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Incorporating Psychology Theories
into Simulations & Serious Games
SIFT – Smart Information Flow Technologies
Peggy Wu (PW...
2
SIFT Introduction
Smart Information Flow Technologies, LLC
(SIFT) is a Consulting Research &
Development company:
Founde...
Technical Personnel
27 July 2015 3
Advanced degrees in:
Artificial Intelligence
Aviation
Autonomous systems
Control Theory...
27 July 2015
• Intent/Plan Recognition and Task
Tracking
• Intent specification and use
• Context Sensitivity
• Adaptive a...
5
Customers & Collaborators
Our customers and collaborators include:
BBN, BAE, CMU, Cornell University, GMU, DARPA, Honeyw...
6
SIFT’s Human Behavior Modeling Work
2007 E4D2
2000 RPA
2008 SUPPORT 2010 EVA Multi
Cultural
Interactions
2010 GRASP–
Key...
7
SIFT’s Human Behavior Modeling Work
2007 E4D2
2000 RPA
2008 SUPPORT 2010 EVA Multi
Cultural
Interactions
2010 GRASP–
Key...
Language & Culture Training
Since 2003, developing Computational Model of Human-Human
Interaction – Etiquette EngineTM
Sof...
27 July 2015 9
27 July 2015
Etiquette, Politeness and Compliance
Grice’s sociological concept of Face
 Universal, uniquely human
Brown a...
11
Do machines have “etiquette”? Should they?
Reeves & Nass (1996)
 Humans are equipped with schema for
interaction with ...
NASA’s Vision for Deep Space Exploration
12
Earth to ISS
354 km / 220 miles.
No COMM delay, virtually always connected.
27 July 2015 13
Mission Control flies ISS, not Astronauts
27 July 2015 14
Earth to Moon
383,000 km / 238,000 miles
1.2s one way delay
27 July 2015 15
Earth to NEO
Asteroid 951 Gaspra
1,929,378 km / 1,198,860 miles
6.5s one way delay
27 July 2015 16
Earth to Mars
56,005,100 km / 34,800,000 miles, 3min (when its
closest)
402,000,000 km / 250,000,000 miles, 24min
Current ...
Orion Interior?
27 July 2015 18
27 July 2015 19
27 July 2015 20
27 July 2015 21
Motivation
Sensory Monotony, Social Monotony known to cause:
Adjustment disorder, Fatigue, drops in produc...
ANSIBLE
27 July 2015 22
27 July 2015 23
ANSIBLE World Map
ANSIBLE
27 July 2015 24
27 July 2015 25
Virtual Environment as Extension to Real World?
26
Brown and
Levinson (1987)
Politeness Theory
Reeves and Nass
(1996) “The...
Virtual Environment as Extension to Real World?
Yee & Bailenson
(2007)
“The Proteus Effect”
27 July 2015
27
Bandura (1986)...
Virtual Environment as Extension to Real World?
27 July 2015
28
Hasson (2008) “Neurocinematics”
Konigsberg (2007) Activati...
29
Köhler effect: phenomenon that occurs when a person works harder as
a member of a group than when working alone.
Indust...
Operationalized Evidence Based Strategies in VE
Combat Sensory Monotony
• Weather, Lighting, Sun Rise/Set
• Virtual Plant ...
“If we knew what we were doing it
wouldn’t be research.”
- Albert Einstein
27 July 2015 31
Is it going to work?
Validation Testing
HISEAS: Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation
Hawaii actually looks a lot like Mars…
27 July 2...
HI-SEAS
Missions 1 & 2: 4 months
Mission 3: 8 months (Oct 2014-June 2015)
Control group for ANSIBLE
Mission 4: 12 months
A...
Surveys and Measures (Crew & Family)
Pre and Post:
- STAI (20 Qs)
- Sensory Seeking Survey (40 Qs)
- Outgoing debrief (30m...
Experiences or Things you miss most
27 July 2015 35
PWu@Siftech.com
27 July 2015 36
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Peggy Wu - Incorporating Psychology Theories into Simulations & Serious Games

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Presenter: Peggy Wu, Principal Investigator, SIFT

There are a number of challenges associated with making games for behaviour change to help the player make healthier lifestyle choices. The game needs to incorporate the magic formula of fun and engagement, incorporate an educational component either through experiential or didactic learning, tied to real world detection and/or consequences, all to change the mindset of the player with lasting effects. This talk provided an overview of several research projects related to games for behaviour change, discuss applicable theories from psychology and sociology, how those theories could be used to help systematically design a game, and some of the challenges and lessons learned by the game designers.

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Peggy Wu - Incorporating Psychology Theories into Simulations & Serious Games

