INNVOATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY IN COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING EDUCATIONMrs. Sahbanthul Missiriya, M.A., M.Sc (N), M.A. Child care & Edu., Ph.DAssociate Professor,Community Health Nursing Department,Saveetha College of Nursing,Saveetha University, Chennai -77
INNVOATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY INCOMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING EDUCATIONINTRODUCTION :- It is our experience that increase of population and explosion of knowledge are not only affecting the pattern of human life but also inflicting their full impact on education. There is a requirement of simplifying all the innovations and technology to make it understandable, adaptable and affordable to the society.
DEFINITIONS :-• INNOVATION : It refers to both radical and incremental changes in thinking, in things, in processes or in services. (Mckeown – 2008)• EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY : It is a complex integrated process involving people, procedure, ideas, devising, implementing, evaluating and managing solutions to those problems involved in all aspects of human learning.
ORIGIN OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY :-• It was recognized in 1967 with the establishment of the national council for educational technology in the United Kingdom.
PURPOSES:-• To make education more productive and more individual.• To give instruction more scientific base etc.,
CATEGORIES OF EDUCATION TEC HNOLOGY:-• PROJECTED AIDS :- – FILMS – FILM STRIPS – SLIDES – OPAGUE PROJECTION – OHP etc.,• NON PROJECTED AIDES :-• GRAPHIC AIDS :-• DISPLAY BOARDS :-• 3-DIMENTIONAL AIDS :-• AUDIO AIDS :-• ACTIVITY AIDS :-
HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE IN COMMUNITYHEALTH NURSING EDUCATION• Hardware is based on the application of engineering principle for developing electro mechanic equipments for instructional purpose., Motion pictures, Tape recorder, TV, teaching machines and computers are called educational hardware.Newspaper, books, magazines, educational game, flash cards may form part of software.
SYSTEM APPROACH :-• It is a systematic attempt to coordinate all aspects of problem towards specific objectives. Systems is composed of teacher, student and programme of instruction all in a particular pattern of interaction.
EDUCATIONAL INNOVATIONS :-• DIAL ACCESS• EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION• VIDEO• INTERACTIVE VIDEO• TELE CONFERENCING• E- MAIL• COMPUTER• ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE• COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION.• LOCAL AREA NETWORK.• COMPACT DISC (READ ONLY MEMORY)• DIGITAL VIDEO INTERACTIVE
THEORIES IN EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY :-• Anchored Instruction :- Anchored Instruction Theory maintains that real world contexts imbedded in educational media serve as anchors of learning in the sense that learners construct knowledge while solving the subsequent problems. The theory was developed by the Cognition & Technology Group at Vanderbilt with John Bransfords lead. Exemplary products are the Jasper Woodbury Videodiscs.
• Cognitive Flexibility :- Cognitive Flexibility Theory focuses on the learning in complex and ill-structured domains. The theory focuses on the spontaneity of learning situations. It maintains that learning should be in context, however information should be presented from multiple perspectives and various case studies should be utilized in instruction. Rand Spiro is the leading theorist. Best tools are interactive technologies, hypertext being the most important. Medical Education is the field that most widely uses Cognitive Flexibility.
• Constructivist Theory :- Constructivism argues that learning is an active process. Learners construct their own knowledge by selecting and transforming information, constucting and refining hypotheses, and decision-making. Discovery learning is one of the major themes of constructivist theory. One of the implications of the theory is the importance of learners motivation. Major work in this theory is done by Piaget and Bruner.
• Diffusion of Innovations :- The Diffusion of Innovations Theory attempts to explain the patterns of adoption of innovations in general. Educators adoption of technology is an important application of the principles of this theory. It explains the stages through which a technological innovation passes, the charactesistics of innovations that affects their adoption, adopter categories, and the different roles of poeple in the process. Rogers is the most prominent researcher of this theory.
• Distributed Cognition:- The Theory of Distributed Cognition is closely related to Social Constructivism in the argument it makes that cognition is not within the individual but rather it is distributed over other people and tools. The use of telecommunications technologies in education has to rely highly on distributed cognition. Major researchers in the field are Pea, Salomon, Perkins, Cole, G. Hutchins, and Norman.
