Development of primary and secondary dentition


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Development of primary and secondary dentition

  2. 2. CONTENTS: <ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>STAGES OF TOOTH BUD DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>ROOT FORMATION </li></ul><ul><li>ERUPTION SEQUENCE OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY DENTIOTION </li></ul><ul><li>NOLLA ’ S STAGES OF TOOTH DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>SUMMARY </li></ul><ul><li>CONCLUSION </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The main purpose of knowing the stages of development is to : </li></ul><ul><li>Know the course of normal development. </li></ul><ul><li>To detect deviation from the normal. </li></ul>INTRODUCTION: Text book of oral histology-Tencate’s
  4. 4. PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT: <ul><li>28 to 30 days: Epithelium thickening. </li></ul><ul><li>30 to 32 days: cells become ovoid to cuboidal in shape. </li></ul><ul><li>32 to 34 days: invagination of odontogenic epithelium and dental lamina starts to form. </li></ul><ul><li>4 th week: position of future dental arches is marked out. </li></ul>Text book of oral histology-Tencates
  5. 6. STAGES OF TOOTH BUD DEVELOPMENT: <ul><li>Initiation </li></ul><ul><li>phase of deciduous tooth- 5 th month in utero. </li></ul><ul><li>phase of permanent tooth-6 th month </li></ul><ul><li>phase of accessional tooth-4 th month in utero to 4-5 yrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Proliferation </li></ul><ul><li>Histo differentiation. </li></ul><ul><li>Morpho differentiation. </li></ul><ul><li>Apposition . </li></ul>Text book of oral histology-orban’s Text book of pedodontics- shoba tandon
  6. 7. Text book of oral histology-Avery
  7. 8. INIATIATION: <ul><li>Involves the physiologic process of induction. </li></ul><ul><li>Induction of ectodermal tissues by the developing mesenchyme. </li></ul><ul><li>Basement membrane separates the developing oral epithelium and mesenchyme. </li></ul><ul><li>This gives rise to the primary epithelial bands. </li></ul><ul><li>It represents the bud stage of tooth development. </li></ul><ul><li>Text book of oral histology-Tencate’s </li></ul>
  8. 10. Proliferation: <ul><li>Marked by the incursion of epithelium into the mesenchyme. </li></ul><ul><li>Period of extensive proliferation and growth of the dental lamina. </li></ul><ul><li>Forms into tooth buds or oral masses that penetrate into the mesenchyme. </li></ul><ul><li>Each tooth bud is surrounded by the mesenchyme </li></ul><ul><li>Buds + mesenchyme tooth germ and the associated tissues of the tooth. </li></ul>Text book of oral histology-Tencate’s
  9. 11. Text book of oral histology-Tencate’s ,orban’s
  10. 12. <ul><li>Definite morphogenic and </li></ul><ul><li>functional changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of dentin and </li></ul><ul><li>enamel. </li></ul>Histo differentiation: Text book of oral histology-Tencate’s ,cawson
  11. 13. Morpho differentiation: <ul><li>The morphological pattern </li></ul><ul><li>and basic size is determined. </li></ul><ul><li>The dentino-enamel junction </li></ul><ul><li>and dentino-cemental junction </li></ul><ul><li>are determined. </li></ul><ul><li>The size and form of the tooth </li></ul><ul><li>crown is etablished before hard </li></ul><ul><li> tissue formation. </li></ul>Text book of oral histology-Tencate’s, Atlas of oral histology- majji jose
  12. 14. APPOSITION: <ul><li>Deposition of the matrix of the hard dental structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Regular and rhythmic deposition of extra cellular matrix. </li></ul><ul><li>Periods of active and rest alternate at definite intervals. </li></ul>Text book of oral histology-Tencate’s
  13. 15. CAP STAGE: <ul><li>Ingrowth of the oral epithelium into the mesenchyme tooth bud of the dental lamina. </li></ul><ul><li>A Depression forms in the deepest part of each tooth bud and forms the cap or enamel organ. </li></ul><ul><li>Produces the future enamel below this cap is a condensing mass of mesenchyme – dental papilla. </li></ul>Text book of oral histology-Tencate’s Atlas of oral histology- majji jose
  14. 16. <ul><li>The basement membrane separating the dental organ and the dental papilla becomes the future site for the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) </li></ul><ul><li>Remaining mesenchyme surrounds the dental/enamel organ and condenses to form the dental sac or the dental follicle. </li></ul>Text book of oral histology-Tencate’s 6 th edition
  15. 17. <ul><li>enamel organ + dental papilla + dental follicle tooth germ </li></ul><ul><li>These germs are found in the developing dental arches primary dentition </li></ul>Text book of oral histology-Tencate’s,
  16. 19. <ul><li>Cap shape then assumes a more bell-like shape </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation produces four types of cells within the enamel/dental organ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Inner enamel epithelium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Outer enamel epithelium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Stellate reticulum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Stratum intermedium </li></ul></ul>BELL STAGE: Text book of oral histology-Tencate’s,
  17. 20. <ul><li>The dental papilla undergoes differentiation and produces two types of cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Outer cells of the DP – forms the dentin-secreting cells (odontoblasts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Central cells of the DP – forms the primordium of the pulp </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dental sac/follicle increases its collagen content and differentiates at a later stage than the EO and DP </li></ul>Text book of oral histology-Tencate’s, orban’s
  18. 21. The cells in the center of the enamel organ begin to synthesize and secrete GAGs. -increasing amount of fluid in the EO forces the central cells apart -however, they remain connected via cellular processes which makes them star shaped = stellate ret. Text book of oral histology-Tencate’s,
