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IBM SSME 2006

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  1. 1. SSME Position Paper Summary 1 Summary of Position Papers Wendy Murphy Almaden Services Research Executive Program Manager IBM Nirmal Pal Emeritus Executive Director eBusiness Research Center Smeal College of Business, PSU Ioannis Viniotis Professor, ECE Dept Technical Director, CACC North Carolina State University Notes: Papers are posted at http://www.almaden.ibm.com/asr/summit/papers.shtml This summary represents our attempt to capture the main points of the 74 submitted position papers. To all submitters: if we have misunderstood your position or if you have other comments or corrections, please send them in publishable text to ssme@us.ibm.com. September 25, 2006 DRAFT Version 5
  2. 2. SSME Position Paper Summary 2 Executive Summary -- Service Education and Research We organized papers into four main categories: existing courses and curricula related to service, planned or potential courses and curricula related service, current research in service, and planned or potential research in service. Many papers encompass two or more categories. Existing courses and curricula: Service marketing courses and programs, particularly at the undergraduate level, have been around for many years. These have been offered mainly by business or management schools; sample courses include topics in customer service, call centers, service quality, and organizational integration. Some universities have long-established research centers that aim to enhance and add to knowledge of service marketing and related areas. Overall, a total of 22 papers fall in this category. Planned courses and curricula: Now service marketing courses and programs are appearing at the master’s level, along with related courses and programs in service management and service engineering. Almost all are designed as multidisciplinary, incorporating faculty and content from management, business, engineering, and computer science, among other fields. Some expand existing programs, for instance, programs in production and operations management may begin to incorporate both goods and services as two aspects of the production and operations process. Others bring in cognitive science, economics, innovation and entrepreneurship in a multidisciplinary approach to creating courses for service science. But in any event, the need for graduate level education in services is urgent, and many universities are either extending existing programs into services, or designing brand new multidisciplinary programs from scratch. Overall, 20 papers fall in this category. Current research: Though diverse, most existing research in service (in the sample of papers we received) relies on established methods, such as queueing theory, graphs, network flow, Petri nets, Markov processes, and event simulations, and focuses narrowly on increasing productivity and efficiency. Overall, 22 papers fall in this category. Potential research: Most future research focuses on specific problems rather than on high-level, grand challenges. Some suggest that new methods are needed to study service. Some outline research questions and approaches, and others aim create models and tools. Many discuss the need to broaden service engineering research to include management and social sciences. The consensus is that integrated research will improve the utility of any future results. Overall, seven papers fall in this category. In summary, we see clear progress toward broad and deep education and research focused on service. Many education and research programs already exist, but have most often incorporated a single perspective, such as marketing or management. Yet, now we see a shift, as many aim to incorporate a variety of perspectives at once, including several of management, business, social science, computer science, and engineering. There is little doubt of the need for an interdisciplinary study of service. And there is little doubt that many are seeing the need and are taking up the charge.
  3. 3. SSME Position Paper Summary 3 Table of contents ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Summary of Position Papers........................................................................................................... 1 Executive Summary -- Service Education and Research............................................................ 2 Table of contents ......................................................................................................................... 3 Introduction............................................................................................................................... 5 Existing Service-related Courses and Curricula .......................................................................... 6 Arizona State University........................................................................................................... 6 Carnegie Mellon University ...................................................................................................... 6 Helsinki Polytechnic Institute.................................................................................................... 6 Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM) .................................. 6 Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Universiteit Van Amsterdam.................................................. 6 North Carolina State University................................................................................................ 7 Pace University ........................................................................................................................ 7 Portland State University.......................................................................................................... 7 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)..................................................................................... 7 Rochester Institute of Technology............................................................................................ 8 State University of Management, Moscow............................................................................... 8 Technion University.................................................................................................................. 8 Texas A&M............................................................................................................................... 8 Tsinghua University.................................................................................................................. 8 University of California, Berkeley ............................................................................................. 9 University of California, Merced ............................................................................................... 9 University of Dublin .................................................................................................................. 9 University of Manchester.......................................................................................................... 9 University of Pavia.................................................................................................................... 9 Virginia Polytechnic................................................................................................................ 10 Planned and Potential Service-related Course and Curricula ................................................... 11 Bocconi University & SDA School of Management................................................................ 11 Florida A&M University........................................................................................................... 11 Free University of Brussels .................................................................................................... 11 Harbin Institute of Technology................................................................................................ 11 Illinois Institute of Technology and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute..................................... 11 Michigan Technological University......................................................................................... 12 Ohio State University.............................................................................................................. 12 University of California, Santa Cruz – Silicon Valley Center.................................................. 12 University of Crete.................................................................................................................. 12 Università degli Studi di Milano .............................................................................................. 12 University of New Mexico....................................................................................................... 12 University of Porto .................................................................................................................. 12 Virginia Tech........................................................................................................................... 13 Western Michigan University.................................................................................................. 13 Current SSME Research ........................................................................................................... 14 Arizona State University......................................................................................................... 14 Azad University ...................................................................................................................... 14 Georgia Institute of Technology, Tennenbaum Institute ........................................................ 14 Harbin Institute of Technology................................................................................................ 14 Helsinki University of Technology .......................................................................................... 14 Illinois Institute of Technology and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute..................................... 15
