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Dark Side of Personality and Leadership (FYE)

What dark side characteristics do you have? How can you use them to get ahead? How can they hurt you? This presentation will help you to learn more about the dark side of personality, in particular the Dark Triad of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy.

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Dark Side of Personality and Leadership (FYE)

  1. 1. Seth M. Spain, Ph.D. School of Management & Center for Leadership Studies, Binghamton University ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- - Presented to the Binghamton University First Year Experience
  2. 2. Seth M. Spain, Ph.D. School of Management & Center for Leadership Studies, Binghamton University ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- - Presented to the Binghamton University First Year Experience
  3. 3. Objectives   Introduce the concept of personality characteristics  Orient you to the so-called “dark side” of personality  Provide guidance on the interpersonal perspective on psychology  Orient important dark side characteristics in it  Orient “good” leadership in it  Provide perspective on failures of leadership  Effective vs. successful leaders  Why do managers derail?
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  8. 8. What do I mean, “Dark Side”?   Personality traits characterize a person’s typical interpersonal style  Typical ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving  Relatively enduring over time, vis à vis states  “Bright Side” or Normal-range personality  “Paddle your CANOE in the OCEAN”  Dark Side or subclinical personality  Not necessarily dysfunctional (for everyday life)  “Dark triad” and DSM-IV
  9. 9. Why should you (or anyone) care?   Normal-range personality can predict behavior-at-work  Job performance  Citizenship behaviors  Counterproductive behaviors  Leadership  Abusive supervision  Managerial derailment  The Dark Side seems to be much, much more powerful  Twice as potent, even after accounting for normal-range (Harms, Spain, Hannah, & Hogan, 2011)
  10. 10. Axis II – Hogan Development Survey – Dark Triad  Subclinical Trait DSM-IV Construct Dark Triad Construct Excitable Borderline Skeptical Paranoid Machiavellianism? Cautious Avoidant Reserved Schizoid Leisurely Passive-Aggressive Bold Narcissistic Narcissism Mischievous Antisocial Psychopathy Colorful Histrionic Imaginative Schizotypal Diligent Obsessive-Compulsive Dutiful Dependent Table from Spain, Harms, & LeBreton (2014), modified from Harms, Spain, & Hannah, (2011)
  11. 11. Axis II – Hogan Development Survey – Dark Triad  Subclinical Trait DSM-IV Construct Dark Triad Construct Excitable Borderline Skeptical Paranoid Machiavellianism? Cautious Avoidant Reserved Schizoid Leisurely Passive-Aggressive Bold Narcissistic Narcissism Mischievous Antisocial Psychopathy Colorful Histrionic Imaginative Schizotypal Diligent Obsessive-Compulsive Dutiful Dependent Table from Spain, Harms, & LeBreton (2014), modified from Harms, Spain, & Hannah, (2011)
  12. 12. Axis II – Hogan Development Survey – Dark Triad  Subclinical Trait DSM-IV Construct Dark Triad Construct Excitable Borderline Skeptical Paranoid Machiavellianism? Cautious Avoidant Reserved Schizoid Leisurely Passive-Aggressive Bold Narcissistic Narcissism Mischievous Antisocial Psychopathy Colorful Histrionic Imaginative Schizotypal Diligent Obsessive-Compulsive Dutiful Dependent Table from Spain, Harms, & LeBreton (2014), modified from Harms, Spain, & Hannah, (2011)
  13. 13. Interpersonal Circle Communion/ Nurturance Dominance
  14. 14. Interpersonal Circle: Dark Triad  Communion/ Nurturance Dominance
  15. 15. Interpersonal Circle: Good leadership?  Communion/ Nurturance Dominance
  16. 16. Effective vs. Successful   Leaders can be either “effective” or “successful”  Ensure tasks get done  Get ahead  Only a handful are both
  17. 17. Effective vs. Successful   Leaders can be either “effective” or “successful”  Ensure tasks get done (beat competition)  Get ahead (get promoted)  Only a handful are both (10%)  Effective leaders  Communicate  Manage their teams
  18. 18. Effective vs. Successful   Leaders can be either “effective” or “successful”  Ensure tasks get done (beat competition)  Get ahead (get promoted)  Only a handful are both (10%)  Effective leaders  Communicate  Manage their teams  Successful leaders  Network  Engage in office politics
