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Jason Baldridge, Associate Professor of Computational Linguistics, University of Texas at Austin at MLconf SEA - 5/20/16

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Disambiguating Explicit and Implicit Geographic References in Natural Language: When people speak, both they and their utterances are situated in place and time. Our utterances reflect where we are from, where we are right now, and where we are talking about—among many other things, including personality, social status, and the topics under discussion. As hearers, we naturally incorporate locational awareness into our understanding of what we are told. That is to say, we geographically ground the meaning of natural language utterances. In this talk, I will discuss both toponym resolution (e.g., identifying which Springfield is intended in a passage) and general text geolocation—deriving geographical gists from free-running text that perhaps has no explicit mentions of places. I’ll cover supervised and semi-supervised methods for solving these tasks. I’ll also briefly discuss how this work might generalize the now commonplace treatment of words-as-vectors into computational models of word meaning that use multi-dimensional representations over words, geography, time, and images.

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Jason Baldridge, Associate Professor of Computational Linguistics, University of Texas at Austin at MLconf SEA - 5/20/16

  1. 1. Disambiguating Explicit and Implicit Geographic References in Natural Language Jason Baldridge @jasonbaldridge Computational Linguistics Lab Department of Linguistics UT Austin MLConf Seattle May 20, 2016
  2. 2. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 What does “barbecue” mean? 2
  3. 3. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 What does “barbecue” mean? Barbecue’ 2
  4. 4. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 What does “barbecue” mean? Barbecue’ 2
  5. 5. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 What does “barbecue” mean? Barbecue’ 2
  6. 6. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 What does “barbecue” mean? Barbecue’ 2
  7. 7. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 What does “barbecue” mean? Barbecue’ 2
  8. 8. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 What does “barbecue” mean? Barbecue’ 2
  9. 9. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 What I thought semantics was before 2005 3 From: John Enrico and Jason Baldridge. 2011. Possessor Raising, Demonstrative Raising, Quantifier Float and Number Float in Haida. International Journal of American Linguistics. 77(2):185-218
  10. 10. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Updated perspective a la Ray Mooney (UT Austin CS) 4 http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/ml/slides/chen-icml08.ppt
  11. 11. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 http://www.lib.utexas.edu/books/travel/index.htmlTravel at the Turn of the 20th Century 5
  12. 12. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Motivation: Google Lit Trips [http://www.googlelittrips.com/] 6 Grapes of Wrath in Google Earth Text http://www.googlelittrips.com/GoogleLit/9-12/Entries/2006/11/1_The_Grapes_of_Wrath_by_John_Steinbeck.html
  13. 13. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Look, Mom, no hands! (Err, um... no metadata.) 7
  14. 14. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Look, Mom, no hands! (Err, um... no metadata.) 7 Topics with a clear, circumscribed geographic focus emerge!
  15. 15. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Metadata is now plentiful 8
  16. 16. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 01:55:55 RT @USER_dc5e5498: Drop and give me 50.... 05:09:29 I said u got a swisher from redmond!? He said nah kirkland! Lol..ooooooooOkay! 05:57:35 Lmao!:) havin a good ol time after work! Unexpected! #goodtimes 06:00:09 RT @USER_d5d93fec: #letsbereal .. No seriously, #letsbereal>>lol. Don't start. 06:00:37 On my way to get @USER_60939380 yeee! She want some of this strawberry! Sexy! ... 47°31’41’’ N 122°11’52’’ W 9 Geotagged Twitter
  17. 17. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 01:55:55 RT @USER_dc5e5498: Drop and give me 50.... 05:09:29 I said u got a swisher from redmond!? He said nah kirkland! Lol..ooooooooOkay! 05:57:35 Lmao!:) havin a good ol time after work! Unexpected! #goodtimes 06:00:09 RT @USER_d5d93fec: #letsbereal .. No seriously, #letsbereal>>lol. Don't start. 06:00:37 On my way to get @USER_60939380 yeee! She want some of this strawberry! Sexy! ... 47°31’41’’ N 122°11’52’’ W 9 Geotagged Twitter
  18. 18. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Geotagged Wikipedia 10 30° 17′ N 97° 44′ W
  19. 19. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Where’s a word on Earth? (according to Wikipedia)
  20. 20. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Where’s a word on Earth? (according to Wikipedia) mountain
  21. 21. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Document geolocation: where is this person? 12
  22. 22. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 201613 Amsterdam, Zaandam,Amstelveen, Diemen, Landsmeer ... Frankfurt, Frechen, Hürth, Brühl,Wesseling, ... Language modeling approach Wing & Baldridge 2011: Simple supervised document geolocation with geodesic grids.
