http://www.ahya.org - Authentic Islamic Information and Resources
Tafseer of Soorah Al-Fatihah - [Book]
Tafseer of Soorah ...
thanks are due to Allah, the Lord of the universe,’ Allah says, ‘My servant
has praised Me…’ [Saheeh Muslim]
8. Al-Ruqyah ...
alahi wa-sallam) said: “Allah says, "I have divided the prayer between
Myself and my servant equally and My servant shall ...
“The prayer is not valid in which the Mother of the Qur`aan is not
recited.” [Saheeh Muslim Eng. trans. v.1 no. 772]
FOOTN...
"When you wish to read the Qur`aan then seek refuge with Allah
from the accursed Shaytaan. Indeed he has no power over tho...
that was stuck to a bone and could not be removed, `uwwadha, because of
its refusal to be dislodged from the bone. The sam...
1. Bismillah causes humiliation (dhame, dishonor) to shaytaan -
Narrated Abu Tameemah (radiyallahu anhu): “ I was riding b...
of Allah (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) used to commence his prayer by saying
the takbeer and reciting, ‘all praise and than...
mercy to all creatures, while Ar-Raheem denotes mercy to the Believers.”
Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudri said: “The Messenger of Alla...
Ibn Jareer also said: “Al-Hamdu Lillaah is praise: Allah praises Himself and
directs us to do likewise, as if He said: “Sa...
“His is all the praise in the Hereafter, and He is the All-Wise, All-
Aware." [Soorah As-Saba`a (34): 1]
Virtues of Al- Ha...
Allah Himself manifested the meaning of Aalameen in the Qur’aan recalling
the words of Pharaoh when he said: “and what is ...
Katheer and others - that Essa (alaihi as-salaam) said: “Ar-Rahmaan: the
One Who shows Mercy in this world and the Hereaft...
not like human anger, based on Allah’s statement, There is nothing like Him.
[Soorah Ash-Shoorah (42): 11]
2. The second a...
entirely from ash-Shanqeetee, ‘Adwaa al-Bayaan’ [1/31-32] uptill For the
Mercy is linked to the event that befell the Prop...
fearing His punishment. This is why His Kingship was fortified by mentioning
it in this context; otherwise He is Master of...
to call someone as Malik or Maalik. In this sense is His saying: "Indeed
Allah has sent you (Talut) Saul as a king." [Soor...
470]
Mentioning of Allah as a second person - This verse employs an address
to Allah in the second person and this is most...
here in detail elsewhere. For example His saying: 'O Mankind! Worship
your Lord who created you. "So do not set up rivals ...
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Tafsir surah al-fatiha

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Tafsir surah al-fatiha

  1. 1. http://www.ahya.org - Authentic Islamic Information and Resources Tafseer of Soorah Al-Fatihah - [Book] Tafseer of Soorah Al-Fatihah Introduction Soorah Al-Fatihah "And Indeed, We have bestowed upon you seven of Al-Mathani and the Grand Qur’aan" [Soorah Al-Hijr (15): 87]. Different Names of Soorah Al-Fatihah 1. Al-Faatihah - The Opening since it is the opening chapter of the Qur’aan & the prayer is commenced by it. 2. Faatihah Al-Kitaab - The Opening of the Book - because it is the first chapter in the Qur’aan. 3. Umm al-Qur`aan - the Mother of the Qur`aan and Umm al-Kitaab - the Mother of the Book - according to the saying of Prophet (sallallahu alahi wa- sallam). Narrated Abu Hurayrah: ‘Prophet (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) said: “[The chapter commencing with] "all praises and thanks are due to Allah the Lord of the Universe." is the Mother of the Qur’aan (Umm al-Qur`aan), the Mother of the Book (Ummul al-Kitaab), the Seven Oft Repeated Verses (As- Sab’ al-Mathaani) and the Great Qur’aan. (Qur’aan al-Adheem)”[Saheeh – At-Tirmidhee] Ibn Jareer at-Tabaree said that it was named so because the meaning of the entire Qur`aan is summarized (precisely explained, summed up) in it. The Arabs named anything that concisely (in brief, in few words) summarizes something or comprises (contains) the most important part of something as ‘Umm’ i.e. Mother. 4.As-Sab`u al- Mathaanee - the Seven Often repeated verses - because they are the frequently recited verses (e.g.: it is recited in every rak’ah of the Prayer) and as mentioned in the following hadeeth. Narrated Sa’eed lbn Al-Mu’aliaa: “… Prophet (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) said to me: “I will teach you a soorah, which is the greatest soorah in the Qur’aan before you leave the masjid,” and he took hold of my hand. Then, when he was about to leave I said to him: “Didn’t you say to me: “I will teach you a soorah which is the greatest soorah in the Qur’aan.” He said: “Al-Hamdu Lillahi Rabbil Aalameen’ - Soorah Al- Faatihah, which is the Seven Often repeated Verses, and the Glorious Qur’aan which has been given to me.” [Saheeh Al-Bukhaari] 5. Al-Qur`aan al-Adheem - the Great Qur`aan. As mentioned in the above hadeeth. 6. Al-Hamd - the Praise - as it contains the mentioning of Hamd. Just as al- Baqarah is named so because it contains mention of the cow. 7. As-Salaah - the Prayer - as it is an integral part of the prayer; and as mentioned in the Hadeeth where Prophet informed us the saying of Allah: "I have divided the prayer between Myself and my servant equally. Therefore when the servant says “Al-Hamdu Lillaahi Rabbil Aalameen,” ‘all praises and Page 1 of 19AHYA.ORG - Authentic Islamic Resources and Information Monday, 29 October 2007http://www.ahya.org/amm/modules.php?name=Sections&op=printpage&artid=6
  2. 2. thanks are due to Allah, the Lord of the universe,’ Allah says, ‘My servant has praised Me…’ [Saheeh Muslim] 8. Al-Ruqyah - The Curative Invocation - according to the authentic narration of Abu Sa’eed. He said: “Some of the Companions of the Prophet(sallallahu alaihi wa- sallam) went on a journey until they reached some of the Arab tribes (at night). They asked the latter to treat them as their guests but they refused. The chief of that tribe was then bitten by a snake (or stung by a scorpion) and they tried their best to cure him, but in vain. Some of them said (to the others): “Nothing has benefited him, will you go to the people who resided here for the night, it may be that some of them might possess something (as a treatment).” They went to the group of the Companions and said: “Our chief has been bitten by a snake (or stung by a scorpion) and we have tried everything but he has not benefited. Have you anything (useful)?” One of them replied: “Yes, by Allah! I can recite a ruqyah, but as you have refused to accept us as your guests, I shall not recite the ruqyah for you unless you fix for us some payment for it.” They agreed to pay them a flock of sheep. One of them went and recited Soorah Al-Faatihah: “All praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds...” and breathed hard over the chief who recovered as if he were released from a chain, stood up and started walking, showing no signs of sickness. They paid them as per their agreement. Some of them (the Companions) then suggested dividing their earnings among themselves, but the one who had performed the recitation said: “Do not divide them until we go to the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam), narrate the whole story to him and wait for his order.” So they went to the Messenger of Allah(sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) and narrated the story. Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa- sallam) said: “How did you come to know that Soorah Al-Faatihah was recited as a ruqyah?” [Saheeh Bukhaaree [eng trans. 