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From Nanometers to Gigaparsecs: Applications of Nanotechnology in Astronomy

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This presentation was submitted to Mr. Nahid-Ur-Rahman Chowdhury, Assistant Professor, Dept. of EEE, AUST as a part of course performance. Team Nucleus consists five bright minds: Nafis Sadeque, Shadman Sakib, Shaer Ahmed, Sabrina Sabah, Jahid Hasan. More Details and references: http://shaerahmed.com/from-nanometers-to-gigaparsecs.html

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From Nanometers to Gigaparsecs: Applications of Nanotechnology in Astronomy

  1. 1. Team Nucleus Team Nucleus consists five bright minds: Nafis Sadeque (ID: 14.01.05.066 Contact: 01949 068517, sadeque555@gmail.com) Shadman Sakib (ID: 14.01.05.069 Contact: 01719 512240, findssshere@gmail.com) Shaer Ahmed (ID: 14.01.05.071 Contact: 01823 192288, shaer_ahmed@ymail.com) Sabrina Sabah (ID: 14.01.05.086, Contact: 01798 050594, sabrinasabah1234@gmail.com) Jahid Hasan (ID: 13.01.05.110 Contact: 01784086919, jahidhasanjony.aust@gmail.com) From Nanometers to Gigaparsecs: Applications of Nanotechnology in Astronomy
  2. 2. Introduction to Nanotechnology Team Nucleus 2 1 Nanometer is 1 billionth of a meter 1 Gigaparsec is 3.26 billion light years Richard P. Feynman December, 1959 Plenty of Room at the Bottom “The principles of physics do not speak against the possibility of maneuvering things atom by atom. It is not an attempt to violate any laws; it is something, in principle, that can be done.” [1] From Nanometers to Gigaparsecs: Applications of Nanotechnology in Astronomy
  3. 3. Applying nanotechnology to see objects lightyears away Team Nucleus From Nanometers to Gigaparsecs: Applications of Nanotechnology in Astronomy 3 Late 80’s - Hubble Space Telescope has a primary mirror that is polished to an accuracy of 10 nanometer.2 - It has a 65 nanometer thick Aluminum reflective coating.3 - The protective coating is 25 nanometer thick Magnesium –Fluoride. 3 Such awe-inspiring pictures are possible only because of Nanotechnology! Sombrero Galaxy Hubble Space Telescope, 2004
  4. 4. Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR) Team Nucleus From Nanometers to Gigaparsecs: Applications of Nanotechnology in Astronomy 4 Correcting Error Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR) system was designed to correct the spherical aberration. The mirror optics were aluminum over coated with 2 nanometer thick Magnesium-Fluoride in a special coating facility at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. [4] COSTAR being installed during service mission 1 Before and after installing COSTAR Early 90’s
  5. 5. Chandra X-ray Observatory 5 Late 90’s NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, which was launched and deployed by Space Shuttle Columbia on July 23, 1999, is the most sophisticated X-ray observatory built to date. [5] NASA's flagship mission for X-ray astronomy From Nanometers to Gigaparsecs: Applications of Nanotechnology in AstronomyTeam Nucleus Project Details [6] Collecting Area: 0.04 m2 (0.43 sq ft) Wavelength: X-ray: 0.12–12 nm (0.1–10 keV) RMS Surface Smoothness: Between 0.185 – 0.344 Nanometer [7]
  6. 6. 6 Plating base consists of 5 nm of Chromium and 20 nm of gold. [8] Another tri-level resist consists of anti-reflection coating, 15 nm of tantalum pentoxide, and 200 nm of resist. [8] The HETG gratings have a much finer period, 200 nanometer for the high-energy gratings, and 400 nanometer for the medium energy gratings. [9] The mirrors have a reflecting surface with 33 nanometer iridium coating [10] The mirrors on Chandra are the largest, most precisely shaped and aligned, and smoothest mirrors ever constructed. [6] High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer Grating Cross Sections High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) Late 90’sChandra X-ray Observatory (contd.) From Nanometers to Gigaparsecs: Applications of Nanotechnology in AstronomyTeam Nucleus
  7. 7. Giant Magellan Telescope From Nanometers to Gigaparsecs: Applications of Nanotechnology in Astronomy 7 Late 2000’s The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is a ground-based extremely large telescope under construction. • Planned for completion in 2025. • It will consist of seven 27.6 ft diameter primary segments. [11] • Will have effective aperture of a 80.4 ft primary mirror and collecting area of about 368 square meters.[12] A 2000 ton rotating behemoth The final polished surface departs from the desired shape by no more than ~25 nanometers. After polishing, the surface is coated with a thin layer of aluminum to achieve maximum reflectivity. [13] The mirror surface is so smooth that if it were the size of the continental U.S., the highest mountains would be little more than a half-inch high. [14] Team Nucleus
  8. 8. 8 Gravitational waves are 'ripples' in the fabric of space-time caused by catastrophic events such as colliding black holes, the collapse of stellar cores. [15] What is Gravitational Wave? Although polishing specifications required < 0.3 nm smoothness, aLIGO mirrors has a smoothness of 0.08 – 0.23 nanometers [16] From Nanometers to Gigaparsecs: Applications of Nanotechnology in AstronomyTeam Nucleus Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (aLIGO) Early 2010’s Features of the coating planetary system produce a ~1 nanometer peak-to-peak thickness ripple, in the outer regions of the mirror.[16] The HAM-ISI is a six-axis passive-active ultra-high-vacuum compatible isolator. The platform can carry more than 500 kg of payload and position it with nanometer resolution.[17]
  9. 9. 9 JWST will be the premier observatory of the next decade, serving thousands of astronomers worldwide. It will study every phase in the history of our Universe, ranging from the first luminous glows after the Big Bang, to the formation of solar systems capable of supporting life on planets like Earth, to the evolution of our own Solar System. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Mid 2010’s Seeing Beyond From Nanometers to Gigaparsecs: Applications of Nanotechnology in AstronomyTeam Nucleus
  10. 10. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) (Contd.) 10 Mid 2010’s From Nanometers to Gigaparsecs: Applications of Nanotechnology in AstronomyTeam Nucleus A layer of 100 nanometer thick gold coating was applied to the mirrors by vacuum vapor deposition. [18] The reflective surface is polished to an "average" roughness of only 20 nanometers.[19] 21 feet diameter, 18 segmented Gold coated primary mirror made up of Beryllium At temperatures colder than -240°C, the backplane was engineered to be steady down to 32 nanometers. [20] The Backplane is the "spine" of the mirror
  11. 11. Future Projects 11 2020-2040 1 Euclid, a planned mission to investigate the profound cosmic mysteries of dark matter and dark energy, has passed its preliminary design review. [21] WFIRST, the Wide Field InfraRed Survey Telescope, is a NASA observatory designed to settle essential questions in the areas of dark energy, exoplanets, and infrared astrophysics. [22] 2 3 Nanowires to be used as image arrays for exploratory missions. [23] 4 NASA is developing Carbon Nanotube (CNT) field emitters to improve their efficiency and durability. [24] From Nanometers to Gigaparsecs: Applications of Nanotechnology in AstronomyTeam Nucleus Picometer Accuracy With NASA funding, a team of scientists at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center has been developing a high-speed interferometer capable of assuring picometer-level stability, to find Exoplanets. [25]
  12. 12. 12 References are available at: http://shaerahmed.com/from-nanometers-to-gigaparsecs.html From Nanometers to Gigaparsecs: Applications of Nanotechnology in AstronomyTeam Nucleus THANK YOU!

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