  23. 23. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Locations of Twitter users are not uniformly distributed! 14 (Small) GeoUT (Twitter) plotted on Google Earth, one pin per user. Density of (all) documents in GeoUT over the USA (390 million tweets)
  24. 24. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 k-d tree for geotagged Wikipedia, looking at N. America 15 Roller, Speriosu, Rallapalli,Wing & Baldridge 2014: Supervised Text-based Geolocation Using Language Models on an Adaptive Grid.
  25. 25. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 k-d tree for geotagged Wikipedia, looking at N. America 15 Roller, Speriosu, Rallapalli,Wing & Baldridge 2014: Supervised Text-based Geolocation Using Language Models on an Adaptive Grid.
  26. 26. [Serdyukov, Murdock, & van Zwol 2009; Cheng, Caverlee, & Lee 2010;Wing & Baldridge 2011] Automatic document geolocation
  27. 27. [Serdyukov, Murdock, & van Zwol 2009; Cheng, Caverlee, & Lee 2010;Wing & Baldridge 2011] Automatic document geolocation
  28. 28. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Hierarchical geo-location with logistic regression 17 Wing & Baldridge 2014: Hierarchical Discriminative Classification for Text-Based Geolocation.
  29. 29. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf May 2016 Hierarchical logistic regression 18
  30. 30. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf May 2016 Hierarchical logistic regression 19
  31. 31. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf May 2016 Hierarchical logistic regression 20
  32. 32. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Performance: hierarchical logistic regression with kd-tree grid 21 Flickr (entire world) Half of documents geotagged within 18 km of truth Percent of documents within 166km (100 miles): 66% Twitter (World) Half of users geotagged within 510 km of truth Percent of documents within 166km (100 miles): 31% Twitter (USA) Half of users geotagged within 192 km of truth Percent of documents within 166km (100 miles): 48%
  33. 33. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Hierarchical logistic regression beats flat naive Bayes 22 Naive Bayes Hierarchical LR Twitter USA 36.2 48.0 Twitter World 28.7 31.3 Flickr 58.5 66 English Wikipedia 84.5 88.9 German Wikipedia 89.3 90.2 Portuguese Wikipedia 77.1 89.5 Accuracy @ 161 km, kd-tree grid
  34. 34. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Logistic regression weights good features heavily 23
  35. 35. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf May 2016 Automated Lit Trips 24
  36. 36. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Toponym (place name) resolution 25 They visit Portland every year.
  37. 37. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Toponym (place name) resolution 25 They visit Portland every year. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Which Portland? (Also: Canada,Australia, Ireland...)
