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Fighting mental shortcuts by other mental shortcuts? / Marta W. Falkowska & Andrzej Nagalski


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This is Marta W. Falkowska's & Andrzej Nagalski's presentation from Service Experience Camp 2018 on how to fight mental shortcuts in Design

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Fighting mental shortcuts by other mental shortcuts? / Marta W. Falkowska & Andrzej Nagalski

  1. 1. Fighting mental shortcuts by other mental shortcuts? Marta W. Falkowska Andrzej Nagalski 02.11.2018
  2. 2. A visitor reading an article on the New York Times website is more likely to be: A) Someone who holds a Ph.D., or B) Someone who graduated from high school, but did not attend college sources: Nielsen Norman Group, 2017
  3. 3. we are all biased // bias blind spot
  4. 4. mental shortcuts
  5. 5. mental shortcuts >> biases in the design process
  6. 6. 7
  7. 7. ‚What the human being is being the best at doing is interpreting all new information so that their prior conclusions remain intact’ Warren Buffet
  8. 8. 9 bias 1. the confirmation bias 1/3 graphic via:
  9. 9. 10 bias 1. the confirmation bias 1/3 sources: Wason, Peter C. (1960), "On the failure to eliminate hypotheses in a conceptual task", Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 2, 4, 6, … What’s the pattern? Wason 1960 12, 24, 48? 8, 10, 12? 10, 18, 34? 9, 8, 7?
  10. 10. 11 bias 1. the confirmation bias 2/3 WHY THAT MIGHT CONCERN YOU? • you might actively seek out and assign more weight to evidence that confirms your hypothesis, and ignore or underweight evidence that could disconfirm your hypothesis (risk of missing out important information) • team communication barrier - each side interpreting the same piece of evidence in its favor AND YOUR HYPHOSESIS TESTING? • skew questions based on what you want to hear (leading questions) • stopping a test early (A/B testing sin #1) as soon as they get the result they wanted • if there are multiple KPIs - cherry picking the one that is in line with your thinking • biased perception during qualitative tests
  11. 11. 12 bias 1. the confirmation bias 3/3 photo via: WHEN YOU’RE MOST VURNELABLE? • when the information is complicated or unclear and requires a great deal of mental energy • too much information and limited time • when proving to be wrong really sucks in the organizational culture (yours or client’s)
  12. 12. ‚What the human beiing is being the best at doing is interpretating all new information so that their prior cncusions remain intact’ Warren Buffet graphic via: CogBlog
  13. 13. 14 bias 2. the bandwagon effect 1/3 source: Asch, S.E. (1951). Effects of group pressure on the modification and distortion of judgments Asch’s original conformity experiment, 1951: 37% wrong asnwers
  14. 14. 15 bias 2. the bandwagon effect 1/3 photo: National Geographic & Amazon
  15. 15. 16 bias 2. the bandwagon effect 2/3 WHY THAT MIGHT CONCERN YOU? • overconfidence in group decisions: ’Everyone supports it, so it must be right, right?’ (it may be the right decision, but it often isn't because real expression has not taken place) • overuse of ’social proof’ especially toward people perceived as experts or successful peers • blind commitment to status quo solutions even if the objective indicators imply they’re not so good: ’We do it like this at XYZ company because my boss did it like this before me, and his boss before him’ AND YOUR HYPHOTHESIS TESTING? • in focus groups, people end up being influenced by others in the room and they often cannot describe their real behaviour or preferences
  16. 16. WHEN YOU’RE MOST VULNERABLE? • when you’re alone among many (3 is enough though) • when faced with an unfamiliar situation you feel a stronger need to refer to other people for guidance • similarity: you are more likely to adopt the behavior and attitudes of the ones you perceive similar to you (age, gender, community, physical appearance, common or similar experiences...) • when you perceive surrounding people as more knowledgeable or are even just slightly more familiar with the situation 17 bias 2. the bandwagon effect 3/3 photo via:
  17. 17. graphic via:
  18. 18. 19 bias 3. the Ikea effect and the effort justification 1/2 photo via: Bits and Pieces Harvard Business School, 2011: ‚Builders’ liked the Ikea boxes more and bid more money for them. sources:
  19. 19. 20 bias 3. the Ikea effect and the effort justification 2/2 WHY THAT MIGHT CONCERN YOU? • getting in love with the ideas we create, nourish, and bring to life (just because of it) • getting overly emotionally invested in projects you have been part of from the beginning or where you came up with the project idea • it can insulate you from valuable feedback from a teammate that might improve – even save – the project • a doorway to sunk cost fallacy WHEN YOU’RE MOST VULNERABLE? • when the time pressure requires to get things done from us, we tend to complete things we’ve invested our time and energy in
  20. 20. fighting bias with a bias?
  21. 21. solutions from literature
  22. 22. photo via: Udemy Be aware of the biases and when you are the most vurnelable to them
  23. 23. photo via: Corridorgazette Allow for uncertainty! Never assume!
  24. 24. photo via: Teepublic Slow down and reflect
  25. 25. Ask yourself why you believe what you believe and then ask again if it’s rational. If the answer is NO, revise your thinking. photo via:
  26. 26. A good coach or an experienced facilitator will help your group tackle your biases photo via: VectorStock
  27. 27. 29 How to cope with confirmation bias? • Consider the opposite or the alternative. Be a devil’s advocate and look for the observations that would prove you wrong. Imagine your project going wrong and ask yourself why? Force yourself to look for the observations that would prove you wrong. • While testing, establish clear metrics upfront so there’s no post-hoc justification and cherry picking. • And always have a neutral party review the survey questions. • Remain attentive to examining all evidence with equal rigor .
  28. 28. 30 How to cope with bandwagon effect and groupthinking? • Anonymize ideas • Use silent brainstorming • Stay focused on your customers, rather than on your peers • Base design decisions on what users do rather than on what they say in focus groups • While building a team think of the diversity of thought and perspectives • Spend more time in the question-asking phase, and don’t be in a hurry to make a decision • Start with ’What problem are we trying to solve?’ and keep testing given solutions until there is a prove you solve the problem with it • Encourage to challenge the ideas. Allow group members or employees the freedom to air objections and doubts without fear of reprisal • Promote the culture of transparent conversations in order to replace a ’corporate nod’ with genuine conversations • Promote the idea of the importance of failure in your company’s culture. In order for people to take risks and push the envelope, they need to have a certain level of comfort with a defeat • Avoid making blind commitments to best practices in your organisation by being open and adaptable to change
  29. 29. 33 If you’re more interested
  30. 30. 34 Ideas from workshop IKEA effect
  31. 31. 35 Ideas from workshop Confirmation bias
  32. 32. 36 Ideas from workshop Bandwagon effect
  33. 33. or get in touch: Andrzej Nagalski Business Designer Marta Wawrzyniak Service Designer