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SSME Position Paper Summary 4 Karlsruhe Institute of Technology........................................................................................... 15 Linköpings universitet............................................................................................................. 15 Massachusetts Institute of Technology.................................................................................. 15 Naval Postgraduate School.................................................................................................... 15 Pennsylvania State University and University College Dublin ............................................... 15 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute ............................................................................................ 16 Rochester Institute of Technology.......................................................................................... 16 SDA Bocconi School of Management.................................................................................... 16 Stanford University................................................................................................................. 16 Syracuse University................................................................................................................ 16 Tampere University of Technology ........................................................................................ 16 University College Dublin ....................................................................................................... 17 University of California, Los Angeles ..................................................................................... 17 University of Manchester........................................................................................................ 17 University of Warwick............................................................................................................. 17 VTT Technical Institute........................................................................................................... 17 Plans for SSME research........................................................................................................... 18 Arizona State University......................................................................................................... 18 Carnegie Mellon University .................................................................................................... 18 North Carolina State University.............................................................................................. 18 Helsinki University of Technology .......................................................................................... 18 Tsinghua University................................................................................................................ 18 University of Tsukuba............................................................................................................. 19 Other thoughts ........................................................................................................................... 20 Service Design ....................................................................................................................... 20 Köln International School of Design and Carnegie Mellon University.................................... 20 Communication across disciplines ......................................................................................... 20 University of Virginia............................................................................................................... 20 Broaden the focus .................................................................................................................. 20 University of Maryland............................................................................................................ 20 University of Southern California, Marshall............................................................................ 20 Approaches – make sure it is integrated................................................................................ 21 University of Dublin ................................................................................................................ 21 Adapt well-known research methods, but be sure to create new .......................................... 21 University of Hawaii, University of Arizona............................................................................. 21 Ideas....................................................................................................................................... 21 Virginia Polytechnic................................................................................................................ 21 Japan Advanced Institute of Technology ............................................................................... 22 Carnegie Mellon University .................................................................................................... 22 Consortium for Services Innovation ....................................................................................... 22
  5. 5. SSME Position Paper Summary 5 Introduction The IBM conference on Service Science, Management, and Engineering – Education for the 21st Century was announced in April 2006. Through email and a website, we invited interested academics and others to submit position papers: With IBM Global Services being the largest IT services organization in the world, IBM has taken the lead in recognizing that college graduates need new skills to address business and technical issues in a service business environment. Because services depend critically on people working together and with technology to provide value for others, these new skills include the ability to integrate across traditional disciplinary areas to obtain globally effective solutions (rather than merely locally effective solutions). Service Science, Management and Engineering (SSME) is one approach to integrating a variety of disciplines, including areas in engineering, social sciences and management, to properly focus education and research on services. Many universities around the world are developing new services-oriented courses and curricula; others are expanding their existing focus on services. But a significant effort is still needed to develop a truly cross-disciplinary approach to SSME. This conference was planned in order to share information and learn about the current status of SSME and to foster its advancement and development. The conference goals are to: Demonstrate substantive results in the formation of multi-disciplinary Services Sciences, Management and Engineering. o Present ways SSME has been introduced into curricula to date. o Learn about services research underway or planned. Outline a roadmap for establishing SSME as a legitimate discipline within the academic community. o Identify how practitioners can join with faculty and administrators to focus efforts on cross-functional, service-oriented courses and research. o Identify recommended actions for academia and governments. o Identify roadblocks and challenges. We invited interested faculty from around the world to submit position papers related to any aspect of SSME, such as: How do science, management and engineering play in services? Where, why and how are they needed? What is the current state of SSME either globally or at your institution? How do you see SSME evolving? What would you like SSME to be? What are your main services research questions and how do you address them? What SSME courses have you created or do you plan to create? What are your top three topics or concerns related to SSME What are your collaborations around services research and education? What role might IBM play in developing SSME at your institution? What is the role of government in developing SSME? How do you envision society benefiting from the development of interdisciplinary SSME? Here, we summarize the major themes of the papers we received. We received 74 papers from 66 institutions and 16 countries. Papers fell into four main categories: 42 papers described educational programs or courses in service, either current or planned and 29 papers described research topics, either current or planned. The numbers do not add up to 74 because several papers were difficult to categorize and we will summarize these separately. In what follows, papers are organized into four main categories: existing courses and curricula related to service, planned or potential courses and curricula related service, current research in service, and planned or potential research in service. A fifth group is included at the end for papers that did not fall neatly into these categories.