3/264 # 476] These are some of the Names of Soorah Fatihah from amongst many. [1] Revelation - It was revealed in Mecca as stated by ibn Abbas and other. It is also claimed that it was revealed in Madeenah as stated by Abu Hurayrah and others. It is also said that it was revealed on two separate occasions – once in Mecca and once in Madeenah. However the first opinion is the most likely due to His saying. Because of the Verse in the Qur’aan: "We have sent to you the Seven Oft Repeated Verses." [Soorah Al-Hijr (15): 87] This verse was revealed in Mecca by agreement. Composition - The Soorah contains seven verses without any disagreement. However, there has been some disagreement with regarding Bismillah ar-Rahmaan ar-Raheem” “with the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.’ Some said that it is a verse, while others maintained that it is not, and others said that it is part of a verse. Those who assume (believe) that it is not a verse of al-Faatihah state that the seventh verse commences (starts) with the words, "not the path of those who have earned [Your] Anger…" It has twenty-five words and hundred and thirteen letters. [Tafseer Ibn Katheer] Virtues of Soorah Al-Faatihah – There are a number of ahaadeeth explaining the great virtues of this chapter: 1. Soorah Fatihah - Answered by Allah, the Exalted Prophet (sallallahu Page 2 of 19AHYA.ORG - Authentic Islamic Resources and Information Monday, 29 October 2007http://www.ahya.org/amm/modules.php?name=Sections&op=printpage&artid=6
  3. 3. alahi wa-sallam) said: “Allah says, "I have divided the prayer between Myself and my servant equally and My servant shall be granted what he asked for." Therefore when the servant says, ‘all praises and thanks are due to Allah, the Lord of the universe’, Allah says, ‘My servant has praised Me.’ When he says, ‘the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful,’ Allah says, ‘My servant has extolled Me.’. When he says, ‘Master of the Day of Judgment,’ Allah says, ‘My servant has glorified Me.’ When he says, ‘You Alone we worship and Your aid Alone do we seek,’ Allah says, ‘this is between Me and My servant and My servant shall have what he requested.’ When he says, ‘guide us to the Straight Path, the Path of those whom You have favored, not of those who have incurred [Your] wrath, neither of those who have gone astray,’ Allah says, ‘this is for My servant and My servant shall have what he asked for.’ [Saheeh Muslim] 2. Soorah a-Al-Fatihah – the Mother of the Qur’aan (Umm al-Qur’aan), the Great Qur’aan (Qur’aan-e-Azeem) and it comprises the seven oft- repeated verses. (As-Saa’bu al-Mathaani) Narrated Abu Hurayrah: “Prophet (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) said: “[chapter commencing with], “Alhamdu lillahi Rabbil Alameen” is the Mother of the Qur`aan, the Mother of the Book, the Seven Oft Repeated Verses and the Great Qur`aan.” [Tirmidhee] Narrated Sa’eed lbn Al-Mu’aliaa (radiyallahu anhu): “… Prophet (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) said to me: “I will teach you a soorah, which is the greatest soorah in the Qur’aan before you leave the masjid,” and he took hold of my hand. Then, when he was about to leave I said to him: “Didn’t you say to me: “I will teach you a soorah which is the greatest soorah in the Qur’aan.” He (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) said: “Al-Hamdu Lillahi Rabbil Aalameen (All praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds) - Soorah Al- Faatihah, which is the Seven Oft-repeated Verses, and the Glorious Qur’aan which has been given to me.” [Saheeh Al-Bukhaari] 3. Soorah Al-Fatihah – Revealed only to Prophet Muhammad. [2] Narrated Ibn Abbaas (radiyallahu anhu): “While the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) was sitting with Jibreel (alaihi as-salaam), he heard a creaking sound above him. Jibreel looked up and said, "This is [the sound of] a gate that has been opened in heaven today and has never been previously opened." Then an Angel descended through it and came to the Prophet (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) and said, "rejoice in the good news of two lights that have been given to you such as no prophet before you has been given. [They are] Surah al-Faatihah and the concluding [two] verses of Soorah al-Baqarah. You will never recite a word from them without being given the blessings they contain." [An-Nisaee and al-Haakim] The Ruling of reciting soorah Al-Fatihah in the Prayer - It is an obligation to recite soorah al-Faatihah in every Ra’kaah of the prayer. The prayer is invalid without the recitation of Soorah Fatihah. This opinion [3] is based upon many proofs from the Ahaadeth of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam): “There is no prayer for the one who does not recite the Opening of the Book.” [Saheeh Bukhaaree [Eng. Trans. 1/404 no. 723] and Saheeh Muslim [Eng. Trans. 1/214 no. 771] “Whosoever performs a prayer in which he does not recite the Mother of the Book then it is deficient, it is deficient, it is deficient, it is incomplete.” [Saheeh Muslim [Eng. Trans. 1/215 no. 775] Page 3 of 19AHYA.ORG - Authentic Islamic Resources and Information Monday, 29 October 2007http://www.ahya.org/amm/modules.php?name=Sections&op=printpage&artid=6
  4. 4. “The prayer is not valid in which the Mother of the Qur`aan is not recited.” [Saheeh Muslim Eng. trans. v.1 no. 772] FOOTNOTES [1] It is also named ash-Shifaa`, the Cure, due to what ad-Daarimee reports from Abu Sa`eed from the Messenger of Allah. “The Opening of the Book is a cure to every poison.” [Ibn Katheer - ad-Daarimee [2/445]. Ash-Sha`bee reports from ibn Abbaas that he named it Asaasul Qur`aan, the Foundation of the Qur`aan, and that he said, "the foundation of al-Faatihah is, ‘with the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.’" Sufyaan bin Uyaynah named it al-Waaqiyah, the Protector. Yahyaa bin Abu Katheer named it al-Kaafiyah, the Sufficient, because it suffices from everything other than it but anything else does not suffice it, as occurs in the mursal hadeeth. The Mother of the Book suffices for other than it but nothing else suffices it. It is also named Suratus Salaah, the Chapter of the Prayer, and al-Kanz, the Treasure, as mentioned by az- Zamaksharee in ‘Kashshaaf. [Up] [2] This hadeeth has led some scholars to suggest that Jibreel did not convey the revelation of Surah al-Faatihah and the last two verses of al- Baqarah, rather it was the Angel mentioned in this hadeeth. However the correct opinion is that Jibreel did indeed convey the revelation of these verses as he was enjoined by Allah to convey the entire Qur`aan to the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam). The Angel that descended as mentioned in this hadeeth descended only to convey the reward of these verses. [Up] [3] This is the opinion of the majority of the scholars, amongst them Maalik, ash-Shaafi`ee and Ahmad. However according to Abu Haneefah, those of his companions who agreed with him, al-Awza`ee and ath-Thawree, it is not obligatory to recite al-Faatihah, rather any portion of the Qur`aan would be sufficient. They based this upon the saying of Allah: "And recite what is easy [for you] from the Qur`aan." [Al-Muzzammil (73): 20] And the saying of the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) to the man who prayed badly, When you stand for pray, say the takbeer and then recite what is easy for you from the Qur`aan. [Up] Isti’aadhah (Seeking Refuge - from the Accursed Shaytaan) "A’udhoo billahi min ash-Shaytaan ar-rajeem." Meaning of the word a`oodhu (I take refuge): Al-Haafidh ibn al- Qayyim, (rahimahullah), explained the meaning of a`oodhu (I take refuge) in a beautiful way. He said: “Know that the verb `aadha and its derivatives carry the meaning of being careful and alert, guarding and fortifying (strengthening), being rescued (saved) and victorious. Its essential meaning is to flee from that which you fear will harm you to that which will safeguard you from it. This is why the one you seek refuge with is named m`aadh and malja` (the source of refuge and recourse). Therefore the meaning of a`oodhu is “I take refuge, guard myself and take precaution.” [1] Meaning of the Word Shaytaan: It is said that the word ‘Shaytaan’ is derived from shatana, which means to be distanced (detached, separated), and indeed Shaytaan is far removed from any good whatsoever. [2] The Ruling of Isti’aadhah (Seeking Refuge): “A’udhoo billahi min ash- Shaytaan ar-rajeem.” It is legislative to recite Isti’aashah in every Rak’aah of all sorts of prayers, as Allah ordered in His Book: [3] Page 4 of 19AHYA.ORG - Authentic Islamic Resources and Information Monday, 29 October 2007http://www.ahya.org/amm/modules.php?name=Sections&op=printpage&artid=6
