Week 6 Lecture Slides


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Week 6 Lecture Slides

  1. 2. Purpose of Observation Adapted from TESOL Link @ http://www.ne.jp/asahi/kurazumi/peon/observe.html
  2. 3. Observation <ul><li>Through what media? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind? </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-observation Conference </li></ul><ul><li>School Catalog </li></ul><ul><li>Course Description/Syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>Post-Observation Conference </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic Information </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative Info </li></ul><ul><li>Goals/Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Time Frame </li></ul><ul><li>Levels </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Method </li></ul><ul><li>Materials </li></ul>
  3. 4. Structure of a Lesson
  4. 5. Presentation <ul><li>How do you present a lesson? </li></ul><ul><li>Text-Multimedia Materials-Internet? </li></ul><ul><li>Should grammar rules be presented explicitly? (Focus on form) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Faerch (1986) typical sequence: </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Formulation </li></ul><ul><li>Induction </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher’s rule formulation </li></ul><ul><li>Exemplificaiton </li></ul>
  5. 6. Practice <ul><li>Questions to consider: </li></ul><ul><li>What’s task? (less-controlled realistic use of L2) </li></ul><ul><li>What’s activity? (more general use) </li></ul>
  6. 7. Activity ( Valvarcel et al. (1985) and Edelhoff (1981) ) Instructional Sequencing and Motivation Input Control Focus/ Working Transfer/ Application
  7. 8. Tasks <ul><ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for both comprehensible input and output </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information gap activities - promote negotiation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shared info, knowledge, or assumptions may lessen the amount of negotiation necessary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recycling of info is helpful </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ convergent” (consensus-building –single-solution) tasks allow for more negotiation, while “divergent” (open-ended) tasks seem to induce longer turns (more output) and greater syntactic complexity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Same task – different activity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Historical Overview of Error Correction Fig. Adapted from TESOL Link @ http://www.ne.jp/asahi/kurazumi/peon/error.html View of Learning Error Error treatment Behaviorist Undesirable Overt & immediate correction Giving correct answers Cognitive Inevitable Evidence of language development Informational hypothesis-testing Intentionally ignored No treatment Interactional Error-making and its repairing are parts of interaction Negotiation of meaning Self-repair Other-repair (teacher, peer) NNS-NNS peer correction is also beneficial
  9. 10. Views on Error Treatment <ul><li>Hendrickson (1978) : Based on errors </li></ul><ul><li>Long (1977): Based on teacher’s behavior and acts </li></ul><ul><li>Should errors be corrected? </li></ul><ul><li>When? </li></ul><ul><li>Which errors? </li></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><li>Who? </li></ul><ul><li>Ignore or treat errors? </li></ul><ul><li>When? </li></ul><ul><li>What treatment? </li></ul><ul><li>Who? </li></ul>
  10. 11. Views on Error Treatment Question Answer Research Should errors be corrected? No: based on the natural L2 development theories Yes: students need and want error correction but over-correction is not desirable Dulay & Burt (1974) Krashen (1983) Cachart & Olsen (1976) Chenoweth et al. (1983) When? <ul><li>2 Criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>At what point of interaction? </li></ul><ul><li>At what stage of L2 interlanguage development </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate correction may interrupt learner and inhibit willingness to practice </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed </li></ul><ul><li>Postponed to a future lesson </li></ul><ul><li>Wait time is important </li></ul>Vigil & Oller (1976) Day et al. (1984) Funselow (1977) Van Lier (1988) Pienemann (1984) Long (1977) What? <ul><li>Three options to inform learners of errors: </li></ul><ul><li>Commission of error </li></ul><ul><li>Location of error </li></ul><ul><li>Identity of error </li></ul>Long (1977) Chaudron (1977) Alwright (1985) Which errors? Global & local errors Socially stigmatized errors Lexical, phonological, morphological, syntactical errors Depending on course content Burt & Kiparsky (1974) Corder (1967) Chaudron (1977) Who? Self-repair Peer repair: negotiation of meaning Teacher-repair NS other-repair Schegloff (1977) Long & Porter (1985) Varonis & Gass (1985)
  11. 13. Characteristics of Instructional Settings Characteristics Natural Acquisition Structure-Based Instruction Communicative Instruction T-S T-S S-S Learning 1 thing at a time Errors Frequent feedback on errors Genuine Questions Display Questions Negotiation of Meaning Metalinguistic Comments Ample time for learning Variety of discourse types Pressure to Speak Access to Modified Input