  6. 6. SSME Position Paper Summary 6 Existing Service-related Courses and Curricula Arizona State University Services Science Journey: Foundations, Progress, Challenges by Mary Jo Bitner, Stephen W. Brown, Michael Goul, and Susan Urban reports on ASU’s service science initiative, which is anchored in the long-standing service research and education efforts of the Center for Services Leadership (CSL) in the WP Carey School of Business. In the current initiative CSL is collaborating closely with engineering and psychology. The paper advocates including other disciplines as well, such as anthropology, design, and architecture. Multiple degrees are already offered at the MBA level, and a dual undergraduate degree in business and engineering is proposed. PhD seminars will start in 2006. Carnegie Mellon University Getting students excited about services: Providing a context for applying their newly acquired knowledge by Majid Iqbal gives an overview of a graduate elective “Managing Service Organizations” to illustrate multidisciplinary education related to strategic management of services. The paper argues that CMU’s Masters in Information Systems Management and Master of Science in Information Technology include much of what would be in an ideal SSME curriculum. A graduate level IT service management concentration (6 courses) is already being offered, and work is underway to launch an MS degree in Strategic Service Management. Helsinki Polytechnic Institute Master’s Program for Service Management at Helsinki Polytechnic Stadia by Taina Tukiainen, Minna Takala, and David Ing describes a masters program with a service management emphasis in the Institute for Industrial Management. This program focuses on telecommunications and service management. It is a one-year, project-based program. Their main themes are related to services in the following areas: business in a services economy, business research methods and models, leadership, organizational development, service delivery and technology architectures, strategic management, and alliances, all in an international context. Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM) The Evolution of Services Management In Latin America: Building a New Academic Field by Javier Reynoso describes the status of service management-related efforts in Latin America and in the Institute of Science and Engineering in Monterrey. In 1998, the Services Management research and education group was formed, integrating faculty professors from different Management disciplines. This group designed and developed the postgraduate Program on Services Management (EAS for its name in Spanish), consisting of 6 courses. During 2003, a professional certificate on Services Management was created for those bachelor students in professional careers doing their major in either business or engineering areas at ITESM. The same group at EGADE has participated in international service conferences such as QUIS, Frontiers in Services, SERVSIG and La Londe. In 2004, the first text book in Spanish on Services management was published in Mexico and today is used in 17 countries. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Universiteit Van Amsterdam A Research & Educational Framework for ICT/S Service Management by Guido Dedene, Monique Snoeck, and Rik Maes describes a new master’s level course that focuses on management of information and communications technologies and systems (ICT/S) activities as
  7. 7. SSME Position Paper Summary 7 services. Topics include economic models, cost structures for ICT/S operations, ICT/S strategy structures, cost models for systems development, benefit models for business process integration, benefit models for technology integration, information/communication benefit models, ICT/S service outsourcing models, ICT/S ethics, ICT/S quality and management frameworks. North Carolina State University Service Science, Management and Engineering Curricula and Research at NC State University; By Steven Allen, Harry Perros, Ioannis Viniotis, Michael Devetsikiotis, Andrew Rindos, Craig Nygard, Lynda Aiman-Smith, John McCreery, and Mitzi Montoya-Weiss describes NCSU’s new masters programs focused on service. Beginning in fall 2006, NCSU will have master’s program concentrations in Engineering: Master of Computer Networking - Services Engineering, and in Business: MBA - Services Management concentration. There are three existing courses related to services, and five new courses are being developed, including Services Management, Process Analysis and Design, Organizational Culture, Architecture and Design of IT Services Systems, Design and Performance; Evaluation of Network Services and Systems. Pace University Putting Requirements and Quality at the Core of Global Service Delivery: Current Efforts and Future Plans at Pace University by Olly Gotel and Christelle Scharff describes a program in Pace’s Computer Science department geared toward undergraduate and graduate software curriculum. The courses in software testing and engineering have a service context. Through collaboration with IBM, Pace organized a seminar series for students and faculty in fall 2005 and spring 2006. The 2005 series paid particular attention to service-oriented architecture and web services as a precursor to establishing a graduate course on this topic. Portland State University Defining the research agenda: Technology Management as a contributor to “Service Sciences, Management and Engineering” by Dundar F Kocaoglu, Tugrul U. Daim, and Antonie J. Jetter describes the integration of engineering and management via the existing discipline of Technology Management. According to Kocaoglu, et al, technology management is sometimes referred to as “engineering management” and can be characterized as the linkage among “engineering, science and management disciplines to plan, develop and implement technological capabilities to shape and accomplish the strategic and operational objectives of an organization”. Technology Management meshes two sets of activities, those related to innovation process, and those surrounding strategic integration of technology, business and financial plans. It attempts to discover how to transfer new technologies into the commercial development world efficiently. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) A Need to Focus on Research and Education in Services by Jim Tien and Dan Berg describes an existing Services and Manufacturing Systems Engineering master’s degree. This curriculum has been redesigned over the past two years to reflect multidisciplinary content. It is a professional program of 30 credit hours, and has a prerequisite of an Operations Research course. In addition, the paper describes RPI’s MBA program, which also has a service context, including courses in Creating and Managing an Enterprise, Business Implications of Emerging Technologies, Developing New Products including Service, and Networks for Innovation and Value Creation.
  8. 8. SSME Position Paper Summary 8 Rochester Institute of Technology Rochester Institute of Technology – Service Management by James W Jacobs, Jr. and Guy Johnson describes the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) Masters Degree in Service Management, which has been offered for 16 years. With its initial roots in Hospitality and Service Management, the degree program has evolved today to be applicable to all business organizations or service environments. Student research projects cover all major content themes and are practically oriented. State University of Management, Moscow Collaboration between the State University of Management and IBM by Tatiana Leonova describes a partnership between IBM and State University, which has established an Academic Excellence Center for joint programs and education, an e-Marketing MBA program, and several courses. The e-Marketing MBA is based on three fundamental pillars: 1) Basic management foundations, already developed in the existing MBA program, 2) A core of courses in Marketing, based on the existing material the Marketing MBA program and 3) An e-commerce technology body of knowledge based on IBM’s experience and technology base in e-business. Technion University Service Engineering of Call Centers: Research, Teaching, Practice by Avishai Mandelbaum and Sergey Zeltyn describes an undergraduate course called “Service Engineering” (which has been offered for 10 years). The course emphasizes research results and real call-center data, and draws on multiple disciplines. It has four parts: 1. Prerequisites: measurements and models; 2. Building Blocks: demand, services, (im)patience; 3. Models: deterministic (Fluid) and stochastic - mainly queueing models, both conventional (Markovian) and approximations; 4. Applications: design, ED/QD/QED workforce-management and skills-based routing. The course's teaching philosophy was inspired by R.W. Hall (1991) Queueing Methods for Services and Manufacturing, Prentice-Hall, which serves as a recommended textbook. Texas A&M