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Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases

Emerging & Re-emerging Infectious Diseases

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Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases

  1. 1. WELCO ME
  4. 4. AIM To introduce major concepts related to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases.
  5. 5. SCOPE Emerging and Re-emerging infectious diseases Factors contributing to emerge Basic concept of the infectious diseases Challenges to prevent the emergence Recommendation Conclusion
  6. 6. “Emerging” & “Re-Emerging” Emerging Diseases that have not occurred in humans before or that occurred only in small numbers in isolated places. Re-emerging Diseases that once were major health problems globally or in a particular country, and then declined dramatically, but are again becoming health problems for a significant proportion of the population. Diseases thought to be adequately controlled making a “comeback” are
  9. 9. Ecological disruption and human intrusion into new ecological system increases the exposure of human to new infectious agents. Usually tropical & Developing countries are HOT SPOT of outbreak of diseases
  10. 10. Climate change is another potential driver that shifts the ecological niche or range of the diseases. Long-term impact of global warming, some major climatic events caused disease outbreaks in the areas that have not experienced the disease before.
  11. 11. Urbanization and Industrialization impact the prevalence and scope of both infectious and chronic diseases. High risked sexual practices, multiple sexual partners and use of substances directly transmit the diseases Overcrowding causes person to person rapid spreading of diseases. Poor housing quality, poor sanitation and water supply infrastructure.
  12. 12. International trade of goods and services through international border facilitate the spread of diseases by bringing pathogen to new geographical areas. Travelers are exposed to variety of pathogen, many of them have never encountered and no immunity to many diseases.
  13. 13. EVOLUTION OF THE INFECTIOUS AGENT Mutations in bacterial genes that confer resistance to antibiotics – 20% Multidrug-resistant & extremely drug- resistant TB Multi drug resistant P.falciparum
  14. 14. REDUCED HUMAN IMMUNITY Immunization failure (breakdowns in public health measures) Increased number of immunocompromise d hosts.
  15. 15. War & Political conflict cuase breakdown of public health infrastructure has role in emergence of diseases. Poor primary health care services may not be equipped to deal with some infectious outbreaks
  16. 16. Year recognized Disease Infectious agent New viral strain emerge periodically Pandemic Influenza Influenza virus 1967 Murburg hemorrhagic fever Marburg virus Before 1976 Salmonellosis Salmonella entertidis 1976 Ebola hemorrhagic fever Ebola virus 1983 AIDS Human Immuno-deficiency Virus 1983 Gastric ulcers Helicobacter pylori 1989 Hepatitis C Hepatitis C virus (HCV) 1998 Nipah encephalitis Nipah encephalitis 2002 VRSA infection Vancomycin resistant S. aureus 2003 SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) SARS-associated coronavirus 2015 Zika Zika virus EMERGING DISEASES
  17. 17. RE-EMERGING DISEASES DISEASE AGENT DENGUE FEVER Dengue virus MALARIA Plasmodium species (protozoan) MENINGITIS Group A Streptococcus (bacterium) SCHISTOSOMIASIS Schistosoma species (helminth) RABIES Rabies virus CHOLERA Vibrio cholerae 0139 (bacterium) POLIO Poliovirus YELLOW FEVER Yellow fever virus TUBERCULOSIS Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  18. 18. SARS: The First Emerging Infectious Disease Of The 21st Century (China, 2003) SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) Total 8429 cases; 824 deaths 30 countries in 7-8 months in 2003
  19. 19. The 2014 Ebola outbreak is the largest in history. Primarily affecting Guinea, Northern Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Ebola virus disease (EVD), previous known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (Ebola HF) Fatality rate of up to 90% Transmitted by direct contact with the blood, body fluids and tissues of infected animals or people
  20. 20. More than 11,000 deaths only in Africa
  21. 21. Tuberculosis or TB is an infectious bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs. In the 18th and 19th centuries, a tuberculosis epidemic rampaged throughout Europe and North America. In 1993 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that TB was a Global Emergency; the first time that a disease had been labeled as such. TUBERCULOSIS
  22. 22. Approximately 390 million people worldwide infected with the dengue virus each year.
  23. 23. Since December 2014, swine flu has claimed the lives of over 1,300 people in India, making it the worst outbreak of the virus in the country since SWINE FLU (H1N1 Virus)
  24. 24. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1)
  25. 25. Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis (Tree Man) GENETICS The cause of this condition is an inactivating PH mutation in the EVER1 or EVER2 genes which are located adjacent to one another on Chromosome 17
  26. 26. MALARIA Infectious agent is Plasmodium species Malaria is transmitted among humans by female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles.
  28. 28. CHOLERA Causative agent is Vibrio cholera Water borne diseas
  29. 29. Varying pathogenicity (mortality ranging from 21-80%). Responsible for 1967 outbreak in Europe. Outbreaks in 2000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo and 2005 in Angola. Currently no vaccine or treatment. MURBURG VIRUS (Murburg Hemorrhagic Fever)
  31. 31. EID IN SEA REGION EID – a leading cause of death globally 17 m die annually from ID – SEA accounts for 41% or 7 m deaths EID cause suffering & impose financial burden on society Plague outbreak in 1994 cost India over 1.5 B USD due to loss in trade, employment & tourism In Thailand cost of one AIDS patient more than 5000 USD Overall costs for India on account of AIDS estimataed at 11 b USD Increasing or persistent poverty & poor living conditions continue to expose millions of people to the hazards of infectious diseases. The low priority & support given to public health
  32. 32. MANAGEMENT OF EID A proactive and planned approach to ensure the appropriate prevention and control of the spread of disease. Strategic planning should include: Phase I (non-alert) is a routine, preparatory state; Phase II (alert) is the detection, confirmation and declaration of changes identified during non-alert conditions; Phase III (response) includes the ongoing assessment of information and the planning and implementation of an appropriate response, which includes the coordination and mobilization of resources to support intervention activities Phase IV (follow-up) activities include re-evaluation,
  33. 33. RECOMMENDATION Strengthening epidemiological surveillance & laboratory capabilities and services . Establishment of a rapid response team. Monitoring antimicrobial resistance. Establishment of international disease surveillance. networking and advocacy. Screening on International travels and trades. Networks of laboratories that link countries and regions need to be established. Strong national and regional public health systems.
  34. 34. CONCLUSION
  35. 35. Thank You!!!