  38. 38. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Toponym resolution in context 26 Although Elisha Newman made the first land entry in the township of Portland (June, 1833), he did not become a settler until three years later, by which time a few settlers had located in the town. From Mr. Newman's story, it appears that early in 1833, he was visiting friends in Ann Arbor, and during an evening conversation discussed with others the subject of unlocated lands lying west of Ann Arbor. One of the company (Joseph Wood) remarked that he had been out with the party sent to survey Ionia and other counties, and that the surveyors were struck by the valuable water-power at the mouth of the Looking Glass River, saying there would surely be a village there some day. Mr. Newman was at once taken with the idea of locating lands at the mouth of the Looking Glass. Following up his impulse, he made ready to start at once, and, accompanied by James Newman and Joseph Wood, went out to the Looking Glass on a tour of inspection. Being satisfied with the location, he returned Eastward with his companions, and at White Pigeon made his land entry. Newman did not return for a permanent settlement until the spring of 1836, and meanwhile, in November, 1833, Philo Bogue bought a piece of land on section 28, in the bend of the Grand River, where he proposed to set up a trading post. Unaided he rolled up a log cabin near where the Detroit, Lansing, and Northern depot was located, and when he brought the house into decent shape went over to Hunt's at Lyons for his family, whom he had left there against such time as he should have affairs prepared for their comfort.
  39. 39. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Spatial minimality 27 Although Elisha Newman made the first land entry in the township of Portland (June, 1833), he did not become a settler until three years later, by which time a few settlers had located in the town. From Mr. Newman's story, it appears that early in 1833, he was visiting friends in Ann Arbor, and during an evening conversation discussed with others the subject of unlocated lands lying west of Ann Arbor. One of the company (Joseph Wood) remarked that he had been out with the party sent to survey Ionia and other counties, and that the surveyors were struck by the valuable water-power at the mouth of the Looking Glass River, saying there would surely be a village there some day. Mr. Newman was at once taken with the idea of locating lands at the mouth of the Looking Glass. Following up his impulse, he made ready to start at once, and, accompanied by James Newman and Joseph Wood, went out to the Looking Glass on a tour of inspection. Being satisfied with the location, he returned Eastward with his companions, and at White Pigeon made his land entry. Newman did not return for a permanent settlement until the spring of 1836, and meanwhile, in November, 1833, Philo Bogue bought a piece of land on section 28, in the bend of the Grand River, where he proposed to set up a trading post. Unaided he rolled up a log cabin near where the Detroit, Lansing, and Northern depot was located, and when he brought the house into decent shape went over to Hunt's at Lyons for his family, whom he had left there against such time as he should have affairs prepared for their comfort.