Interdisciplinary Design Program at Texas A&M University: Implications for a Services Science Program by Richard Furuta, Reza Langari, and Valerie Taylor report that starting in 2003, Texas A&M developed and implemented an interdisciplinary approach to teaching engineering design at the senior undergraduate level. Boeing supported the work, which involved four departments from Texas A&M (in the College of Engineering, and in the Mays Business School), and the Computer Science Department at Prairie View A&M University. The program aims to ensure that students experience real-life operations of co-located and virtual interdisciplinary teams, learn about effective communications across technical and cultural boundaries, and understand how important project management and business analysis skills are for business. Tsinghua University Education and Research of Service Science and Technology in Tsinghua University by Jie Zhou, Qiaoge Liu, and Yanda Li describes Tsinghua’s planned curriculum updates around service. New courses will include the opportunity for students to work on real problems. Education is “based on information science and technology, and combined with management”. Tsinghua recently collaborated with the IBM China Research Lab on a curriculum in “IT service” for graduate students. The first course related to service science was offered in collaboration with IBM, and aimed to prepare students with the knowledge needed by modern service industry, and with information technologies and methods that apply to government, industry, and people. Tsinghua is now making plans for two programs for undergraduate students and graduate students. Some
  9. 9. SSME Position Paper Summary 9 basic courses, such as “Introduction of service science”, will be offered to undergraduate students next year. University of California, Berkeley Education for the 21st Century—Services: Science, Management, & Engineering (SSME) at the University of California, Berkeley by Ravi Nemana and Robert Glushko describe how Berkeley has formed an organization to develop curricula for SSME consisting of participants from the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society, the Haas School of Business, the Information School, and the College of Engineering. Courses for a masters-level certificate program are launching fall 2006. University of California, Merced Creating a New Management Program at UC Merced by Shawn Kantor describes plans for a new management school that will emphasize service science and entrepreneurship, combining economics, cognitive science, and entrepreneurship with a focus on the service sector, particularly knowledge intensive services. They bought together a very diverse faculty of new hires to accomplish this. An undergraduate minor in service science is already in place at UC Merced. University of Dublin A Research Based Educational Initiative: the Institute for International Services Innovation at Trinity College Dublin by John Murray describes a service science initiative driven by the Institute for International Services Innovation in the School of Business. Murray advocates research- driven education and an open source approach to the creation and development of services knowledge. The design principles embody these in a “multidisciplinary – multilevel - multimodal approach, engagement with leading edge new technology research, and the intention to use Ireland as ‘a laboratory’ of special interest because of its extreme ‘globalisation’, its position in the global market for high-value services FDI, and its small and compact scale.” University of Manchester Services Sciences at Manchester: Bringing People, Business and Technology Together by Liping Zhao, Linda Macaulay, Paul Verschueren, and Jonathan Adams reports on both research and teaching activities. In 2004, Manchester formed a new School of Informatics, which has the vision of computer science as the science of information, systems, and design. “Informatics draws upon a range of disciplines, including computer science, design, psychology, business and management, to conduct multidisciplinary study and design of computer systems for people, business and information technology.” Manchester offers four service-related masters degrees: e-business Technology, Business Information Technology, Text Mining and Informatics. These include courses in Enterprise Systems Modeling, and Information Management, and all aim to provide students with knowledge of services from perspectives of people, technology, and business. The programs were introduced in September 2005, and the first graduates were expected September 2006. University of Pavia Engineering of Digital Services – a new degree that integrates business process and information engineering by Gianmario Motta describes a new undergraduate degree called “Engineering of Digital Services.” This new degree is composed of parts from two existing degrees along with new coursework. It begins with basic foundations, including some “classic information
  10. 10. SSME Position Paper Summary 10 engineering topics such as software engineering and databases and business topics such as enterprise organizations.” Early on, data collection and mathematical methods teach quantitative analysis, and later, Business Analysis, Enterprise Systems and Project Work teach high-level management. Virginia Polytechnic Bringing Service Sciences into the Curriculum by Roberta S. Russell and Christopher W. Zobel describe Virginia Tech’s (VT) Service Marketing undergraduate degree, which has been offered since 1998. It uses service quality as a core construct of services management, and the paper suggests that service quality management requires organizational and functional integration across a corporation. VT uses the Gaps Model of Service Quality to address problems in integration of various business functions, such as marketing, human resource management, accounting, and information systems management.
  11. 11. SSME Position Paper Summary 11 Planned and Potential Service-related Course and Curricula Bocconi University & SDA School of Management Assessing the Service Manager – Gaps and Opportunities by Paolo Pasini and Anna Canato focuses on executive and graduate level courses. Proposed is a study of “what is a Service Science Manager,” followed by development of an executive program, and later a graduate program. It is important to gain an understanding of today’s multidisciplinary skill needs and an assessment of current skills, and then plan to fill training needs. Florida A&M University Strategy for Inserting SSME into the Undergraduate Experience at a Minority Serving Institution; Edward L. Jones, Clement S. Allen, and Jakita Owensby proposes to introduce SSME to its undergraduates over time. Because Florida A&M must focus on recruiting, retention, and career success for its typical student, it will take a strategic approach to the evolving curricula. An additional benefit of SSME may be closer collaboration between Computer and Information Sciences and business departments. Included here are several actionable suggestions for how to expose students to service management and related topics in an interdisciplinary manner. Free University of Brussels Vision on How SSME Curriculum has to be Introduced as a University Program by Edmond.Torfs describes the current Master’s in Business Information program, which is founded on IT governance principles. The paper suggests that the framework used, “Control Objectives for Information and related Technology (COBIT)” could be adapted specifically to services. In addition, it describes an approach to creating curricula using IBM’s SSME free course modules. Harbin Institute of Technology The Current State and Development Plan of Research and Education on SSME in Harbin Institute of Technology; Xiao-Fei Xu, Zhong-Jie Wang, and Tong Mo describes plans to introduce “Introduction to SSME” in Fall 2006 in which Service Oriented Model Driven Architecture (SMDA) is a foundational piece. Over the next three years they plan to offer courses in service psychology, service behaviors, organization theory, strategic management, service marketing, managerial psychology and human capital management. Within five years, they want to create a department from the combined parts of the schools of computer science, management, and humanities and social sciences. Illinois Institute of Technology and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Defining Services in the 21st Century: Directions for Research and Education by Joel Goldhar, and Daniel Berg recommend reviewing traditional Industrial and Systems Engineering and Production and Operations management curricula to encourage updating old offerings. Goldhar and Berg argue that products and service are not two different kinds of things but are merely two different aspects of production. And they also argue for closer collaboration between operations and marketing and for incorporating tools and techniques from cognitive science.