  5. 5. "When you wish to read the Qur`aan then seek refuge with Allah from the accursed Shaytaan. Indeed he has no power over those who believe and put their trust only in their Lord. His power is only over those who follow him and join partners with Him." [Soorah An- Nahl (16): 99-100] Majority of scholars are of the opinion of that Isti`aadha is recommended and not obligatory. However, it is reported from `Ataa bin Abee Rabaah that it is obligatory to say it within the prayer and outside the prayer when one desires to recite the Book of Allaah. [Tafseer Ibn Katheer] It is reported by many sources that the Prophet of Allah (sallallahu alaihiwa- sallam) practiced this act of seeking refuge: Abu Sa`eed al-Khudree narrated that “When the Messenger of Allaah (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) stood at night [for prayer, he would commence the prayer] by saying the takbeer and then saying, "Subhaanak Allaahumma wa bihamdika, wa tabarrakasmuka, wa ta`aalaa jadduka, wa laa ilaaha ghayruk." (You are glorified O Allaah and praised! Your Name is Blessed; Your Majesty is Exalted and none has the right to be worshipped save You.) Then he would say "laa ilaaha illAllaah" three times, then , "Allaahu Akbar" three times and then say "A`oodhu billaahi as-Samee` al-Aleem min ash- Shaytaanir Rajeem – min hamzihi wa nafkhihi wa nafthihi" (I take refuge with Allaah, the All-Seeing, the All-Knowing from the accursed Shaytaan: from his madness, arrogance and poetry.) [Saheeh Abu Daawood’ no. 701] Naafi` bin Jubair narrated from his father, who said: “I saw the Messenger of Allaah (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) saying when he entered into prayer, "Allaahu Akbar Kabeera" three times, "Alhamdulillaahi Katheera” (Praise and thanks be to Allaah, again and again) three times and "Subhaan Allaahi Bukratan wa Aseela" (Glorified is Allaah, morning and evening) three times. Then he said, "Allaahumma innee A`udhubika mina ash- Shaytaan, min hamzihi wa nafkhihi wa nafathi" (O Allaah! I take refuge with You from Shaytaan – from his madness, arrogance and poetry) [Sahih ibn Maajah’ no.658 and ‘Irwaa`’ [2/55] Virtues of Isti’aadah Means of relieving Anger: Reported Sulaymaan ibn Sarad (radiyallahu anhu) that: “Two men abused each other in the presence of the Prophet while we were sitting with him. One of the two abused the other while in a state of rage, his face red. The Prophet (SAW) said, "I know a statement that if he were to say, what he is experiencing would leave him. If only he were to say, ‘I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed Shaytaan.’" [Saheeh Bukhaaree [Eng. Trans. 8/87 no. 136] FOOTNOTES [1] There are two opinions concerning the basis of this verb. The first is that it is derived from the meaning of as-satar, covering or protection, and the second is that it is derived from the meaning of luzoom al-mujaawara, firmly adhering (clinging, sticking) to that which adjoins it: (a) As for the first opinion then the Arabs used to say with regards to a house that is in the shade of a tree - `uwwadha. Therefore when this house did `aadha with this tree by being built under its shade the Arabs named it `uwwadh. The same applies to the one who takes refuge for he seeks protection and cover from his enemy with the one he seeks refuge with. (b) As for the second opinion then the Arabs used to say regarding flesh Page 5 of 19AHYA.ORG - Authentic Islamic Resources and Information Monday, 29 October 2007http://www.ahya.org/amm/modules.php?name=Sections&op=printpage&artid=6
  6. 6. that was stuck to a bone and could not be removed, `uwwadha, because of its refusal to be dislodged from the bone. The same applies to the one taking refuge for he sticks firmly to the one he is seeking refuge with and refuses to be distanced. Both of these opinions are correct for seeking refuge includes both. [Up] [2] It is also said that the name is derived from shaata, which means to burn because he is made from fire. Others said that both meanings are correct. However the first meaning is more correct. [Up] [3] Allah explained to us the extreme enmity of Shaytaan with His words: "Indeed Shaytaan is an open enemy to you so take him as an enemy. He invites his followers only that they may become the denizens of the blazing Fire." [Faatir (35): 6] "Will you then take him and his offspring as friends and protectors besides Him while they are open enemies to you? Wretched it is as an exchange for the wrong-doers." [Al-Kahf (18): 50] Indeed Shaytaan took an oath saying: "By Your Might! I will surely misguide them all, except Your chosen slaves amongst them." [Saad (38): 82-83] It is for this reason that we have been encouraged to seek refuge with Allaah from the accursed Shaytaan. [Up] VERSE ONE "With the Name of Allah, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful": [1] Revelation: Ibn Abbaas (radiyallahu anhu): “The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) did not use to know the beginning and end of a Surah until ‘Bismillah ar-Rahmaan ar-Raheem’ was revealed.” [Saheeh - Ibn Katheer and ‘Saheeh Abu Daawood’ [no. 707] Composition: The action that the servant intends to do has been omitted in the sentence in order to generalize the statement [known as the basmallah]. Hence, no matter what the servant intends to do, the basmallah is applicable to it. Similarly, if one utters Bismillaah before he gets up or sits down or does anything else, conveys the significance of his saying, which is: ‘I stand in the Name of Allah, I sit in the Name of Allah… etc.” We also understand that the action is to come at the end of the sentence for two vital reasons: 1 - To seek blessings by beginning with the name of Allah. 2 - To express the fact that the action is only for Allah. Three Beautiful Names of Allah: In this verse Allah is described by three beautiful Names: Allah, Ar-Rahmaan (generous, kind), Ar-Raheem (kind, compassionate). “Both Ar-Rahmaan (the Most Beneficent) and Ar-Raheem (the Most Merciful) are nouns derived from the verb rahima (which means to show mercy, to be compassionate) and they both convey the sense of ‘one who has mercy’ [2] [Tabari] Virtues of Bismillah - There are a number of texts explaining to us the virtue of the basmallah: Page 6 of 19AHYA.ORG - Authentic Islamic Resources and Information Monday, 29 October 2007http://www.ahya.org/amm/modules.php?name=Sections&op=printpage&artid=6