  40. 40. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 GeoNames 4048392 Portland Mills Portland Mills 39.7781 -87.00918 P PPL US IN 133 0 223 218 America/Indiana/Indianapolis 2010-02-15 4084605 Portland Portland 32.15459 -87.1686 P PPL US AL 047 0 30 41 America/Chicago 2006-01-15 4127143 Portland Portland Portlend,Портленд33.2379 -91.51151 P PPL US AR 003 430 38 39 America/Chicago 2011-05-14 4169227 Portland Portland 30.51242 -86.19578 P PPL US FL 131 0 8 14 America/Chicago 2006-01-15 4217115 Portland Portland 34.05732 -85.03634 P PPL US GA 233 0 229 228 America/New_York 2010-09-05 4277586 Portland Portland 37.0778 -97.31227 P PPL US KS 191 0 362 364 America/Chicago 2006-01-15 4305000 Portland Portland 37.12062 -85.44608 P PPL US KY 001 0 220 223 America/Chicago 2006-01-15 4305001 Portland Portland 38.26924 -85.8108 P PPL US KY 111 0 135 138 America/Kentucky/Louisville 2006-01-15 4305002 Portland Portland 38.74812 -84.44772 P PPL US KY 191 0 265 266 America/New_York 2006-01-15 404289 Portland Portland Portlend,Портленд38.71088 -91.71767 P PPL US MO 027 0 170 172 America/Chicago 2010-01-29 4521811 Portland Portland Portlend,Портленд39.00341 -81.77124 P PPL US OH 105 0 187 188 America/New_York 2010-01-29 4650946 Portland Portland Portlend,Портленд36.58171 -86.51638 P PPL US TN 165 11480 244 245 America/Chicago 2011-05-14 4720131 Portland Portland Portlend,Портленд27.87725 -97.32388 P PPL US TX 409 15099 13 11 America/Chicago 2011-05-14 4841001 Portland Portland Portlend,Портленд41.57288 -72.64065 P PPL US CT 007 5862 24 27 America/New_York 2011-05-14 4871855 Portland Portland 43.12858 -93.12354 P PPL US IA 033 35 327 330 America/Chicago 2011-05-14 4906524 Portland Portland 41.66253 -89.98012 P PPL US IL 195 0 190 190 America/Chicago 2006-01-15 5006314 Portland Portland Portlend,Портленд42.8692 -84.90305 P PPL US MI 067 3883 221 223 America/Detroit 2011-05-14 5746545 Portland Portland 45.52345 -122.67621 P PPLA2 US OR 051 583776 12 15 America/Los_Angeles 2011-05-14 Spatial minimality 27 Although Elisha Newman made the first land entry in the township of Portland (June, 1833), he did not become a settler until three years later, by which time a few settlers had located in the town. From Mr. Newman's story, it appears that early in 1833, he was visiting friends in Ann Arbor, and during an evening conversation discussed with others the subject of unlocated lands lying west of Ann Arbor. One of the company (Joseph Wood) remarked that he had been out with the party sent to survey Ionia and other counties, and that the surveyors were struck by the valuable water-power at the mouth of the Looking Glass River, saying there would surely be a village there some day. Mr. Newman was at once taken with the idea of locating lands at the mouth of the Looking Glass. Following up his impulse, he made ready to start at once, and, accompanied by James Newman and Joseph Wood, went out to the Looking Glass on a tour of inspection. Being satisfied with the location, he returned Eastward with his companions, and at White Pigeon made his land entry. Newman did not return for a permanent settlement until the spring of 1836, and meanwhile, in November, 1833, Philo Bogue bought a piece of land on section 28, in the bend of the Grand River, where he proposed to set up a trading post. Unaided he rolled up a log cabin near where the Detroit, Lansing, and Northern depot was located, and when he brought the house into decent shape went over to Hunt's at Lyons for his family, whom he had left there against such time as he should have affairs prepared for their comfort.
  41. 41. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 GeoNames 4048392 Portland Mills Portland Mills 39.7781 -87.00918 P PPL US IN 133 0 223 218 America/Indiana/Indianapolis 2010-02-15 4084605 Portland Portland 32.15459 -87.1686 P PPL US AL 047 0 30 41 America/Chicago 2006-01-15 4127143 Portland Portland Portlend,Портленд33.2379 -91.51151 P PPL US AR 003 430 38 39 America/Chicago 2011-05-14 4169227 Portland Portland 30.51242 -86.19578 P PPL US FL 131 0 8 14 America/Chicago 2006-01-15 4217115 Portland Portland 34.05732 -85.03634 P PPL US GA 233 0 229 228 America/New_York 2010-09-05 4277586 Portland Portland 37.0778 -97.31227 P PPL US KS 191 0 362 364 America/Chicago 2006-01-15 4305000 Portland