  19. 22. Bell stage – early crown formation <ul><li>The dental papilla is separated from the enamel organ by a basement membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>Immediately below this BM is a region called the acellular zone. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is where the first enamel proteins will be laid down. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The dental lamina begins to break up into discrete islands of epithelial cells (epithelial pearls)– </li></ul><ul><li>Separates the oral epithelium from the developing tooth. </li></ul><ul><li>The IEE completes its folding and you can begin to identify the shape of the future crown pattern. </li></ul>Text book of oral histology-Tencate’s, orban’s
  20. 25. Cap and Bell stages & Permanent teeth During the cap stage the development of the permanent dentition begins The primordia for these teeth appears as an extension off the developing dental lamina Its site of origin is called the successional dental lamina Text book of oral histology-Tencate’s,
  21. 26. <ul><li>These permanent teeth are called succedaneous teeth (anterior teeth and the premolars) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teeth that form with the primary tooth buds (primary predecessors) </li></ul></ul>Text book of oral histology-Tencate’s,
  22. 27. Text book of oral histology-Tencate’s, 7 th edition
  23. 28. ROOT FORMATION <ul><li>Takes place as the crown is completely shaped and the tooth begins to erupt. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore the tooth forms from the “top down” – i.e. crown to root. </li></ul><ul><li>Root formation is through the formation of a cervical loop. </li></ul><ul><li>The CL is the most cervical portion of the enamel/dental organ – two layers consisting of IEE and OEE. </li></ul><ul><li>The CL begins to grow down into the dental sac. </li></ul>Text book of oral histology-Tencate’s,6 th edition
  24. 29. <ul><li>It forms a Hertwig's root sheath. </li></ul><ul><li>This sheath shapes the root and induces dentin formation in the root area by the ODs of the dental papilla. </li></ul><ul><li>This sheath lacks the stellate reticulum and stratum intermedium. </li></ul><ul><li>Is capable of differentiating into ODs BUT NOT Abs. </li></ul>Text book of oral histology-Tencate’s,6 th edition
  25. 30. Root Dentin: <ul><li>The root of the tooth is composed by dentin and cementum. </li></ul><ul><li>Dentin forms when the outer cells of the dental papilla are induced to differentiation into Ods. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to what occurs at the crown area. </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by Hertwig’s root sheath. </li></ul><ul><li>The ODs then undergo dentinogenesis and secrete predentin. </li></ul><ul><li>After dentin formation – the BM disintegrates along with the Hertwig’s sheath. </li></ul>Text book of oral histology-Tencate’s,
  26. 31. Cementum and Pulp formation: <ul><li>Cementogenesis in the root area also occurs upon degradation of the H. root sheath. </li></ul><ul><li>The degradation allows contact of the dental sac cells with the dentin surface – induces the formation of cementoblast cells. </li></ul><ul><li>The CBs cover the root dentin and undergo c ementogenesis – laying down cementoid. </li></ul><ul><li>The region of contact between cementum and root dentin = dentinocemental junction or DCJ. </li></ul><ul><li>While the cementum is forming - the central cells of the dental papilla form the pulp. </li></ul>Text book of oral histology-Tencate’s,orban’s
  27. 32. Atlas of oral histology- majji jose
  28. 33. Periodontal ligament: <ul><li>The surrounding tissues of the tooth also develop as the crown and root form. </li></ul><ul><li>The mesenchyme of the dental sac condenses to form the periodontal ligament. </li></ul><ul><li>Forms adjacent to the new cementum. </li></ul><ul><li>Ends of these fibers insert into the outer layer of cementum and surrounding alveolar bone. </li></ul><ul><li>The cells of the disintegrating H. root sheath develop into discrete islands of epithelial cells. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Become epithelial rests of Malassez . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can be identified in the periodontal ligament and are responsible for the development of radicular cysts. </li></ul></ul>Text book of oral histology-Tencate’s,
  29. 34. Text book of oral histology-Tencate’s, 6 TH Edition
  30. 35. Multirooted teeth: <ul><li>Anterior teeth, premolars and molars all begin as a single root – root trunk. </li></ul><ul><li>Root of the posterior teeth divides from the trunk into the correct number of root branches. </li></ul><ul><li>Differential growth of the H. root sheath results in the division of the root trunk into two or three roots. </li></ul>Text book of oral histology-Tencate’s,
  32. 38. NOLLA’S STAGES OF TOOTH DEVELOPMENT 1952: <ul><li>Root completion </li></ul><ul><li>Root almost completed </li></ul><ul><li>2/3 rd root completion </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 rd root completion </li></ul><ul><li>Crown completion </li></ul><ul><li>Crown almost completed </li></ul><ul><li>2/3 rd crown completion </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 rd crown completion </li></ul><ul><li>Initial calcification </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of crypt </li></ul>Text book of pedodontics - Shoba tandon
  33. 39. Text book of oral histology-Tencate’s,
  34. 40. Improper neural crest cells migration leads to treacher collin’s syndrome. <ul><li>Lack of initiation results in- Complete or partial anodontia. </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormal initiation Supernumerary teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>Teeth may develop in abnormal locations like in ovary. </li></ul>CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS:
  35. 41. <ul><li>In vitamin A deficiency ameloblasts fail to differentiate properly. </li></ul><ul><li>osteodentin forms. </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrinal disturbances effect size and form of crown. </li></ul><ul><li>Trauma to the tooth during root development causes diacerations. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic and environmental disturbances causes enamel hypoplasia. </li></ul>
  36. 42. CONCLUSION: <ul><li>Thus it is important to know the normal development of primary and secondary dentition to identify, prevent and treat any tooth abnormalities. </li></ul>
  37. 43. THANK YOU