  7. 7. 1. Bismillah causes humiliation (dhame, dishonor) to shaytaan - Narrated Abu Tameemah (radiyallahu anhu): “ I was riding behind the Prophet (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) when his mount stumbled and so I said, ‘may Shaytaan perish!’ Upon hearing this the Prophet (sallallahu alahi wa- sallam) said, "do not say may Shaytaan perish for when you say this Shaytaan becomes exultant and grows in stature (physique, size) and says, ‘it was by my power that I injured him.’ But when you say, ‘with the Name of Allah’ he becomes humiliated and grows small until he ends up the size of a fly." [Ahmad [5/59, 365] and the wording is his. It was declared saheeh by al-Albaanee in ‘Saheeh Abu Daawood’ [no. 4168]. Muqbil bin Haadee said that the isnaad of Ahmad contains the narrators of the Saheeh.] 2. Shaytaan does not harm - Narrated Ibn Abbaas (radiyallahu anhu) that the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) said: “If, when one of you wishes to go to his wife (and) says, ‘With the Name of Allah, O Allah! Protect us from the Shaytaan and keep the Shaytaan away from what You will provide us.’ Then if it is decreed that they should have a child out of that act then the Shaytaan will never be able to harm him. [Bukhaaree [Eng. Trans. 1 no. 143], Muslim [Eng. Trans. 2 no. 3361] 3. It is essential for the Wudhu to be completed - Narrated Abu Hurayrah: “The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) said: “There is no wudu for the one who does not [commence] by mentioning the Name of Allah. “ [Saheeh Abu Daawood’ [no. 92] Is Bismillah a verse of the Qur’aan? - The scholars have differed as to whether or not this statement comprises a verse of the Qur`aan when it is found in the beginning of each Surah and they have fallen into four opinions. 1. That it is a verse of every Surah except Surah at-Tawbah. [3] 2. That it is not a verse of any Surah of the Qur`aan at all and that it is placed at the beginning of every Surah merely to distinguish it from another. [4] Narrated ibn Abbaas (radiyallahu anhu): “Prophet (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) did not use to know the beginning and end of a Surah until ‘with the Name of Allah, Most Beneficent, Most Merciful’ was revealed. [Saheeh - Ibn Katheer & ‘Saheeh Abu Daawood’ [no. 707] 3. That it is a verse of al-Faatihah but not of any other Surah or it is part of the first verse of every Surah. This is another opinion reported from ash- Shaafi`ee but it is ghareeb. 4. That it is an independent verse of the Qur`aan heading every Surah but not actually part of that Surah. [5] Agreement of the scholars that Bismillah is part of the verse of Soorah an-Nahl: However it is an agreement of the scholars the basmAllah comprises part of the verse of Surah an-Nahl wherein Allah says: “She said: O chiefs! Here is delivered to me a noble letter. Indeed it is from Sulaymaan and it [reads], ‘In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.’" [Soorah An-Naml (27): 29-30] Ruling of Bismillah in the Prayer: As regard to whether one should recite it loudly in prayer then the fiqh of this branch is unlike from the difference mentioned above: 1. Those who follow the second and fourth opinions are not of the view that one recites it loudly. Indeed Imaam Maalik was of this opinion, depending upon the literal sense of the following hadeeth and its likes: “The Messenger Page 7 of 19AHYA.ORG - Authentic Islamic Resources and Information Monday, 29 October 2007http://www.ahya.org/amm/modules.php?name=Sections&op=printpage&artid=6
  8. 8. of Allah (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) used to commence his prayer by saying the takbeer and reciting, ‘all praise and thanks are due to Allah.’ [Saheeh Muslim Eng. trans. 1 no. 1005] from Aa`ishah (radiyallahu anhu)] 2. As for those who follow the first opinion then they differ falling into two opinions: (a) That one recites it loudly As it is a part of al-Faatihah and therefore it should be recited in the same way as the rest of the Soorah. This is the view of a group of the Sahaabah, and a number of the scholars after them, from amongst them ash- Shaafi`ee. They base their view upon the following Ahadeeth. Narrated ibn Abbaas (radiyallahu anhu): “The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) recited, ‘with the Name of Allah, Most Beneficent, Most Merciful’ loudly.” [Al-Haakim, [Mustadrak [1/326 no. 750], wherein he said that it was saheeh. However az-Zayla`i said in ‘Nasb ar- Raayah’ [1/345] that its isnaad contains Abdullaah bin `Amr bin Hisaan about who Alee bin al-Madeenee said that he used to fabricate ahaadeeth. Adh-Dhahabee mentioned the same in his ‘Talkhees.’] Narrated Anas bin Maalik (radiyallahu anhu) that he said in reply to one who asked him about the recitation of the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam): “His recitation would be elongated, then he recited ‘with the Name of Allah, Most Beneficent, Most Merciful’ elongating bismillaah, elongating ar-Rahmaan and elongating ar-Raheem.” [Saheeh Bukhaaree [Eng. Trans. 6/513 no. 566] Narrated Umm Salamah (radiyallahu anhu): “The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) used to cut his recitation at each verse [pausing before going on to the next. He would recite], ‘with the Name of Allah, Most Beneficent, Most Merciful’ [then] ‘all praise and thanks are due to Allah the Lord of the Universe,’ [then], ‘the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful’ [then], ‘Master of the Day of Judgement.” [Sunan Abu Daawood [Eng. Trans. 3/1120 no. 3990]. Ad-Daaraqutnee said that it has a saheeh isnaad and it is in ‘Saheeh Abu Daawood’ [no. 3379] (b) That it is not to be recited loudly. This is reported from the Prophet (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) by Bukhaaree and Muslim, it is the view of a number of the Sahaabah, and it is established from the Four Khaleefs. It is also the view of a group of the scholars after them from amongst them Abu Haneefah, ath-Thawree and Ahmad. So this is a summary of the views of the scholars with regards it recitation and they are all close to each other, and all praise is due to Allah, for they are agreed that the prayer of the one who recites loudly or silently is valid. [Ibn Katheer] FOOTNOTES [1] The baa (with) is known as the baa of isti`aanah or seeking help and support, meaning that the servant is seeking the aid of Allah in the action he is about to perform. "With the Name of Allah" meaning I start with every name that belongs to Allah, the Exalted. [Up] [2] But they do not have exactly the same meaning... The scholars of Arabic language are agreed that the word ArRahmaan conveys a stronger quality than the form Ar-Raheem Al‘Arzami said: “Ar-Rahmaan denotes Page 8 of 19AHYA.ORG - Authentic Islamic Resources and Information Monday, 29 October 2007http://www.ahya.org/amm/modules.php?name=Sections&op=printpage&artid=6
  9. 9. mercy to all creatures, while Ar-Raheem denotes mercy to the Believers.” Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudri said: “The Messenger of Allah said: “Jesus, the son of Mary said: “Ar-Rahmaan is the Merciful in the Hereafter as well as in this world, while Ar-Raheem is the Merciful in the Hereafter.” [Up] [3] This was the opinion of Abdullaah bin Abbaas, ibn Umar, ibn Zubair, Abu Hurayrah, `Ataa, Taawoos, Sa`eed bin Jubair, Makhool, az-Zuhree, Abdullaah bin Mubaarak, ash-Shaafi`ee, Ahmad – in one of the reports from him, Ishaaq bin Rahwayyah and Abu Ubayd al-Qaasim bin Salaam. [Up] [4] This was the opinion of Maalik, Abu Haneefah and their companions. [Up] [5] This is the opinion of Daawood and Ahmad in the second of the two reports from him. Abu Bakr ar-Raazee also relates this from Abu al-Hasan al-Karkhee and these two are from the greatest of the Hanafi scholars. [Up] VERSE TWO "All Praises and thanks are due to Allah, the Lord of the Universe": Meaning of word Hamd - The meaning of hamd is praise and extolling (praise, admire, worship). It also carries the meaning of ridaa (pleasure) and is the opposite of dhamm (blame, accuse). Hamd includes shukr - Because Hamd is more general and inclusive than that of shukr (giving thanks). This is due to the reason that Shukr is expressed as a response (reaction) to a favor whereas hamd is expressed both as a response