policies  Size and status of the country-strong countries usually successful
  20. 20.  Post-WWII Reconstruction- best example of success of diplomatic means-Marshall Plan  Creation of World Institutions-World Bank, IMF etc  Rise of the Nonaligned Movement,  Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty,  USA China Rapproachment  USA-USSR Detente  Creation of the European Union,
  21. 21.  Two World Wars- both, WW1 & WW2, were classic cases of failures of the global diplomacy to avert bloodshed  Dropping of Atomic Bombs-It could have been averted if diplonacy has been effective in the last days of the war.  Iran-IRAQ War-again the failure of the diplomats  US Attack on Afghanistan- Taliban were willing to handover OBL  American Attack on Iraq- Diplomacy not given chance to play its role  Syrian Crises-Deliberate efforts to scuttle diplomatic solution
  22. 22.  Increasing complexity-Issues becoming complex transcending borders, number of countries increasing, complexion of governments varied, supra-state actors like world institutions and MNCs more active, non-state actors  Global authority vacuum- always the case but increasing complexity described above making crises of enforcement more acute  Diminishing role of Diplomats- Being replaced by summit diplomacy, state visits, increasing participation of technical people in world conferences
  23. 23.  Formulation of a foreign policy of a country is a dynamic process and reflects the current world view of a nation’s policy making elite.  The world view a country’s policy makers hold, is in turn shaped by a complex interaction among various variables and constants.  Fundamental structural changes evolved over a period of time alter the perceptions of the policy makers according to their receptivity, maturity, knowledge and their respective preferences.  These altered perceptions result in changing their perspectives to take decisions which in turn result in changing the ground realities, some expected some unintended.