  12. 12. SSME Position Paper Summary 12 Michigan Technological University Defining a Curriculum for Service Systems Engineering by Sheryl A. Sorby, Leonard J. Bohmann, Tom Drummer, Jim Frendewey, Dana Johnson, Kris Mattila, John Sutherland, and Robert Warrington describes two years of extensive preparation and analysis using the Delphi method to derive a concise list of service skills. In August 2006, this list was used in sessions with industry partners to begin to develop curricula for a Service Systems Engineering degree. Ohio State University Paradigms of Service and Implications by David Collier describes a method of evaluating existing curricula to determine what should be modified to provide a service focus, and to differentiate among paradigms suited for manufacturing versus service. University of California, Santa Cruz – Silicon Valley Center Position Paper by Ram Akella, Patrick Mantey, Kevin Ross, Christopher Campbell, Paul Maglio, and Jim Spohrer describes how UCSC is developing a new graduate program oriented toward integrating Knowledge Services with Business Analytics. There will be sequence of courses developed in the fall 2006 period. These include Knowledge Services, Services Engineering and Management, e-Business, Organizations and Leadership, IT Architectures, Value Chain Networks, Design, Management and Commercialization, and Information Retrieval and Management. They plan to integrate the IBM SSME material into UCSC course material. University of Crete Progress Report of efforts towards a Research and Education Agenda for Services Science in the EU and Greece by Christos Nikolaou discusses the current state of SSME development and also proposes an interdisciplinary summer school program that would bring together industry, researchers, technologists, educators, and managers to work on case studies and learn from one another. The e-commerce study orientation has been reorganized in their graduate program to be a “science of services” orientation. Università degli Studi di Milano SSME, Operations Research and Education by Giovanni Righini ties SSME to Operations Research (OR), suggesting that mathematics could be a common language that helps people work together across disciplines. “The value of information depends on our ability to transform it into decisions.” Integrating Information and Communications Technology with OR to create “decision technology” could be an important component of SSME. University of New Mexico Actionable Process Theories: A Unique Selling Proposition for a Science of Services by Nick V. Flor describes a methodology (actionable process theories) to improve services and a suggestion for incorporating this method it into business school courses. Flor asserts that studying complex sociotechnical systems that are constantly changing would be enhanced by using process theories. University of Porto A Master Program in Services Engineering and Management at the University of Porto by J. Falcão e Cunha, Lia Patrício, Ana Camanho; and Raymond Fisk proposes a master’s program in
  13. 13. SSME Position Paper Summary 13 Services Engineering and Management with an emphasis on technologies underlying service, people’s functional and emotional needs as service users, and management of service in terms of conception, design, implementation and operation. Virginia Tech Bringing Service Sciences into the Curriculum by Roberta S. Russell and Christopher W. Zobel describes a new graduate degree at Virginia Tech that might serve as a model for cross functional cooperation in service science. This is the Masters Degree in Information Technology, which is administered jointly by the Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Computer Science, and Business Information Technology. Students take four core courses and select two courses in each of three modules. The three modules are chosen from the following six modules: Communication Systems; Networking / Computer Engineering; Software Development; Business Information Systems; and Decision Support Systems. VT is considering adding a seventh module, “Service Science”, which would include three courses, (1) Managing the Customer Relationship, (2) Process Analysis and Design, and (3) Service Innovation. Similar courses maybe considered as a concentration in their MBA program. Western Michigan University The Octopus Strategy for Informated Services in Technology, Management and Engineering Curricula by Andrew Targowski offers an approach to evolve current Information Technology (IT) curricula to what might be required for the 21st century. The “Octopus Strategy” suggests that not only interdepartmental cooperation is required to develop the best education, but potentially inter- collegiate work is needed as well. The paper stresses that business, engineering, and information schools will need to collaborate.
  14. 14. SSME Position Paper Summary 14 Current SSME Research In our set of papers, current activities are very diverse, often using established methods. Most continue to focus on productivity and efficiency. Several mention that new methods are needed. Some have outlined approaches and questions, and others are just beginning to think about these, looking for frameworks to use and considering creating models and tools. Many suggest the need to broaden focus to include management and social sciences. The consensus seems to be that integrated research will improve the usefulness of results and immediate practical application. Arizona State University Process and Services Fusion Impact Assessment: SSME Findings from Industry Collaboration and the Need for Competency Centers by Haluk Demirkan and Michael Goul describes the Service Oriented Enterprise, built on a foundation of service-oriented architecture within the enterprise, and suggest building process and service fusion competency centers. Azad University Leveraging E-Government and E-Business Services through ISRUP E-Service Framework by Seyyed Mohsen Hashemi discusses the role of government in e-commerce. The ISRUP E- Service Framework is derived from Zachman enterprise architecture framework and IBM Rational software development process. Georgia Institute of Technology, Tennenbaum Institute Models, Contexts, and Value Chains for Services Sciences by William B. Rouse makes the case for a grand challenge and suggests that SSME work on it. His team has been formulating a hypothesis: “The nature and extent of B-C service value drives and determines B-B service value, as well as the value of products and other value enablers.” Harbin Institute of Technology The Current State and Development Plan of Research and Education on SSME in Harbin Institute of Technology by Xiao-Fei Xu, Zhong-Jie Wang, and Tong Mo documents current research including aspects of service management, service models and modeling techniques, service platform architecture, service specifications and standards, and service quality. Helsinki University of Technology Service Engineering and Management: Towards a Framework, by Saara A. Brax talks about research that points to the need to develop a new framework for service engineering and management. Brax suggests a focus on service systems is needed, and that three dimensions (service concept, service processes, and service infrastructure) are especially important. The concept dimension represents the goals, strategy and decision-making. Processes are inherently dynamic and exist in the form of activity. The infrastructure is the platform, the enabler of these strategies to become realized through action, and it exists as different forms of resources.