Portland 37.12062 -85.44608 P PPL US KY 001 0 220 223 America/Chicago 2006-01-15 4305001 Portland Portland 38.26924 -85.8108 P PPL US KY 111 0 135 138 America/Kentucky/Louisville 2006-01-15 4305002 Portland Portland 38.74812 -84.44772 P PPL US KY 191 0 265 266 America/New_York 2006-01-15 404289 Portland Portland Portlend,Портленд38.71088 -91.71767 P PPL US MO 027 0 170 172 America/Chicago 2010-01-29 4521811 Portland Portland Portlend,Портленд39.00341 -81.77124 P PPL US OH 105 0 187 188 America/New_York 2010-01-29 4650946 Portland Portland Portlend,Портленд36.58171 -86.51638 P PPL US TN 165 11480 244 245 America/Chicago 2011-05-14 4720131 Portland Portland Portlend,Портленд27.87725 -97.32388 P PPL US TX 409 15099 13 11 America/Chicago 2011-05-14 4841001 Portland Portland Portlend,Портленд41.57288 -72.64065 P PPL US CT 007 5862 24 27 America/New_York 2011-05-14 4871855 Portland Portland 43.12858 -93.12354 P PPL US IA 033 35 327 330 America/Chicago 2011-05-14 4906524 Portland Portland 41.66253 -89.98012 P PPL US IL 195 0 190 190 America/Chicago 2006-01-15 5006314 Portland Portland Portlend,Портленд42.8692 -84.90305 P PPL US MI 067 3883 221 223 America/Detroit 2011-05-14 5746545 Portland Portland 45.52345 -122.67621 P PPLA2 US OR 051 583776 12 15 America/Los_Angeles 2011-05-14 Spatial minimality 27 Ann Arbor Detroit Ionia Lyons Portland White Pigeon 1 >7 >4 >15 >17 1 # LocationsToponym Although Elisha Newman made the first land entry in the township of Portland (June, 1833), he did not become a settler until three years later, by which time a few settlers had located in the town. From Mr. Newman's story, it appears that early in 1833, he was visiting friends in Ann Arbor, and during an evening conversation discussed with others the subject of unlocated lands lying west of Ann Arbor. One of the company (Joseph Wood) remarked that he had been out with the party sent to survey Ionia and other counties, and that the surveyors were struck by the valuable water-power at the mouth of the Looking Glass River, saying there would surely be a village there some day. Mr. Newman was at once taken with the idea of locating lands at the mouth of the Looking Glass. Following up his impulse, he made ready to start at once, and, accompanied by James Newman and Joseph Wood, went out to the Looking Glass on a tour of inspection. Being satisfied with the location, he returned Eastward with his companions, and at White Pigeon made his land entry. Newman did not return for a permanent settlement until the spring of 1836, and meanwhile, in November, 1833, Philo Bogue bought a piece of land on section 28, in the bend of the Grand River, where he proposed to set up a trading post. Unaided he rolled up a log cabin near where the Detroit, Lansing, and Northern depot was located, and when he brought the house into decent shape went over to Hunt's at Lyons for his family, whom he had left there against such time as he should have affairs prepared for their comfort.
  42. 42. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 GeoNames 4048392 Portland Mills Portland Mills 39.7781 -87.00918 P PPL US IN 133 0 223 218 America/Indiana/Indianapolis 2010-02-15 4084605 Portland Portland 32.15459 -87.1686 P PPL US AL 047 0 30 41 America/Chicago 2006-01-15 4127143 Portland Portland Portlend,Портленд33.2379 -91.51151 P PPL US AR 003 430 38 39 America/Chicago 2011-05-14 4169227 Portland Portland 30.51242 -86.19578 P PPL US FL 131 0 8 14 America/Chicago 2006-01-15 4217115 Portland Portland 34.05732 -85.03634 P PPL US GA 233 0 229 228 America/New_York 2010-09-05 4277586 Portland Portland 37.0778 -97.31227 P PPL US KS 191 0 362 364 America/Chicago 2006-01-15 4305000 Portland Portland 37.12062 -85.44608 P PPL US KY 001 0 220 223 America/Chicago 2006-01-15 4305001 Portland Portland 38.26924 -85.8108 P PPL