to a favor as well as a spontaneous (willing, voluntary) action of dhikr. Ibn Abbaas said that ‘Al-Hamdu Lillaah is the word of everyone who gives thanks and if anyone said: “Al-Hamdu Lillaah” then Allah says: “My slave has thanked me.” [Narrated by Ibn Abi Haatim] Hamd is more general (inclusive, widespread) with respect to when it is done and shukr is more general (inclusive, widespread) with respect to how it is done. Some of the scholars said that shukr is more encompassing (embracing, inclusive) than Hamd because Praise is expressed by the tongue whereas thanks can be expressed by the tongue, heart and limbs. Thanks with the tongue is done by praising the Bestower of Blessings. Thanks by the limbs are done by acting in obedience to Him and abandoning actions of disobedience. Thanks in the heart is done by recognizing the magnitude (extent, importance) of the blessing and knowing that it has been given by the grace of Allah and not by the servants own merit. Both opinions are correct in their own place: Page 9 of 19AHYA.ORG - Authentic Islamic Resources and Information Monday, 29 October 2007http://www.ahya.org/amm/modules.php?name=Sections&op=printpage&artid=6
  10. 10. Ibn Jareer also said: “Al-Hamdu Lillaah is praise: Allah praises Himself and directs us to do likewise, as if He said: “Say: Al-Hamdu Lillaah...” The Prophet (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) said: “The best remembrance (of Allah) is La Ilaaha IllAllah (i.e. none is worthy of worship except Allah), and the best supplication is Al-Hamdu Lillaah.” [Narrated by Ibn Maajah, At-Tirmizi, An-Nasaa’i and others) Hence, it is due to the comprehensiveness (depth) of this word that we find the Prophets showing gratitude (thanks, gratefulness) in the Qur`aan by expressing hamd. [1] Allah commanded our Prophet (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) saying: "Say: All praises and thanks are due to Allah Who has not begotten a son, and who has no partner in His Dominion, nor He is low to have a Wali (helper, protector or supporter)…” [Soorah Al-Israa` (17): 111] These will be the words of the people of Paradise, thanking and praising Allah for His Great Favor: They would say: "All praises and thanks are due to Allah Who has removed from us all grief." [(35): 34] "And the close of their supplication will be: All praises and thanks are due to Allah, the Lord of the Universe." [(10): 10] Composition - Precedence of the word Hamd by the definite article ‘al’: In this verse, the word hamd has been preceded by the definite article al, the reason for this is to include all the different manners of praise and specify them to Him. It is an extolling with which Allah has praised Himself and ordered His servants to praise Him with. This meaning is further expressed in the hadeeth where the Prophet (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) said: “O Allaah! To You belongs all praise and thanks in its entirety, to you belongs the dominion in its entirety, in Your hand is all goodness in its entirety and to You returns the affair in its entirety." [Ibn Abee ad-Dunya from the hadeeth of Anas. Al-Bayhaqee from the hadeeth of Sa`d bin Abee Waqqaas and Abu Sa`eed al-Khudree.] Therefore by saying al-Hamdulillaah, the servant is praising and thanking Allah Alone because of His greatness, unity, perfection, His Beautiful Names and Attributes and His innumerable favors and blessings that none can encompass save He. It is indeed an amazing statement that encompasses something that volumes would be unable to express and created intellects unable to enumerate! All praise belongs to Allaah! No mentioning of the Adverb denoting ‘when’ and ‘where’ is Allah’s Praise: There is no mention in this verse as to the adverb denoting when this praise is said (dharf az-zamaan) or from where this praise comes from (dharf al-makaan). However, we learn this in Soorah Rum where Allah discloses this issue (i.e. dharf al-makaan (where) are His Praises) saying: “And His is all the praises and thanks in the heavens and the earth." [Soorah Rum (30): 18] Allah also informed us in His Final Revelation as to when is His Praise voiced: He said: “And He is Allah, none has the right to be worshipped besides Him. To Him belongs all praise in the beginning (i.e. this world) and in the end (i.e. the Hereafter)." [Soorah Qasas (28): 70] And His saying in the beginning of Surah Saba`a implies the same point: Page 10 of 19AHYA.ORG - Authentic Islamic Resources and Information Monday, 29 October 2007http://www.ahya.org/amm/modules.php?name=Sections&op=printpage&artid=6
  11. 11. “His is all the praise in the Hereafter, and He is the All-Wise, All- Aware." [Soorah As-Saba`a (34): 1] Virtues of Al- Hamdulillah 1. Al-Hamdulillah Pleases Allah, the Exalted: Narrated Anas bin Maalik that the Prophet (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) said: “Indeed Allah is pleased at His servant when he eats some food and praises Him for it or when he drinks a drink and praises Him for it." [Saheeh Muslim Eng. trans. 4/1429 no. 6592] 2. Al-Hamdulillah is Better than the entire world. Narrated Anas bin Maalik (radiyallahu anhu): “The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alahi wa- sallam) said: “If the entire world along with its contents were to be in the hand of a man from my nation and then he were to say al- Hamdulillaah, then al-Hamdulillaah would be better than [what his hand contained]." [Tirmidhee reports in ‘Nawaadir al-Usul’] Al-Qurtobee commented upon this saying: “This means that granting of the entire world is not very great blessing in comparison to the guidance of uttering Al-Hamdulillah. This statement is better than the world because the world is soon to perish whereas the statement will endure (prevail, exist) for it is from those righteous deeds that remain. Allah said: “The righteous deeds that last are better in the Sight of your Lord, for reward and better for resort (hope, chance)." [Soorah Maryam (19): 76] 3. Al-Hamdulillah Fills the Scale: Narrated Abu Musaa al-Ash`aree: “The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) said: “Purity is half of faith. Al-Hamdulillaah fills the scales and Subhaan Allah wal- Hamdulillaah fills what is between the heaven and the earth.” [Muslim Eng.tran. 1 # 432] 4. Al- Hamdulillah: - Most excellent supplication Narrated Jaabir bin Abdullaah: “The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) said: “The most excellent dhikr is ‘Laa ilaaha illallah and the most excellent supplication is [the statement] al-Hamdulillaah.” [Sunan at-Tirmidhee [no. 3623]. It was declared hasan by Al-Albaanee in ‘Saheeh at- Tirmidhee’ [no. 2694] Meaning of the word 'Rabb’: Linguistically the word rabb means master (one who is obeyed), owner, one who puts something in order. When used in a possessive structure it can be applied to other than Allah, for example it is said ‘rabb ad-daar’(the master of the house), similarly in the Qur’aan it is mentioned that Yusuf (alaihi as-salaam) said to one of the inmates of prison: “Mention me in the presence of your master. (Rabbika)" [Yusuf (12): 42] Likewise, it is mentioned in the famous hadeeth of Jibreel, when the Prophet (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) listed some of the signs of the Hour: “…When the slave-girl gives birth to her master (rabbatahaa)..." [Sahih Muslim eng. Trans. v1 #1] However the word ar-Rabb can only ever be applied to Allah as it is one of the Names of Allah and means the One Who cultivates (builds) and sustains (maintains, preserves) all of His servants through regulating the affairs and granting all types of favors and blessings. [See Fundamentals of Allah’s Names and Attributes] Meaning of the word aalamen: ‘Aalameen’ is the plural of ‘aalam’ and ‘aalam’ is itself a plural and has no singular. Except Allah all the creation is known as Aalam. So all generations and species are a world (Aalam) of its own. Page 11 of 19AHYA.ORG - Authentic Islamic Resources and Information Monday, 29 October 2007http://www.ahya.org/amm/modules.php?name=Sections&op=printpage&artid=6