  15. 15. SSME Position Paper Summary 15 Illinois Institute of Technology and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Defining Services in the 21st Century: Directions for Research and Education; by Joel Goldhar, and Daniel Berg argues for the need to integrate operations management and marketing more closely, and to use more tools from cognitive science. They identify a number of important variables in the study of service systems: predictability of supply and demand, simultaneous satisfaction of variable supply and demand, interchangability of capacity and inventory, potential for economies of scale and scope, level of flexibility, variety, customization, and degree of customer/user control over process/outcomes. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Service Science, Management, Engineering and eOrganisations; by Christof Weinhardt, Rudi Studer, Carsten Holtmann, Bjorn Schnizler, Anupriya Ankolekar, and Nenad Stojanovic summarize their current studies in these categories: CAME computer aided market engineering, Service ecosystem, Strategic service management and planning; formalization of strategic knowledge, service innovation – from concept to assessment, and change management in services. Linköpings universitet Bringing Service Design to Service Sciences, Management and Engineering; by Stefan Holmlid, and Shelley Evenson makes a case for service design as a component on SSME. Two examples of methods used in service design are shared. Modeling starts with documenting all stakeholders and their interactions, and then creating personas to use in scenarios. Prototyping adds the information about the experience and the touch points. Enacting allows solution designers to find anomalies or repair problems prior to establishing a service. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Holistic Trinity of Services Sciences: Management, Social, & Engineering Sciences by Richard C. Larson and Educating Services Science Leaders to Think Holistically About Enterprises by Donna H. Rhodes and Deborah J. Nightingale are about research begun to study service problems under the umbrella of the “holistic trinity” (engineering, management and social sciences), including energy infrastructures, election queues, flu pandemic, hurricane response, water systems, e-learning in developing countries. And, at the MIT Center for Engineering Systems Fundamentals (CSEF), research focuses on the integration of management, social science, and engineering to show how rapidly emerging service systems require a holistic analysis of the three disciplines. Naval Postgraduate School Service Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: Opportunities and Challenges by Uday Apte, Geraldo Ferrer, Ira Lewis, and Rene Rendon describes exploratory research in the area of service acquisition for the Department of Defense (DoD) to frame the totality of DoD’s service acquisition environment. This research will contribute to both theory and practice of service acquisition in the Federal Government including development of conceptual frameworks for understanding and analyzing the supply chain issues in services. Pennsylvania State University and University College Dublin Data Support Design for Services Science Modeling by Terry P. Harrison and Seán McGarraghy describes a framework for defining and implementing a service science data engine. The work is
  16. 16. SSME Position Paper Summary 16 based on supply chain concepts. The authors include potential future steps - defining additional data needs to support new models and constructs, perhaps also creating a “Service Science Modeling Language”. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Industrialization of Services: An Agenda for a Scientific Management Approach to Services by David Gautschi and T. Ravichandran discusses RPI’s research program combining economics, information systems, and management science to explore the science of services. They list some research themes, such as; “How might services be distinguished from goods in terms of the rights conveyed across the market?” and “What are the implications of the service oriented models in the IT industry?” Rochester Institute of Technology iLab.1: A University-Industry Collaboration to Enhance Health Plan Services by Jeffrey A. Lasky and Michael Cardillo describes the Information laboratory for Health Plans, a collaboration between RIT and industry. They are focused on enhancing health plan services by developing systems architecture, processes and tools for increasing the availability, exchange and sharing of health services information. SDA Bocconi School of Management The Italian Approach to facilities Management, Results of a research by Vittoria Veronesi, and Silvia Zamboni offers a detailed case study focused on outsourcing of facilities management. The authors describe findings that illustrate three approaches to facilities management. These approaches are “operations-oriented”, where the customer retains much of the responsibility, “cost-oriented”, where the customer delegates more of the responsibility; and “integration- oriented”, where the supplier owns all of the responsibility. Stanford University The Next Wave of Globalization: Relocating Service Provision to India by Rafiq Dossani, and Martin Kenney is a case study about off-shoring service work to India in the contexts of the firm, industry, and recipient nation. The authors conclude that the potential for services globalization is enormous and nations that want to reap the benefits of this trend will need to take action to help their people acquire the needed education and skills. Syracuse University SSME: “How to Solve It” by Shiu-Kai Chin, James S. Royer, and Alex Wilkinson proposes a research approach to address the complex challenge of developing and then delivering services that are reliable, secure and trustworthy in a timely and cost effective manner. They assert that service managers need a proven, rigorous, and mathematically-based underpinning for modeling services in a composable fashion. Tampere University of Technology Knowledge-Intensive Services, Knowledge / Informaiton Management and Dynamic Complexity – An Interdisciplinary Approach to Service Science by Marjatta Maula describes three fields of research she believes can be instrumental in creating the field service science – knowledge intensive services, knowledge and information management and dynamic complexity. She