US KY 111 0 135 138 America/Kentucky/Louisville 2006-01-15 4305002 Portland Portland 38.74812 -84.44772 P PPL US KY 191 0 265 266 America/New_York 2006-01-15 404289 Portland Portland Portlend,Портленд38.71088 -91.71767 P PPL US MO 027 0 170 172 America/Chicago 2010-01-29 4521811 Portland Portland Portlend,Портленд39.00341 -81.77124 P PPL US OH 105 0 187 188 America/New_York 2010-01-29 4650946 Portland Portland Portlend,Портленд36.58171 -86.51638 P PPL US TN 165 11480 244 245 America/Chicago 2011-05-14 4720131 Portland Portland Portlend,Портленд27.87725 -97.32388 P PPL US TX 409 15099 13 11 America/Chicago 2011-05-14 4841001 Portland Portland Portlend,Портленд41.57288 -72.64065 P PPL US CT 007 5862 24 27 America/New_York 2011-05-14 4871855 Portland Portland 43.12858 -93.12354 P PPL US IA 033 35 327 330 America/Chicago 2011-05-14 4906524 Portland Portland 41.66253 -89.98012 P PPL US IL 195 0 190 190 America/Chicago 2006-01-15 5006314 Portland Portland Portlend,Портленд42.8692 -84.90305 P PPL US MI 067 3883 221 223 America/Detroit 2011-05-14 5746545 Portland Portland 45.52345 -122.67621 P PPLA2 US OR 051 583776 12 15 America/Los_Angeles 2011-05-14 Spatial minimality 27 Portland LyonsIonia White Pigeon Ann Arbor Detroit Ionia Lyons Portland White Pigeon 1 >7 >4 >15 >17 1 # LocationsToponym Although Elisha Newman made the first land entry in the township of Portland (June, 1833), he did not become a settler until three years later, by which time a few settlers had located in the town. From Mr. Newman's story, it appears that early in 1833, he was visiting friends in Ann Arbor, and during an evening conversation discussed with others the subject of unlocated lands lying west of Ann Arbor. One of the company (Joseph Wood) remarked that he had been out with the party sent to survey Ionia and other counties, and that the surveyors were struck by the valuable water-power at the mouth of the Looking Glass River, saying there would surely be a village there some day. Mr. Newman was at once taken with the idea of locating lands at the mouth of the Looking Glass. Following up his impulse, he made ready to start at once, and, accompanied by James Newman and Joseph Wood, went out to the Looking Glass on a tour of inspection. Being satisfied with the location, he returned Eastward with his companions, and at White Pigeon made his land entry. Newman did not return for a permanent settlement until the spring of 1836, and meanwhile, in November, 1833, Philo Bogue bought a piece of land on section 28, in the bend of the Grand River, where he proposed to set up a trading post. Unaided he rolled up a log cabin near where the Detroit, Lansing, and Northern depot was located, and when he brought the house into decent shape went over to Hunt's at Lyons for his family, whom he had left there against such time as he should have affairs prepared for their comfort.
  43. 43. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Spatial minimality often fails 28 I moved from Encinitas, CA, a nice beach town in North San Diego County to Asheville, NC. By far, Ashville is more hip, especially West Asheville. Asheville has a lot in common with Portland. Austin, I've never been to so I cannot comment. But what makes a place cool and hip, in my opinion are that give a area "punch". There are a lot of ingredients. One is geography. Add a college or university (and all that they bring- and draw), good restaurants, a good music scene, a progressive attitude and tolerance. Hmmm. I'm sure there are many more to ponder. But that's my start. Oh, lots of bars! From: http://www.city-data.com/forum/austin/1694181-what-makes-city-like-austin-portland-3.html City-data.com incorrectly marks “West” and “Portland” as the cities in Texas -- presumably because of their textual and spatial proximity to “Austin”.