  12. 12. Allah Himself manifested the meaning of Aalameen in the Qur’aan recalling the words of Pharaoh when he said: “and what is the Lord of the Aalameen?” He (Moosa (alaihi as-salaam) said: “the Lord of the heavens and the earth and what is between them." [Ash-Shu`araa (26): 23-24] Ibn Abbaas (radiyallahu anhu) said in explanation to this verse of al- Faatihah: “All praise and thanks are due to Allah, to Whom belongs the creation in its entirety (totality), the heavens and the earth and whosoever is in them and whatsoever is between them – that which is known and unknown.” We Learn – Fundamentals of Tawheed ar-Ruboobeyyah: (Maintaining the Unity of Allah’s Lordship) We learn from the meaning of the word ‘Rabb’ that Allah is the sole Creator of the Universe, all the affairs are under His disposition, He maintains and Sustains it, He is Self-Sufficient and the Creation is in need of Allah. From the latter part of the verse we know that He is distinct from His creation and not everywhere. These are issues is unanimously agreed upon by the Salafs [2] and clearly proven by a multitude of texts from the Book and the Sunnah: “Allah created all things and He is the Wakil’ (Trustee, Disposer of affairs, Guardian etc.) over all things.” [Soorah Zumar (39): 62] “No calamity strikes except by the will of Allah.” [Soorah at- Taghaabun (64): 11] “The Rahmaan Istawa (rose) upon the Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty).” [Soorah Ta-Ha 20: 25] [1] [Al-Mu`minoon (23): 28] [Ibraaheem (14): 39] [An-Naml (27): 15] [Faatir (35): 34] [Yunus (10): 10] [Up] [2] Salaf: lit. Predecessor. The early righteous Muslim, particularly those of the first three generations. Salafee: One who knows Salaf- us-Saaliheen and loves them, tries to follow their way (manhaj) and sticks to their creed aqeedah. [Up] VERSE THREE "The Most Beneficent (ar-Rahmaan), The Most Merciful (ar- Raheem)" Meaning of the words Ar-Rahmaan and Ar-Raheem: Ar-Rahmaan and Ar-Raheem are two different descriptions and two Names of Allah, the Exalted. They are derived from the root-word rahma (Mercy) in a way to express intense (strong, powerful, extreme) and exaggerated (stress, go on and on) meanings. Ar-Rahmaan is more intense than Ar-Raheem - Because Ar-Rahmaan is the one endowed with Mercy that extends to all of the creations in this world and to the believers in the Hereafter. Ar-Raheem on the other hand is the One endowed with Mercy that extends to only the believers on the Day of Judgement. This is understood by the narration reported from Eesa, as mentioned by ibn Page 12 of 19AHYA.ORG - Authentic Islamic Resources and Information Monday, 29 October 2007http://www.ahya.org/amm/modules.php?name=Sections&op=printpage&artid=6
  13. 13. Katheer and others - that Essa (alaihi as-salaam) said: “Ar-Rahmaan: the One Who shows Mercy in this world and the Hereafter. Ar-Raheem: the One Who shows Mercy in the Hereafter” This is witnessed by the verses of the Qur’aan where Allah says: “Ar- Rahmaan. He taught the Qur`aan…so which of the favors of your Lord will you two deny?’ [Soorah Ar-Rahmaan (55): 1-13] ‘Do they not see the birds above them, spreading out their wings and folding them in? None upholds them except ar- Rahmaan’ [Soorah Al-Mulk (67): 19] Explanation: From his Mercy to His creation is His kindness to the birds and His holding them in the sky while they are spreading out their wings and folding them in. He referred the His Favors and His Mercy and Blessings of this world with the Name, Ar-Rahman. And He, the Exalted said: “And He is Ever Most Merciful (Raheem) to the believers.’ [Soorah Al-Ahzaab (33): 43] Explanation: Here we see that Allah particularized His name ar-Raheem to the believers. [1] Tawheed al-Asma’ wa Sifaat – Maintaining the Unity of Allah’s Names and Attributes The above verse guides us to the Three Beautiful Names of Our Lord: Allaah, Ar-Rahmaan and Ar-Raheem and His Attribute of being Merciful. Collectively we are familiar with ninety-nine Names of Allah and some of His Attributes via the Qur’aan and the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam). According to the people of knowledge (i.e. scholars) it is very important for a believer to be well aquatinted with principles of Allah’s Names and Attributes because it is one of the three divisions / categories of Islamic Monotheism (Tawheed) – which is the foundation of the religion of Islam. Tawheed consists of three aspects: The Unity of Allah’s Lordship (Tawheed of Allah’s Lordship) The Unity of Allah’s Worship – Ebadah- (Tawheed al-Ebadah) The Unity of Allah’s Names and Attributes (Tawheed al-Asma’ wa Sifaat). We will learn Tawheed al-Asma’ wa Sifaat as we have come across the Names and Attributes of Allah, the Exalted. This category of Tawheed has four main aspects: 1. The first basic rule to maintain the Unity of Allah’s Names and Attributes is that Allah must be referred according to how Allah has referred Himself in the Qur’aan and His Prophet (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) has described Him in the Sunnah, without going into details or explaining them other than their obvious meaning. For example Allah says in Soorah Fath (48) verse 6 that He gets angry with disbelievers and hypocrites. Thus, anger is one of Allah’s Attributes. It is incorrect to say that His Anger means His punishment since anger is a sign of weakness in man and, as such, is not befitting for Allah. What Allah has stated should be accepted with qualification that His anger is Page 13 of 19AHYA.ORG - Authentic Islamic Resources and Information Monday, 29 October 2007http://www.ahya.org/amm/modules.php?name=Sections&op=printpage&artid=6
  14. 14. not like human anger, based on Allah’s statement, There is nothing like Him. [Soorah Ash-Shoorah (42): 11] 2. The second aspect involves referring to Allah as He referred Himself without giving Him any new name or attribute. For example Allah should not be given the name al-Ghaadib (the Angry one), inspite of the fact that He has said that He is Angry, because neither Allah nor His Messenger has used this name. 3. In the third aspect Allah is referred to without giving Him the attributes of His creation. The key principle that should be followed when dealing with Allah’s Names is the Qur’aanic formula. “There is nothing like Him, He is hearer and seer of all.” [42:11] The Attributes of hearing & seeing are amongst mankind, but when they are attributed to the Divine Being they are without comparison in their perfection. When these attributes are associated with men they necessitate ear and eye, which cannot be attributed to Allah. 