  17. 17. SSME Position Paper Summary 17 discusses the need for the research to be interdisciplinary not simply multidisciplinary - processes and practices are combined and boundaries removed instead of “separate but equal” studies running in parallel. University College Dublin Innovation in Services: From Service Concepts to Service Experiences by Brian Fynes and Ann Marie Lally describes research regarding service design as a key focus area, with special attention given to the design of the service experience. They propose a new model proposed, which is to be tested with various industries. University of California, Los Angeles The Global Information Economy, Service Industrialization and the UCLA BIT Project by Uday S. Karmarkar says that most of the large economies in the world are dominated by services. Information economies are emerging initially in developed countries, others will soon follow. Information services are the largest part of the US and other developed economies. While these economies evolve, a faster change is beginning: the industrialization of information services. There are multiple consequences for economies, “productivity, trade, jobs, globalization and competition.” Industries are undergoing massive changes in structure. There are implications for management strategies and internal organizational structure for all firms. University of Manchester Services Sciences at Manchester: Bringing People, Business and Technology Together by Liping Zhao, Linda Macaulay, Paul Verschueren and Jonathan Adams describes an ambition to go beyond Component Business Modeling (CBM), Service Oriented Modeling and Architecture (SOMA), and Patterns for e-business (P4eb). UoM intends to do studies to enhance P4eb by extending it with new patterns, and developing methods and tools for pattern organization and collection. University of Warwick Complexity and the Services Sciences Agenda by Yasmin Merali offers complexity science as a foundation to create an understandable framework that can “accommodate the trans-disciplinary nature and support the conceptual and practical demands of the network economy.” Explaining what happens in running complex adaptive systems could be useful in developing theories that are a basis for services science. In answer to the assertion that business today needs people with broader versus specialist skills, Merali suggests that institutions should continue developing specialists, but ones skilled at understanding complex systems and prepared to be life-long learners. VTT Technical Institute Service beyond – enabling technologies to boost service business by Pentti Vähä, Anne Tolman, Jaana Savioja-Kangasluoma, Piritta Lampila, and Sonja Kangas tells us that last year VTT launched a five year program called “Service Beyond” to develop new concepts in services. Their technology-based business innovation focuses on services for life (e.g. enhanced socio-technical systems to support remote work), service for wellness, and extending and enhancing ICT in the health care system.
  18. 18. SSME Position Paper Summary 18 Plans for SSME research Institutions planning SSME research or programs are usually addressing specific questions and needs. Arizona State University Services Science Journey: Foundations, Progress, Challenges by Mary Jo Bitner, Stephen W. Brown, Michael Goul, and Susan Urban discusses a desire to study problems in I/T service solutions, business models, computing model, healthcare innovation, technology and service delivery, service design and customer loyalty and relationships. Carnegie Mellon University Legitimizing SSME in Academia: Critical Considerations and Essential Actions by Jane Siegel, Ph.D., Bill Hefley, Ph.D., Shelley Evenson, and Sandra Slaughter suggests research in international management, automation for service delivery, better understanding of stakeholders needs and wants, impacts of globalization and standardization, organizational learning and innovation, and more. Shelly Evenson makes a case to include design as a discipline in research to aid in linking communities. North Carolina State University Service Science, Management and Engineering Curricula and Research at NC State University by Steven Allen, Harry Perros, Ioannis Viniotis, Michael Devetsikiotis, Andrew Rindos, Craig Nygard, Lynda Aiman-Smith, John McCreery, and Mitzi Montoya-Weiss documents some very specific cross-departmental projects of interest such as: measures of Service Level Agreements (SLAs) for network and IT services, effectiveness in estimating projects (cost, duration), supply chain assessment and service innovation. Helsinki University of Technology Constructing Service Machines – Global Sourcing of Knowledge-Intensive Services; by Paul Lillrank and Olli Tolkki outlines a research plan for sourcing of services. Their objectives will be to create modeling tools for use in contracting to explore the impact of volume, scope and repetition on service system design, while also developing relations between Europe and India. Towards Customer Centric Physical and Virtual Environment – Platform for Services by Suvi Nenonen and Jukka Puhto discusses Information and Communications Technology (ICT). The Facilities Services Research Group has varied degrees and subjects of interest, they bring in industry partners, perform multi-disciplinary research, and they are creating curricula . Tsinghua University Education and Research of Service Science and Technology in Tsinghua University by Jie Zhou, Qiaoge Liu, and Yanda Li tells about the Research Center of Modern Service Science & Technology in Tsinghua University, which will work in service science. Their thought is to pursue the societal requirements of establishing a healthy service eco-system in China. They are planning projects for these areas: Service-oriented Data Analysis, Service-oriented Business Process Modeling and Optimization, SOA and Semantic Web-based E-government Platform, and Human Behavior Models in the Service Industry.
  19. 19. SSME Position Paper Summary 19 University of Tsukuba Research and Education of SSME in Japanese Universities by Hideaki Takagi proposes working in these areas - customer-centric business innovation model, quantitative methods for understanding customers, customer-oriented marketing models and customer-oriented employee management.