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  23. 23. Destructive Leadership   Rates of managerial incompetence are HIGH (maybe as high as 70%, according to Bob Hogan)  That is just ineffective leadership  Here, we’re concerned with leaders who are basically evil  Intent-to-harm (Krasikova, Green, & LeBreton, 2014)  Tend to impute hostile motives to others  More machiavellian  Trait aggressiveness  Skeptical/Paranoid
  24. 24. Interpersonal Circle: Dark Triad Reminder  Communion/ Nurturance Dominance
  25. 25.   Narcissists may be more motivated to work hard to become leaders  Want to “be the best” at what they do  May be domineering and competitive with subordinates and peers, though  Narcissists can be good at selling ideas  May “poison” the well in long-term relationships, though Narcissism
  26. 26.   Narcissists may be more motivated to work hard to become leaders  May be domineering and competitive with subordinates, though  Narcissists can be good at selling ideas  May “poison” the well in long-term relationships, though Narcissism
  27. 27.   Narcissists may be more motivated to work hard to become leaders  May be domineering and competitive with subordinates, though  Narcissists can be good at selling ideas  May “poison” the well in long-term relationships, though Narcissism
  28. 28. Interpersonal Circle  Communion/ Nurturance Dominance Narcissist!
  29. 29. Machiavellianism   Manipulators  Liars  Good at forming alliances  Use lots of social influence tactics (“Protean”)  Engage in office politics  Willing to use threats, intimidation  Willing to beg and compromise  “Do what needs to be done”
  30. 30. Machiavellianism   Manipulators  Liars  Good at forming alliances  Use lots of social influence tactics (“Protean”)
  31. 31. Machiavellianism   Manipulators  Liars  Good at forming alliances  Use lots of social influence tactics (“Protean”)
  32. 32. Psychopathy   Not prone to feeling guilt or shame  Less anxiety than others  Impulsive  Willing to harm others to succeed
  33. 33. Psychopathy   Not prone to feeling guilt or shame  Less anxiety than others  Impulsive  Willing to harm others to succeed
  34. 34. Interpersonal Circle  Communion/ Nurturance Dominance Psychopath!
  35. 35. Bond, James Bond   The Dark Triad  Narcissism  Machiavellianism  Psychopathy  Powerfully agentic
  36. 36. Bond, James Bond   The Dark Triad  Narcissism  Machiavellianism  Psychopathy  Powerfully agentic  Puts self ahead of others  “Not a team player”
  37. 37. Bond, James Bond   The Dark Triad  Narcissism  Machiavellianism  Psychopathy  Powerfully agentic  Puts self ahead of others  “Not a team player”
  38. 38. Skeptical   Euphemism for “paranoid”  Described as “having a chip on [their] shoulders”  Suspicious  People high in skepticism look for—and find!— ulterior motives in interpersonal interactions  Bad for development  Bad for team-work
  39. 39. Skeptical   Euphemism for “paranoid”  Described as “having a chip on [their] shoulders”  Suspicious  People high in skepticism look for—and find!— ulterior motives in interpersonal interactions  Bad for development  Bad for team-work
  40. 40. Interpersonal Circle  Communion/ Nurturance Dominance Paranoid!
  41. 41. Managerial derailment  Time Occupational Level
  42. 42. Managerial derailment  Time Occupational Level Axed!
  43. 43. Managerial derailment  Time Occupational Level Axed!
  44. 44. Major causes?   Problems with interpersonal relationships  Insensitive  Demanding  Manipulative  Authoritarian  Aloof  Critical  Overly cautious  Arrogant  Volatile  Perfectionistic  Too eager to please
  45. 45. Major causes?   Problems with interpersonal relationships  Insensitive—paranoid , psychopathic  Demanding – psychopathic, narcissistic  Manipulative—Machiavellian  Authoritarian—narcissistic, psychopathic, Machiavellian  Aloof -- Schizoid  Critical – paranoid,  Overly cautious – Passive-aggressive, Avoidant  Arrogant – Narcissistic!!!  Volatile – Histrionic, Borderline  Perfectionistic – Obsessive Compulsive  Too eager to please -- Dependent
  46. 46.   To you! Thanks!
  47. 47. Thanks!   To you!  To my six-month old, identical twin daughters, for sleeping enough to let me do this!
  48. 48. Follow   @SethMSpain on Twitter  Sethspain.wordpress.com www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-dark-side-work

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