Reading & Writing


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Reading & Writing

  1. 1. English 565 Fall 2008/Week 8 Serpil Sonmez
  2. 2. <ul><li>How do language learners read? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is a good reader? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is a fluent reader? </li></ul><ul><li>Is reading a language or thinking skill? </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>i cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg. The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid, aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it dseno't mtaetr in waht oerdr the ltteres in a wrod are, the olny iproamtnt tihng is taht the frsit and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it whotuit a pboerlm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Azanmig huh? </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Auidolingual Method- used to practice grammar+vocab+pronunciation </li></ul><ul><li>1970s Goodman developed psycholinguistic model of reading suggesting: </li></ul><ul><li>Better readers: </li></ul><ul><li>monitor their reading comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>adjust their reading rates </li></ul><ul><li>consider reading objectives </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Fluency is -simply- rapid and automatic word recognition. </li></ul><ul><li>Fluent readers don’t read all the words. </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency activities: read-aloud, repeated reading, flashcards, rapid and timed reading, word-recognition activities </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Vocabulary Development: closely related to reading abilities. Vocabulary is a predictor of reading ability. However, reading only doesn’t help with vocab development – instruction is necessary (Graves, 2000; Stahl, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>L1 students start with min. 5000-7000 words. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently used words take up to 80% of most texts. Dolch or Sight words are used in instruction –particularly L1 and in adult ESL programs- to help reading. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Awareness of text structure is necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify sentences that convey main ideas of the text </li></ul><ul><li>Examining headings and subheadings of the text </li></ul><ul><li>Adding info to partially completed outline </li></ul><ul><li>Underlining transition phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Examining an inaccurate outline and adjusting it so that it is correct </li></ul><ul><li>Reorganizing scrambled paragraphs </li></ul><ul><li>Creating headings for sets of paragraphs </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying clues that indicate patterns of organization (e.g. cause-effect, comparison, contrast, analysis) </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Pre-reading activities </li></ul><ul><li>During-reading activities </li></ul><ul><li>Post-reading activities </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>(See handouts for samples) </li></ul><ul><li>Previewing the text </li></ul><ul><li>Skimming </li></ul><ul><li>Answering questions about information in the text </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring key vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Reflecting on previous texts related to the topic of the new texts </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Outlining or summarizing ideas in a difficult section </li></ul><ul><li>Examining emotions and attitudes of key characters </li></ul><ul><li>Determining resources of difficulty and seeking clarification </li></ul><ul><li>Looking for answers to questions posed during pre-reading activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Writing down predictions for what will come next </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>See handouts for some examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Completing a graphic organizer </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding or changing a semantic map created earlier </li></ul><ul><li>Listening to a lecture and comparing info from the text and lecture </li></ul><ul><li>Ranking importance of info in the text </li></ul><ul><li>Answering listening comprehension questions </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Use Graphic organizers </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic reading- reading with purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Common strategies: </li></ul><ul><li>Summarizing </li></ul><ul><li>Predicting what will come next in the text </li></ul><ul><li>Previewing a text </li></ul><ul><li>Using context to maintain comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing text organization </li></ul><ul><li>Generating appropriate questions about the text </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifying text meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Repairing miscomprehension </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Extensive Reading: Reading large amounts of texts for a an extended period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive motivation for reading: look for ways to help students enconuter “flow” in their reading (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990) </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated teaching: reading & writing: </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Student journals- reactions to readings </li></ul><ul><li>Double-entry notebooks </li></ul><ul><li>Create graphic organizers for the main idea and write an explanation or critique based on the information on the graphic organizer </li></ul><ul><li>Write an alternative ending to a text </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Conducting needs analysis (see handout for sample questions) </li></ul><ul><li>Planning the curricula based on needs analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting appropriate text materials </li></ul><ul><li>Diversifying students’ reading experiences in and outside of classroom. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Flower, L. & Hayes, J. (1981). A cognitive process theory of writing. College Composition and Communication, 32, 365-387.
  16. 17. <ul><li>2 models: </li></ul><ul><li>1. knowledge telling: retrieving content from memory- traditional schooling </li></ul><ul><li>2. knowledge transforming model: reflective problems solving and goal setting. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Writing plays an important role in early reading. How would you plan early writing stage for students who uses a different writing system? </li></ul><ul><li>Early writing tasks: </li></ul><ul><li>Practice sound-spelling correspondence </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance letter recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Help learner move from letters and words to mean larger sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Sound-spelling correspondence activities </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>More Advanced Writing Tasks: </li></ul><ul><li>practical writing tasks - short writing tasks that serve a ‘real-world’ purpose (e.g., lists, messages) </li></ul><ul><li>emotive writing tasks - personal writing (e.g., letters, diaries); appropriate aspects of mechanics can be chosen as focus </li></ul><ul><li>school-oriented writing tasks </li></ul><ul><li>dialogue journals - can be used at even very beginning stages of writing (e.g., labeling activities) </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><li>Product oriented: grammar rules- not realistic/communicative goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Process- oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Janet Emig (1971)- developed think-aloud technique </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: cyclical, content-based, reader-dominated, etc. </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Strategies (O’Malley & Chamot, 1990) </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorming </li></ul><ul><li>Listing </li></ul><ul><li>Clustering </li></ul><ul><li>Freewriting </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>When to correct? </li></ul><ul><li>What types of errors to correct? </li></ul><ul><li>How to correct? </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to student writing (p. 227) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>forms of response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>written commentary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oral commentary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer reviews (Silva (1993) warns observers review at a superficial level. </li></ul></ul>