  20. 20. SSME Position Paper Summary 20 Other thoughts A number of papers proposed special considerations around various schools of thought as related to SSME. These summaries are grouped by topic. Service Design Köln International School of Design and Carnegie Mellon University Art of Service: Drawing the arts to inform service design and specification by Birgit Mager, Shelley Evenson and A Designer’s View of SSME by Shelley Evenson advocate a systematic analysis of the art-similar thinking, representational forms, and notation systems as applied to the development and communication of service systems. They advise that bringing people together across SSME disciplines will be challenging because they will not share common references, language, or tools. They propose that the design community, because it has always been trans- disciplinary, can inform the establishment of a common ground for work at the intersections of SSME-related disciplines. Communication across disciplines University of Virginia Service science, management and engineering: A way of managing socio-technical systems by Michael E. Gorman includes a “trading zone” metaphor for describing how interdisciplinary groups can learn to establish common ground for communication. He suggests that service scientists can act as agents to facilitate the exchange of knowledge across practices. Broaden the focus University of Maryland SSME—Let’s Not Forget About Customers and Revenue by Roland T. Rust makes a case that there is more to service science than just driving for efficiency and productivity. He looks at the flip side – what about attracting customers and driving revenue? He recommends studying customers – psychology, sociology, anthropology. How do individuals, groups and cultures make decisions and work together, and how can they be effectively managed? Work needs to be done to link impacts to financial results to driving revenue. University of Southern California, Marshall Psychology of the Experience: The Missing Link in Service Science by Richard B. Chase and Sriram Dasu tells us that the “heart of a service is the encounter between the server and the customer, where emotions meet economics in real time and where most people judge the quality of service”. They state that our ability to manage this psychological part of service lags our capability in creating such encounters. Since all industry provides service in some manner, any improvement in service psychology could have a huge impact on the world. USC proposes that IBM partner with the Marshall School of Business and the Department of Industrial Engineering at USC to host an interdisciplinary conference on service psychology. The conference would invite leading researchers from psychology, consumer behavior, and sociology to provide overview sessions on the basics and recent developments in their fields.
  21. 21. SSME Position Paper Summary 21 Approaches – make sure it is integrated University of Dublin Professor John Murray advises that leading with research, institutions should engage all stakeholders from students, to practitioners to policy makers to improve the success of all. Mandelbaum (Technion) and Xu (Harbin) also mention that integration of research, education and application (practice) is key to produce tools and people that are qualified to use the tools. For example, in a study of call center call abandonment rates, Mandelbaum used statistics and operations research to model impatience, psychology to understand behavior, and marketing to assess the impact of abandonment. Adapt well-known research methods, but be sure to create new While some people intend to use and build on manufacturing related research techniques, others think that applying existing methods to services will leave gaps. Takagi (Tsukuba) says that many mature methods apply - system design using math, queueing theory, graphs, network flow, Petri nets, Markov processes, and event simulation. He also mentions new methods, for example, structural equation modeling (SEM), which is based on the simultaneous demand-and- supply equation model in econometrics and data mining. Jim Tien and Dan Berg of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute say that “Research to date has been based on manufacturing, applying those techniques that were developed in the past.” These authors suggest that while there are some similarities allowing use of established techniques, there are also enough differences to warrant creating new ones. One key difference mentioned – product inputs are used up or depreciated, while service inputs, e.g. people, generally appreciate over time in skills and knowledge.. University of Hawaii, University of Arizona A Service Logic for Service Science; by Stephen L. Vargo, and Robert F. Lusch and The Service- Dominant Mindset; by Robert F. Lusch, and Stephen L. Vargo agree: “…the methods of science, at least until recently, have been almost entirely reliant on classical statistics and the general linear model.” They assert that if we consider service as an interactive process, different from a manufacturing process, any science of services will profit by using a variety of methods. They proceed to list examples of both traditional and interpretive research methods and support the notion that a combination is key to discovery. Ideas Virginia Polytechnic Quality System Management and Education in Service Environments by Richard R. Perdue and Steven D. Sheetz cites the cluster hire as a potential way to integrate within new curricula. A cluster hire brings “…together a multi-disciplinary group focused on a core topic. While developed primarily in the biological and physical sciences, this same concept could be applied to services sciences. Bringing together a concentrated group of faculty from various business and engineering disciplines with common interest in services management and operation would effectively address the identified integration issues.”
  22. 22. SSME Position Paper Summary 22 Japan Advanced Institute of Technology “Services Science" Empowers Next Generation MOT -“Just-in-Time Innovation” Management by Service Layer Integrated Strategic Roadmapping by Akio Kameoka discusses an expansion from products to services as critically important for the Japanese manufacturing companies. This paper describes an advanced strategic road mapping technique developed for innovation management. It introduces the idea of a new independent layer of “service” between the service and product layers. Kameoka recommends that methodologies for innovation management should integrate fields of the management domain including science driven innovations, science and technology fusions, advanced technologies convergence, and technology-service convergence. He suggests that an integrated strategic planning process and dynamic innovation management of technology is to be focused on “Just-in-Time Innovation” by expanding its scope of integration domain from manufacturing to the total process of innovation, in the context of global international cooperation. Kameoka references “Symbiotic Competitiveness” for the 21st century” by Professor Hiroshi Inose. Carnegie Mellon University Legitimizing SSME in Academia: Critical Considerations and Essential Actions by Jane Siegel, Bill Hefley, Shelley Evenson and Sandra Slaughter begins with the premise that SSME should be a legitimate field of study. Jane Siegel et al believe that SSME may include a large set of existing disciplines as well as spawning new areas of academic inquiry and educational focus. They assert that there is an urgent need to establish interdisciplinary research agendas to: understand fundamental changes at the global, national, and enterprise levels; measure the services sector to determine the impacts on society and the individual; and to foster innovation to improve the quality of life for all. Consortium for Services Innovation An Integrated Approach to Service Innovation by Greg Oxton observes that innovation in services needs to happen in new ways, not through R&D and engineering alone. This paper describes an Adaptive Organization model based on persistent learning, relevant knowledge, fluid roles, and value-based metrics that he believes will enable sustained innovation in a dynamic environment.

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