Agenda• Introductions• Overview of the Crisis Geospatial Information Sharing during the 311 Disasters• Case Studies “Crisis Mapping Project using FOSS4G”: – Base Map Creations (OSGeo.JP & OSM) – SNS + Mapping Platform (sinsai.info & Ushahidi)• For the Monitoring and Recovery• Conclusions
Introductions: ConceptsNeogeography•Neogeography combines the complex techniques of cartography and GISand places them within reach of users and developers.•Neogeography is about sharing location information with friends andvisitors, helping to shape contexts, and conveying an understandingthrough the knowledge of place.•Andrew Turner (2006): 『 Introduction to Neogeography 』
Volunteered Geographic Information• Citizens are using handheld devices to collect geographic information and contribute it to crowd-sourced data sets; they are employing Web-based mapping interfaces to mark and annotate geographic features…• These citizens are largely untrained; their actions are almost always voluntary, and their results may or may not be accurate.• However, their activities represent a dramatic innovation that will certainly have profound impacts on GIS.• Michael Goodchild (2007): “Citizens as Sensors”
Neocartography & FOSS4G (Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial)• “Map makers who may not have come from traditional mapping backgrounds, and are frequently using open data and open source mapping tools …..• ….. the availability of data and tools allows these neocartographers both to make their own maps and often be the intended audience as well – that is to say they may make the maps for themselves, just because they can… (http://neocartography.icaci.org/mission-and-aims/)• Chilton, S. (2008), M.J. Kraak (2011)
Crisis mapping• Crisis Mapping is thus live mapping that is focused on crises, broadly defined, from slow-burn crises to sudden-onset disasters. Crisis Mapping is certainly not restricted to political crises; it may include social and environmental ones as well. (Meier, 2011)• Ushahidi is a free and open source software (LGPL) program available for information collection, visualization and interactive mapping. http://irevolution.net/2011/01/20/what-is-crisis-mapping/
Overview of the Crisis GeospatialInformation Sharing during the 311Disasters
Background• Great Hanshin Earthquake of January 15, 1995• The first year of activity by citizens volunteers• The focus on the GIS by the local government• The first Japanese GIS law established (May, 2007)http://www.flickr.com/photos/mah_japan/4479363670/ CC-BY 2.0http://www.flickr.com/photos/lisa_joy/5071045906/ CC-BY-NC-ND 2.0
The Great East Japan Earthquake• The Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011 brought catastrophic damage to a huge area of Japan.• In comparison to the 1995 earthquake, a greater tsunami caused more devastation and a grave nuclear accident(Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power) .• Although the traffic and communication infrastructures were interrupted, people shared information on area damage or the conditions of victims by using social media, such as Twitter and the mobile Internet (Tsuda 2011, Peary, Shaw and Takeuchi 2012).
Enterprise: Google Crisis Response Traffic Performance Information http://www.google.co.jp/intl/ja/crisisresponse/ japanquake2011_traffic.html
Citizens: Map of Food Supplies & Evacuation places http://bit.ly/hKcDQw
Neogeographers: The East Japan Earthquake Archive http://shinsai.mapping.jp/
International Archive Projects: Harvard Univ. http://cegrp.cga.harvard.edu/japan/?q=content/home http://worldmap.harvard.edu/maps/397/ http://beta.jdarchive.org/ja/home
Progress and Issues• Many portal sites started very quickly (one to five days after the disaster)• They used FOSS4G architecture and API services• Some of the Japanese enterprise/professional projects were mainly Web-map representation (source data could not be obtained and reused).• Some of the projects closed or did not update their websites one-year after 311.
Case Studies:“Crisis Mapping Project using FOSS4G”
• Rectified aerial photos • Construction of open (Jpn-Eng)OSGeo.JP gazetteer database • ML, Twitter
OSGeo.JP Corroborate with@wata909 (Nobusuke Iwasaki: Project Manager) Neogeographers• Beginning with OSGeoJP, discuss ML and Twitter.• Over 20 volunteers joined the project.• About 100 aerial photographs were geo- rectified in two days.• Thousands of photographs were merged with GDAL• Some related projects were setup in order to facilitate this work.
