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Logics

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1. 1. Presented by Shah Abdul Azeem
2. 2. Opposition Standard form of categorical proposition having same subject term and same predicate term but differ from each other in Quality andQuantity is called opposition.
3. 3. Four types of Traditional square of opposition  Contradictories  Contraries  Sub-contraries  Sub-Altarnation
4. 4. One is the denial or negation of the others Both cannot be true Both cannot be false
5. 5. Example of Contradictories  All Judges are lawyers.  Some Judges are not lawyers.
6. 6. Two propositions having same subject term and same predicate term but differ in quality,but same in quantity. Both cannot be true but both can be false.
7. 7. Example of contraries  All poets are dreamers,  No poets are dreamers.
8. 8. When two propositions having same subject term and same predicate term and differ in quality but same in quantity. Both cannot be false but both can be true.
9. 9. Example of sub-contraries  Some diamonds are precious stones.  Some diamonds are not precious stones
10. 10. When two propositions having same subject term and same predicate term agree in quality but different in quantity.
11. 11. Example of Sub-Alternation  All Spiders are eight leged animal.  Some spiders are eight leged animal  No whales are fishes  Some wales are fishes
12. 12. 1) Super-altern 2) Sub-altern
13. 13. It is used for universal proposition
14. 14. It is used for particular proposition
15. 15. Thanku for your corporation