  44. 44. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Spatial minimality often fails 28 I moved from Encinitas, CA, a nice beach town in North San Diego County to Asheville, NC. By far, Ashville is more hip, especially West Asheville. Asheville has a lot in common with Portland. Austin, I've never been to so I cannot comment. But what makes a place cool and hip, in my opinion are that give a area "punch". There are a lot of ingredients. One is geography. Add a college or university (and all that they bring- and draw), good restaurants, a good music scene, a progressive attitude and tolerance. Hmmm. I'm sure there are many more to ponder. But that's my start. Oh, lots of bars! From: http://www.city-data.com/forum/austin/1694181-what-makes-city-like-austin-portland-3.html City-data.com incorrectly marks “West” and “Portland” as the cities in Texas -- presumably because of their textual and spatial proximity to “Austin”. But: it is clear from the text that Portland, Oregon and Austin,Texas are the referents, though their states are never mentioned and are far from the other locations! I moved from Encinitas, CA, a nice beach town in North San Diego County to Asheville, NC. By far, Ashville is more hip, especially West Asheville. Asheville has a lot in common with Portland. Austin, I've never been to so I cannot comment. But what makes a place cool and hip, in my opinion are that give a area "punch". There are a lot of ingredients. One is geography. Add a college or university (and all that they bring- and draw), good restaurants, a good music scene, a progressive attitude and tolerance. Hmmm. I'm sure there are many more to ponder. But that's my start. Oh, lots of bars!
  45. 45. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Toponym classifiers 29 Strategy: build a textual classifier per toponym by obtaining indirectly labeled examples from Wikipedia.
  46. 46. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Toponym classifiers 29 Strategy: build a textual classifier per toponym by obtaining indirectly labeled examples from Wikipedia.
  47. 47. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Toponym classifiers 29 Strategy: build a textual classifier per toponym by obtaining indirectly labeled examples from Wikipedia.
  48. 48. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Toponym classifiers 29 Strategy: build a textual classifier per toponym by obtaining indirectly labeled examples from Wikipedia.
  49. 49. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Toponym classifiers 29 Strategy: build a textual classifier per toponym by obtaining indirectly labeled examples from Wikipedia.
  50. 50. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Toponym classifiers 29 Strategy: build a textual classifier per toponym by obtaining indirectly labeled examples from Wikipedia.
  51. 51. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Toponym classifiers 29 Strategy: build a textual classifier per toponym by obtaining indirectly labeled examples from Wikipedia. P(Portland-OR|music) > P(Portland-ME|music) P(Portland-OR|wharf ) < P(Portland-ME|wharf )
  52. 52. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf May 2016 Geographic word profiles learned from Wikipedia grid LMs 30
  53. 53. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf May 2016 TopoCluster: gazetteer-free toponym resolution 31
  54. 54. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Results: disambiguating toponyms 32 TR-CoNLL LGL CWar WoTR Population 91 63 62 64 SPIDER (spatial minimality) 65 68 67 69 WISTR (Wiki supervised) 89 64 73 63 SPIDER +WISTR 87 78 87 69 TopoCluster 92 75 93 71
  55. 55. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf May 2016 New corpus: War of the Rebellion 33 Historical document collection. Both toponym and document lat/lon. 10,380 annotated toponyms, including lat/lon and regions. Will be freely available. Coming soon! Contact me for details.
  56. 56. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Grounding, more generally 34 Grounding often involves connecting text to knowledge sources and other modalities such as demographics, time, image, and video.
  57. 57. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Grounding, more generally 34 Grounding often involves connecting text to knowledge sources and other modalities such as demographics, time, image, and video. This can help us create models for deeper aspects of language, such as syntactic structure and logical form.