• Disaster information managementSinsai.info through SMS(Ushahidi) • System development • Github, Yammer, Lingr (Skype), Twitter
sinsai.info （ SocialMedia + Map: Opensource Platform)platform for disaster information sharing connecting reports withsome locational information to the maps (The word of ‘sinsai’:disaster in Japanese) http://sinsai.info/
#jishin:earthquake #j_j_helpme:need help reports #hinan:evacuation collection and checking reports #anpi: safety confirmation firstname.lastname@example.org mail website other sites checked by the moderators・ Release: 18:26 Mar. 11th (14:46 earthquake occurred)・ moderators: about 20 members developer:10 members・ gross participants: over 300 members・ supporting companies: over 15 (Amazon,Yahoo, NTT, NTT Data,etc..)・ Reports: 23,836, PageView: 628,534 （ 3/11-4/22 ）・ OutputsAPI (KML&REST API), GitHub (https://github.com/sinsai), Android …
Radiation Measurements by local government: Geo-visualization of Neogeographers Using Google Fusion Tables (@d_shiba) https://www.google.com/fusiontables/DataSource?snapid=S206201bfzG
The Supports of Recovery and Restoration using IT x OSM x Kenichi Takahashi http://www.flickr.com/photos/ktaka/5745142690 ・ 5742669976
Ideathon + Hackathon Engineers NPO/NGO etc- Designers Problems Others Join Ideas, Human resources Support Hack-a-thonhttp://www.slideshare.net/hal_sk/sinsaiinfo-and-hack-for-japan-social-media-week by Hal Seki
Why is a restoration map needed ?• Response to local “Up-to-date” information• Official guide by Chamber of Commerce ⇔ OSM• The possibility of collaboration by volunteers and residents Source: http://kamaishi-town.com/
2012/03/20 First Mapping Party in Kamaishi■Purpose•Where is the restoration ?•What kinds of the restoration ?•(Geo-)visualization of the recently conditions■Challenges•Collected detail information from the local residents•It wants to visit a lot of people in Kamaishi
2012/03/20 First Mapping Party in Kamaishi■Challenges•Collected detail informationfrom local residents•Desire to visit many people inKamaishi•Contacted over 40 people infieldwork (using GPS) andintroduced OSM editing•Logistics support byYokohama-team
2012/05/12-13 Second Mapping Party in Kamaishi■Purpose•What kind of restoration map?•Discussion of the map’s features: shops, public facilities, tourism resources, etc.•The development of Pdf and/or paper-based self-making restoration map using OSM data
2012/09/01-02 Field Excursion Tour with HOThttps://www.facebook.com/groups/hack4iwate.osm/
What kind of the restoration map feature(s)• Targeting shops – The name of the shop – Type of the service – Opening-closing time – Telephone number – When is it open, and where is it located?
The Discussion of Restore Mapping Tagname Evacuation Housingname:ja_kana amenity=shelteramenitycuisineopening_hours Massage shopphone shop=massageaddr:fullrestart_daysource 61
The localization and re-designing of based MapOSMatic by Restoration Map Team (ongoing)
Making User Manual of Field Papersby Restoration Map Team(ongoing)
Conclusions• The Neogeographers contributed a vast amount of visual geospatial information in the response period.• Crowd sourcing and FOSS4G easily furthered networking activities.• The awareness of information sharing and openness in crisis response increased.• FOSS4G and Neogeography were committed to other possible disaster uses. (However, they were not able to deliver information and services directly to disaster area residents.)
Issues• The difficulty of the evaluation – VGI’s voluminous data; citizen motivation• The gap of the IT literacy and GIS skills in the Tohoku area – Continuing collaboration with Tohoku area is necessary• Too many geospatial archive projects and related social network channels – The continuity of the project and community growth – SNS: Twitter, Facebook, Lingr, Redmine, GitHub, etc.
The Role of the Neogeography and VGI for Next Steps• More active support for mapping by local residents• The special needs of easy-use, restoration mapping• The visualization of opening-closing times, holidays, etc. – Not only by neogeographers but also citizens• Need for more educational opportunities and resources to prepare (neo)geographers for next crisis
Thank you for your attention ! Twitter & Facebook: @tosseto E-mail: email@example.comSpecial Thanks to: Nishimura, Y., Furuhashi, T., Seki, H., Kamaishi Mapping Team, OSMFJ and OSGeo.JP