4. The fourth aspect requires that man not be given the names and attributes of Allah. For example one should not attribute the Divine attribute of absolute infallibility, knowledge of the past, the future and the unseen, the ability to change destiny etc. In doing so one will set up rivals who share Allah’s Attributes and who, infact, become God’s besides Allah. Similar with names of Allah, the definite form cannot be given to His creation unless preceded by the prefix ‘Abd meaning ‘slave of’ or ‘servant of’. [1] Question? – How is it possible to reconcile (set up, make-up, and settle) what we have thus far established with his saying in the supplication: “The Rahmaan of the world and the Hereafter and the Raheem of them” [Saheeh according to al-Haakim [1/515]. However, adh- Dhahabee criticized this by saying, "al-Hakam [its narrator] is not trustworthy and precise." Al-Mundhiree said about this isnaad in ‘Targheeb wat Tarheeb’ [2/616], "al-Hakam is abandoned, accused." Refer to Muqbil bin Haadee, ‘Takhreej `alaa Tafseer ibn Katheer’ [1/43] Answer: The obvious reply - and Allah knows best - is that Ar-Raheem is specific to the believers as we have mentioned, but it is not specified to them in the Hereafter alone, rather His Mercy to them is included in this world as well. So the meaning of ‘the Raheem of them’ would be ‘His Mercy to the believers in them’. And the evidence that He is Raheem to the believers in this world as well [as the Hereafter] is that this is the literal meaning of His, the Exalted’s saying: ‘He is the One who sends His Blessings (salaah) upon you, and His Angels (to ask Allah to bless and forgive you), that He may bring you out darkness (of disbelief and polytheism) into the light (of Belief and Islamic Monotheism). And He is Ever Most Merciful (Raheem) to the believers.’ [Soorah Al- Ahzaab (33): 43] Explanation: His salaah (Blessings) upon them, asking forgiveness of His Angels and His leading them out of the darkness to the light is Mercy to them in this world and it is also a reason for Mercy in the Hereafter as well. And similar to this in meaning is His saying: ‘Allah has forgiven the Prophet (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam), the Muhaajiroon and the Ansaar who followed him in the time of distress after the hearts of a group of them had nearly deviated [from the Right Path], but He accepted their repentance. Certainly He is Full of Kindness to them, Most Merciful (Raheem).’ [Soorah At-Tawbah (9): 117] Explanation: For the Mercy is linked to the event that befell the Prophet, the Muhaajiroon and the Ansaar, and also His forgiving them was Mercy in this world even though it be the reason for Mercy in the Hereafter as well. The Knowledge [of what is correct] lies with Allah. [This discussion is taken Page 14 of 19AHYA.ORG - Authentic Islamic Resources and Information Monday, 29 October 2007http://www.ahya.org/amm/modules.php?name=Sections&op=printpage&artid=6
  15. 15. entirely from ash-Shanqeetee, ‘Adwaa al-Bayaan’ [1/31-32] uptill For the Mercy is linked to the event that befell the Prophet, the Muhaajiroon and the Ansaar, and also His forgiving them was Mercy in this world even though it be the reason for Mercy in the Hereafter as well.] [Up] VERSE FOUR "Master of the Day of Judgement" Recitation: The reciters have two different ways of reciting the first word of this verse, i.e Malik and Maalik, both of which have been reported via continuous (mutawaatir) transmission from the Prophet (sallallahu alahi wa- sallam) as well as Abu Bakr (radiyallahu anhu) and Umar (radiyallahu anhu). [As mentioned by at-Tirmidhee.] The meaning of the words Maalik and Malik: Maalik is derived from the root word Mulk (kingship, sovereignty) and Malik is derived from milk. (Ownership or possession) and of course both the words carry sound and good meaning. [1] 1. Reciting it as Malik, or the King - So the meaning of the verse would be that on that Day, Kingship belongs to Allah Alone and not to any of the creation who before then used to be kings on earth. On that Day they will come to know with certainty (surety, confirmation) that in reality they are powerless and humiliated and that Grandeur, Power and Authority belongs in its entirety to Him Alone. Allah says: "That Day when they will all come out, nothing of them will be hidden from Allah. Whose is the kingdom this Day? It belongs to Allah, the One, the Irresistible!" [Soorah Ghaafir (40): 16] 2. Reciting it as Maalik, or the Owner - So the meaning of the verse would be that on that Day, everything would belong to Him and no one else. No one will be able to voice an opinion or enforce a ruling as they used to do on this world. "That Day on which the Spirit and the Angels will stand forth in rows, none shall speak except he whom the Most Beneficent allows and he will speak only that which is correct and true." [Soorah An-Naba`a (78): 38] "All voices will be humbled for the Most Beneficent and nothing shall you hear but the low sound of their footsteps." [Soorah Taa Haa (20): 108] "They cannot intercede except for one with whom He is pleased." [Soorah Al-Anbiyaa (21): 28] ? Question - If it is asked: why did Allah specify his Kingship or Ownership to the Last Day when it is known that these qualities always have and always will apply to Him? Answer: The answer lies in the fact that on that Day, it will become totally and utterly clear to mankind the completeness and perfection of His Kingship, Justice and Wisdom, just as it will become totally clear that the sovereignty of the creation has been severed to the extent that the kings, ministers, the slaves and free-born will all be made the same. All of them yielding to His Greatness rendered in complete submission to His Magnificence, expectant of His recompense, hoping for His reward and Page 15 of 19AHYA.ORG - Authentic Islamic Resources and Information Monday, 29 October 2007http://www.ahya.org/amm/modules.php?name=Sections&op=printpage&artid=6
  16. 16. fearing His punishment. This is why His Kingship was fortified by mentioning it in this context; otherwise He is Master of the Day of Judgement and all other days. Meaning of the word Yawm - The word yawm refers to a period of time. In common usage it refers to the time between the onset of dawn and sunset. It can also refer to a particular portion of time or hour in a day as in His saying: "This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed my favour upon you and chosen for you Islaam as your religion.” [Soorah Al-Maa`idah (5): 3] It can also refer to periods of time greater than one day as in His sayings: "He arranges each matter from the heaven to the earth; then it will ascend to Him in a Day the extent of which is a thousand years of those which you count." [Soorah As-Sajdah (32): 5] "The Angels and the Spirit ascend to Him during a day the extent of which is fifty thousand years." [Soorah al-Ma`aarij (70): 4] Meaning of the word Deen: The word Deen here means reckoning or recompense of actions with complete justice and it is in this sense that the word is employed in His saying: "On that Day Allah will pay them their Deen in truth." [Soorah An-Nur (24): 25] Ibn Abbaas (radiyallahu anhu) said in explanation to the word yawm ad- deen: "The Day on which the creations are judged - the Day of Resurrection. He will recompense them for their actions, if they were good then it will be good, if they were bad then it will be bad except for that which He Forgives for indeed the only order [on that Day] will be His order. What is the Day of Deen? Allah Himself explained to us the meaning of Yawm ad-Deen in His Final Revelation saying: "And what will make you comprehend what the Day of Deen is? Again what will make you comprehend what the Day of Deen is? It is the Day when no person shall have power [to do] anything for another." [Soorah Al-Mutaffifeen (83): 17-19] Two Names of Allah, the Exalted According to the rules of Tawheed al-Asma’ wa Sifaat, it is unlawful to call anyone by the name of al-Maalik or al-Malik. This issue is also witnessed by the hadeeth of Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam): "On the Day of Resurrection Allah will hold the earth and fold the heaven with His Right Hand. Then He will say: ‘I am the King, where are the kings [who reigned] on the earth?” [Saheeh Bukhaaree [Eng. Trans. 9/355 no. 479], Saheeh Muslim [Eng. Trans. 4/1462 no. 6703] Narrated Abu Hurayrah (radiyallahu anhu) that the Prophet (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) said: "Indeed the most disloyal and treacherous name in the Sight of Allah is that of a person named the king of Kings (malikul amlaak). For there is no Maalik except for Allah, the Mighty and Magnificent." [Saheeh Bukhaaree [Eng. Trans. 8/144 nos: 224, 225], Saheeh Muslim [Eng. Trans. 3/1171 no. 5339] Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) said: "The person towards whom Allah displays the most Wrath, and the most despicable on the Day of Resurrection is one who was named king of kings (malikul amlaak) for there is no Malik except for Allah." [Ahmad [2/315]. It is saheeh as in ‘as-Saheehah’ [no. 915] If one who fulfils the requirements of the description, then it is permissible Page 16 of 19AHYA.ORG - Authentic Islamic Resources and Information Monday, 29 October 2007http://www.ahya.org/amm/modules.php?name=Sections&op=printpage&artid=6