  58. 58. He says, she says http://www.tweetolife.com/gender/
  59. 59. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Temporality of words, by hour http://www.tweetolife.com/hour/ 36
  60. 60. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Temporality of words, by hour http://www.tweetolife.com/hour/ 36
  61. 61. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Temporality of expressions, by day: http://www.google.com/trends 37
  62. 62. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Temporality of expressions, by day: http://www.google.com/trends 37
  63. 63. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Temporality of expressions, by year: http://ngrams.googlelabs.com/ 38 slave trenches aircraft war
  64. 64. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Temporal resolution [Kumar, Lease, and Baldridge 2011] 39 2000BC 0AD 2000AD 4000BC
  65. 65. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Temporal resolution [Kumar, Lease, and Baldridge 2011] 39 2000BC 0AD 2000AD 4000BC
  66. 66. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Temporal resolution [Kumar, Lease, and Baldridge 2011] 39 2000BC 0AD 2000AD 4000BC
  67. 67. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Temporal resolution [Kumar, Lease, and Baldridge 2011] 39 2000BC 0AD 2000AD 4000BC
  68. 68. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Temporal resolution [Kumar, Lease, and Baldridge 2011] 39 2000BC 0AD 2000AD 4000BC
  69. 69. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Temporal resolution [Kumar, Lease, and Baldridge 2011] 39 2000BC 0AD 2000AD 4000BC
  70. 70. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 More modalities: videos [Motwani & Mooney, 2012] 40
  71. 71. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Beyond word co-occurences for vector-space models 41 bear boat car cow hadoop snow water wrench 3 234 42 4 1 2 325 0 beach
  72. 72. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Beyond word co-occurences for vector-space models 41 bear boat car cow hadoop snow water wrench 3 234 42 4 1 2 325 0 beach
  73. 73. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Beyond word co-occurences for vector-space models 41 bear boat car cow hadoop snow water wrench 3 234 42 4 1 2 325 0 beach
  74. 74. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Beyond word co-occurences for vector-space models 41 bear boat car cow hadoop snow water wrench 3 234 42 4 1 2 325 0 beach
  75. 75. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Beyond word co-occurences for vector-space models 41 bear boat car cow hadoop snow water wrench 3 234 42 4 1 2 325 0 beach
  76. 76. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Beyond word co-occurences for vector-space models 41 bear boat car cow hadoop snow water wrench 3 234 42 4 1 2 325 0 beach
  77. 77. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Beyond word co-occurences for vector-space models 41 bear boat car cow hadoop snow water wrench 3 234 42 4 1 2 325 0 beach
  78. 78. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Beyond word co-occurences for vector-space models 41 bear boat car cow hadoop snow water wrench 3 234 42 4 1 2 325 0 beach
  79. 79. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Beyond word co-occurences for vector-space models 41 bear boat car cow hadoop snow water wrench 3 234 42 4 1 2 325 0 beach
  80. 80. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Combining distributional models with logics 42 Erk (2013):“Towards a semantics for distributional representations.” Garrette et al (2012):“A formal approach to linking logical form and vector-space lexical semantics” Beltagy et al (2013):“Montague Meets Markov: Deep Semantics with Probabilistic Logical Form”
  81. 81. © 2016 Jason M Baldridge MLConf, May 2016 Multi-component structured vector-space models 43 beachchildren visit the children visit the beach Agent Patient
  82. 82. This research was sponsored by: Grant from the Morris Memorial Trust Fund - Walt Whitman, A Song of the Rolling Earth (in Leaves of Grass) Final note:Whitman had it right many years ago! Thanks!
  83. 83. Code and Data - Textgrounder: https://github.com/utcompling/textgrounder Publications - Benjamin Wing and Jason Baldridge. 2011. Simple supervised document geolocation with geodesic grids. In Proceedings of ACL HLT 2011. - Stephen Roller, Mike Speriosu, Sarat Rallapalli, Benjamin Wing and Jason Baldridge. 2012. Supervised Text-based Geolocation Using Language Models on an Adaptive Grid. EMNLP 2012. Jeju, Korea. - Benjamin Wing and Jason Baldridge 2014. Hierarchical Discriminative Classification for Text-Based Geolocation. EMNLP 2014. Document geolocation
  84. 84. Code and data - Fieldspring: https://github.com/utcompling/fieldspring - TopoCluster: https://github.com/grantdelozier/TopoCluster Publications - Mike Speriosu and Jason Baldridge. 2013.Text-Driven Toponym Resolution using Indirect Supervision.ACL 2013. - Grant DeLozier, Jason Baldridge, and Loretta London. 2015. Gazetteer-Free Toponym Resolution Using Geographic Word Profiles.AAAI 2015. Toponym resolution

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