Published on

A ppt presentation on Biodiversity. (created for the CBSE class- 9 science chapter of Biodiversity)

Published in: Technology
1 Comment
1 Like
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Biodiversity is short form for biological diversity. Biological diversity is the variety and variability among living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they occur. Biodiversity is in a simplest term means " the variety of life on earth". This variety can be measured on several different levels, viz., Genetic, species and ecosystem.
  2. 2. Archae • Bacteria • Eukaryota Six Kingdoms of life are •Archaebacteria - the Archaea bacteria which form one of the Domains of Life. •Eubacteria - true bacteria and cyanobacteria. •Protista - single-celled organisms such as algae and Protozoans. •Fungi - uni-cellular and multicellular fungi, yeasts and moulds. •Plantae - multicellular plants. •Animalia - multicellular animals.
  3. 3. Divisions of Eubacteria
  4. 4. Rhodophyta (red algae) Chromista Heterokontophyta (heterokonts) Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolates Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Excavates Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Division of protista
  5. 5. Division of animalia
  6. 6. Species - species diversity is the variety of species in a given region or area. Estimates of global species diversity vary enormously because it is so difficult to guess how many species there may be in less well explored habitats such as untouched rain forest. Global species estimates range from 2 million to 100 million species. Ten million is probably nearer the mark. Only 1.4 million species have been named. Of these, approximately 250,000 are plants and 750,000 are insects. New species are continually being discovered every year. It has been estimated that the deep sea floor may contain as many as a million undescribed new species. To put it simply, we really have absolutely no idea how many species there are!
  7. 7. A DNA “barcode” refers to a short region of a gene that changes over evolutionary time at a rate that results in measurable distinctions among species (analogous to the barcodes on products in stores). The Consortium for the Barcode of Life [see CBOL] has brought together natural history museums and other research organizations with the goal of producing DNA bar-coding information for all named species on the planet. DNA bar-coding programs can address two different goals. First, such programs may be concerned about diagnosis and identification of alreadyknown species. Second, such programs may be interested in the discovery of new species, including "cryptic" species that may not be revealed by morphological or other characters. The second goal raises issues about species concepts and the nature of DNA bar-coding based evidence for species status.
  8. 8. Genetic - variation between individuals of the same species. This includes genetic variation between individuals in a single population , as well as variations between different populations of the same species. Genetic differences can now be measured using increasingly sophisticated techniques. These differences are the raw material of evolution.
  9. 9. Ecosystem - Communities of plants and animals, together with the physical characteristics of their environment (e.g. geology, soil and climate) interlink together as an ecological system, or 'ecosystem'. Ecosystem diversity is more difficult to measure because there are rarely clear boundaries between different ecosystems and they grade into one another. However, if consistent criteria are chosen to define the limits of an ecosystem, then their number and distribution can also be measured. Ecologist Jerry Franklin portrays ecosystems as having three primary attributes: composition, structure, and function. Ecosystem components: Ecosystem structure:. Ecosystem functions:
  10. 10. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum : chordata class : Amphibia Order : Anura / Salientia Family : Ranidae Genus : Rana species : tigrina Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida Order: Fagales Family: Fagaceae Genus: Quercus Species: alba
  11. 11. Ecological degradation and its corollary - biodiversity loss - pose a serious threat to development. 'Ecologically destructive economic activities are inefficient not merely because of the resulting resource misallocation but also because of the (excessive) scale of activity levels; excessive in relation to the limited availability of natural capital when the latter is complementary to human-made capital'. In order to bring about sustainable resource conservation and management, it is essential to adopt several different approaches for managing our forests and biodiversity. Protecting biodiversity does not merely involve setting aside chunks of area as reserves. Instead, all the ecological processes that have maintained the area's biodiversity such as predation, pollination, parasitism, seed dispersal, and herbivory, involving complex interactions between several species of plants and animal needs to be ensured . This, however, is possible only if reserves are large enough to maintain these processes and some of the other crucial links in the web of life.