• Dual-Coding Theory :- The Dual Coding Theory which serves most to learning via multimedia focuses on the processing of information. It argues that information is processed through two distinct channels - visual and auditory, each indivudual channel is limited in the amount of information it can process at a time, and humans learn actively by integrating mental representations. A major implication of the research based on this theory is that learning occurs best when the information in the two channels are closely related and match, enabling interaction between the two. Two important researchers are Paivio and Mayer.
• Experiential Learning:- Carl Rogers theory is rooted in humanistic education. He identifies the two types of learning as cognitive and experiential. Cognitive learning refers to the learning of isolated information out of context, which usually takes place in formal school settings. Rogers lists the qualities of experiential learning as personal involvement, self- initiation, learner evaluation, and pervasive effects on learner. The theory suggests that learner motivation and thus the relevance of the topic are keys to successful learning.
• Multiple Intelligences:- The theory of multiple intelligences suggests that every individual possesses a unique combination of distinct intelligences. The 7 main forms of intelligence are, linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, body- kinesthetic, intrapersonal and interpersonal. Recently natural intelligence is proposed to be the 8th form of intelligence. The theory suggests that everyone learns best when the material matches the intelligences he/she is strong at. Thus, teaching should take into consideration the degrees of intelligences of each learner. The theory gains importance due to the fact that most of our schooling focuses on only two of the intelligences - linguistic and mathematical - so, does not provide equal opportunities for all learners.
• Script Theory :- Script Theory is primarily intended to explain language processing and higher thinking skills. Schank and Abelson, the pioneers, developed the theory to explain story-level understanding, but te work later was extended by Schank to cognition in general. The theory argues that all memory is episodic, that is, everything has to be attached to personal experiences in order to be in the memory. However, there are generalized episodes, "scripts", that help individuals fill in missing personal information in conceptualizing a narrative.
• Situated Cognition :- Situated Cognition argues that learning is "situated", that is, learning is associated to high degree to the activity, context and culture in which it occurs. According to the four major theorists, Lave, Brown, Collins, and Duguid, this is not the case with most classroom activities. Novice learners learn through a process of "legitimate peripheral participation" within a "community of practice". This theory also promotes the use of Anchored Instruction.
• Social Constructivism :- Social constructivism maintains that learners construct knowledge in interaction with their social environment. Learning is regarded as a collaborative activity. Lev Vygotsky, is the most prominent figure in the development of social constructivist theory. He outlines the community, the tools (e.g. language) in the learning environment, and the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) as important elements in learning. ZPD refers to the tasks the learner cannot perform on his/her own but can with the help of a more knowledgeable other. It promotes all learning activities that include collaboration. Computer Supported Collaborative Learning is the most recent application of this theory.
• Symbol Systems :- The theory explores the symbols systems in different media and how they affect learning. Salomon, a pioneer of the theory, states that different inherent symbol systems in the media affect the messages conveyed by the media and the nature of learning. He also states that the symbol system has the most effect in learning novel topics. Research on Sesame Street deals closely with symbol systems in educational media. Other major theorists are Perkins and Globerson. Educational Technology owes this theory because it provides a foundation for educational multimedia applications.
NURSING IMPLICATIONS IN EDUCATION PRACTICE AND RESEARCH:-The nursing profession is faced with the challenging role ofproviding individualized client care within the context of thewhole person Individualized care cannot be achieved withoutconsidering the factors associated with the personal being, suchas culture, beliefs and tradition.As nurses interact with clients from various cultural backgrounds,the need to consider and be aware of their own values is essentialto enable them to provide unbiased care. Nurse education plays amajor role in developing individuals who are able to examine theirown views with regards to cultural biases.The importance of acknowledging other cultures as opposed tothe nurses own is essential in order to ensure that the knowledgelearnt will enhance the qualities of caring, competence andprofessionalism. This is necessary because cultural context isviewed according to how it is perceived by the clients and thenurses themselves.
CONCLUSION :-• The demand for community health nursing practice is increasing as various global factors influence the daily lives and health of individuals. We are an inclusive world class enterprise of discovery that prepares innovative, evidenced based health care providers, education leaders and researchers to optimize health in culturally diverse global community.
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