  17. 17. to call someone as Malik or Maalik. In this sense is His saying: "Indeed Allah has sent you (Talut) Saul as a king." [Soorah Al-Baqarah (2): 247] "Moses said to his people: O my people! Remember the favor of Allah upon you when He appointed amongst you prophets and made you kings." [Soorah Al-Maa`idah (5): 20] FOOTNOTES [1] Both recitations, of course, carry sound and good meanings however it is possible to argue that the first reading has the most comprehensive meaning as it is not possible to have sovereignty and kingship without possession, whereas there can be ownership without kingship. Similarly it is the king who will enjoin laws upon the owner as to how he should regulate his possession. Allah also says, "His will be the kingdom on the Day that the trumpet is blown." [Al-An`aam (6): 73] [Up] VERSE FIVE "You Alone we worship, You Alone we seek help” Recitation: It is prohibited to recite ‘Iyaka’ because the meaning of ‘Iyaka’ is the light of sun, instead, it should be recited as ‘Iyyaka’ with a Shaddah on the Yaa. [Tafseer Ibn Katheer] Meaning of the Word Ebadah: Linguistically ‘ibaadah’ is derived from ‘abada’ which in Arabic Language means to be low or humbled, while in the Islamic Terminology (Islamic Laws) it is a comprehensive term referring to the utmost love of Allah with utmost submission. Its consists of seven Pillars: Composition Mentioning ‘You Alone do we worship’ before ‘You Alone do we ask for help’ This is because of two reasons: 1. Worship is the intended goal of the creation of mankind and Jinn and the Aid (help) of Allah is the route (way) to attaining that goal, hence the most important thing has been mentioned first. This has been clearly mentioned in the Final Revelation: "I have created the jinn and mankind only for My worship." [Soorah Az-Zaariyaat (51): 56] 2. Another reason given is that the wording is by a way of mentioning the general before the specific and to show that attention should be given to Allah's Right over the right of His servant. General - is the Right of Allah, which is general (common) on all His Slaves that they worship Him Alone. Specific - Specific is the right of those slaves on Allah, those who worship Allah Alone and do not set up rivals with Him in His worship. In accordance to the following hadeeth: Narrated Muadh bin Jabal (radiyallahu anhu): The Prophet (sallallahu alahi wa-sallam) said, "O Mu'adh! Do you know what Allah's Right upon His slaves is?" I said, "Allah and His Apostle know best." The Prophet said, "To worship Him (Allah) Alone and to join none in worship with Him (Allah). Do you know what their right upon Him is?" I replied, "Allah and His Apostle know best." The Prophet said, "Not to punish them (if they do so)." [Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol.9, # Page 17 of 19AHYA.ORG - Authentic Islamic Resources and Information Monday, 29 October 2007http://www.ahya.org/amm/modules.php?name=Sections&op=printpage&artid=6
  18. 18. 470] Mentioning of Allah as a second person - This verse employs an address to Allah in the second person and this is most fitting at such an occasion because when one praises and supplicates to Allah, then He is near and responsive. As Allah says in the Qur’aan: "When My servants asks you concerning Me then I am close. I respond to the invocation of the supplicant when he calls upon Me." [Soorah Al-Baqarah (2): 186] The previous verses were in the third person as they were informing us about Allah. Another explanation given is that the style of the verses has changed from the third person to second person in order to stimulate (arouse) and awaken the reciter such that his attention is drawn to the content of the verse Referring the reciter as 'we worship': The answer lies in the fact that the wise Sharee`ah has legislated many actions of worship to be done in congregation, and Indeed the congregational prayer is from the greatest of means to removing sectarian differences and prejudice based upon ones color, race or land. Through the congregational prayer the Muslims attain mutual love, respect and brotherhood. Furthermore, it has also been recommended for the servant of Allah to supplicate for his Muslim brothers, and glad tidings are promised as known from the following ahadeeth: Narrated Abu ad-Dardaa (radiyallahu anhu): “Prophet (sallallahu alahi wa- sallam) said: "There is no Muslim who supplicates for his brother in his absence except that the Angels say: the same for you as well." [Saheeh Muslim Eng. Trans v 4 # 6588] Narrated Abu ad-Dardaa (radiyallahu anhu): “Prophet (sallallahu alahi wa- sallam) said: "The supplication of a Muslim for his brother in his absence is answered. At his head is the Angel commissioned [for conveying the supplication to Allah], whenever he supplicates for good for his brother the Angel says: "And for you is the same." [Saheeh Muslim vol: 4 #6590] We Learn – Fundamentals of Negation and Affirmation: This verse points to the fulfillment of the meaning of Laa ilaaha illaa Allah (there is none worthy of worship except for Allah) for its meaning is comprised of two pillars: A Negation and an Affirmation: Negation: Denying every single object of worship to be worthy of any kind of worship except Allah, contained in the words ‘laa ilaaha.’ Affirmation: Affirming all the worship for Allah Alone, contained in the words ‘illa Allah.’ Explanation: This negation in the laa ilaaha illaa Allah was indicated by placing the object of worship first in the verse such that it reads "You Alone…”. It is established in the rules of the Arabic language that placing the object first in a sentence is one of the ways of confining the meaning of the verb to the object alone. The affirmation part of the kalima was indicated in His saying, ‘we worship’. Allah, the Exalted, has explained this meaning which is indicated Page 18 of 19AHYA.ORG - Authentic Islamic Resources and Information Monday, 29 October 2007http://www.ahya.org/amm/modules.php?name=Sections&op=printpage&artid=6
  19. 19. here in detail elsewhere. For example His saying: 'O Mankind! Worship your Lord who created you. "So do not set up rivals with Allah while you know.’ [Baqarah (2): 21] Affirmation - ‘worship your Lord’ Negation "So do not set up rivals with Allah" He said: ‘We have indeed sent a Messenger to every people saying: “worship Allah and leave all that is worshipped besides Him’ (16:36) Affirmation -‘worship Allah Negation 'And leave all that is worshipped besides Allah’. He says: "And whosoever rejects all that is worshipped besides Allah and believes in Allah has held onto the most trustworthy handhold’ [Soorah Al-Baqarah (2): 256] The Link for this Article is http://www.ahya.org/modules.php?name=Sections&op=viewarticle&artid=6 Page 19 of 19AHYA.ORG - Authentic Islamic Resources and Information Monday, 29 October 2007http://www.ahya.org/amm/modules.php?name=Sections&op=printpage&artid=6

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