  1. 1. Incorporating Psychology Theories into Simulations & Serious Games SIFT – Smart Information Flow Technologies Peggy Wu (PWu@siftech.com), Tammy Ott, Sonja Schmer-Galunder, Christopher Miller, Jeff Rye, July 2015
  2. 2. 2 SIFT Introduction Smart Information Flow Technologies, LLC (SIFT) is a Consulting Research & Development company: Founded in 1999 Headquartered in Minneapolis MN Offices in Boston, San Diego, Washington DC $7.0M+ per year in revenues 35 Full time employees 30+ Advanced Degrees (Psychology, Computer Science, Engineering) Advancing research to enhance information flow in human-computer and computer mediated human-human interactions
  3. 3. Technical Personnel 27 July 2015 3 Advanced degrees in: Artificial Intelligence Aviation Autonomous systems Control Theory Cognition Cultural Anthropology Linguistics Psychology NLP User Experience
  4. 4. 27 July 2015 • Intent/Plan Recognition and Task Tracking • Intent specification and use • Context Sensitivity • Adaptive and Adaptable User Interfaces and Automation • Mixed Initiative System Design • Associate Systems • Decision Aiding Systems • RT Planning and Scheduling • Formal and Testbench security analysis • Software Development • Experimental designs & statistical analysis • User Interfaces and Human Centered Interaction Design • Anthropological analyses • Linguistic analysis • Modeling: – Human and Human + System performance – Tasks – Functional Representations – Cognition – Software Structure – Information Flow – Context-to-presentation Matching – Etiquette/Politeness – Cultural Perceptions = Smart Information Flow Technologies 4 Capabilities
  5. 5. 5 Customers & Collaborators Our customers and collaborators include: BBN, BAE, CMU, Cornell University, GMU, DARPA, Honeywell, Lockheed, NASA, NIST, Oxford, UofM, UMD, USAF, USC, US Army, US Navy, VA
  6. 6. 6 SIFT’s Human Behavior Modeling Work 2007 E4D2 2000 RPA 2008 SUPPORT 2010 EVA Multi Cultural Interactions 2010 GRASP– Keyboard dynamics for cybersecurity 2009+ ELADIS– affective reactions occur to unconsciously learned stimuli and increase recognition of people. Utilized SCR and HR. 2013+ ANSIBLE 2012+ AD ASTRA– non- intrusive assessment of individual and team psycho- social health 2014 CAMO– zero intrusion workload detection via text and Keyboard dynamics 2015 NAPP Independent LifeStyle Assistant (ILSA) A NIST ATP Program 2003 ILSA 2007 TLTS 2011 CALM 2009+ ADMIRE– Assessing how people in a social network feel about each other given their politeness behaviors 2006 Phrasebook 2014 R3– Reading, Remembering, Revising 2014 ATHENA– zero intrusion workload detection 2014 SAGA
  7. 7. 7 SIFT’s Human Behavior Modeling Work 2007 E4D2 2000 RPA 2008 SUPPORT 2010 EVA Multi Cultural Interactions 2010 GRASP– Keyboard dynamics for cybersecurity 2009+ ELADIS– affective reactions occur to unconsciously learned stimuli and increase recognition of people. Utilized SCR and HR. 2013+ ANSIBLE 2012+ AD ASTRA– non- intrusive assessment of individual and team psycho- social health 2014 CAMO– zero intrusion workload detection via text and Keyboard dynamics 2015 NAPP Independent LifeStyle Assistant (ILSA) A NIST ATP Program 2003 ILSA 2007 TLTS 2011 CALM 2009+ ADMIRE– Assessing how people in a social network feel about each other given their politeness behaviors 2006 Phrasebook 2014 R3– Reading, Remembering, Revising 2014 ATHENA– zero intrusion workload detection 2014 SAGA Modeling Humans for Language & Culture Training VR for Social & Psychological Health Games for Health Human Workload Detection Sociolinguistic Modeling
  8. 8. Language & Culture Training Since 2003, developing Computational Model of Human-Human Interaction – Etiquette EngineTM Software Module driving individualized interpretation of politeness and behavior selection 27 July 2015 8 “swappabl e cultural modules” Visualizati on of Etiquette Validation of results with naïve student ratings
  9. 9. 27 July 2015 9
  10. 10. 27 July 2015 Etiquette, Politeness and Compliance Grice’s sociological concept of Face  Universal, uniquely human Brown and Levinson– cross-cultural, socio- linguistic, human-human, politeness model  Positive Face & Negative Face  Each interaction poses “Face Threat” which is a function of Power, Familiarity and Imposition  Politeness is used to redress Face Threat We used this concept to create Embodied Conversational Virtual Agents for Culture & Language Training What about other applications?  Natural Language Interfaces for other uses?  Does Politeness affect performance?
  11. 11. 11 Do machines have “etiquette”? Should they? Reeves & Nass (1996)  Humans are equipped with schema for interaction with complex agents  Complex machines activate those schema– unless we fight hard to counteract them. Parasuraman & Miller (2004)  “Polite” (non-nagging) decision aids improve:  Trust  Perceived workload  Overall performance  Over and above automation reliability Wu, Ott, & Miller (2009)  “Polite” Automation affects:  Compliance  Trust  Perceived workload  Reaction time 0 20 40 60 80 100 HIGHLOW GOOD COMMUNICATION STYLE POOR COMMUNICATION STYLE AUTOMATION RELIABILITY
  12. 12. NASA’s Vision for Deep Space Exploration 12
  13. 13. Earth to ISS 354 km / 220 miles. No COMM delay, virtually always connected. 27 July 2015 13
  14. 14. Mission Control flies ISS, not Astronauts 27 July 2015 14
  15. 15. Earth to Moon 383,000 km / 238,000 miles 1.2s one way delay 27 July 2015 15
  16. 16. Earth to NEO Asteroid 951 Gaspra 1,929,378 km / 1,198,860 miles 6.5s one way delay 27 July 2015 16
  17. 17. Earth to Mars 56,005,100 km / 34,800,000 miles, 3min (when its closest) 402,000,000 km / 250,000,000 miles, 24min Current Mars DRM: 6 months, 18 months on surface, 6 months back, plus high crew autonomy! 27 July 2015 17
  18. 18. Orion Interior? 27 July 2015 18
  19. 19. 27 July 2015 19
  20. 20. 27 July 2015 20
  21. 21. 27 July 2015 21 Motivation Sensory Monotony, Social Monotony known to cause: Adjustment disorder, Fatigue, drops in productivity, anxiety, hostility, risk-taking and rule-breaking behaviors
  22. 22. ANSIBLE 27 July 2015 22
  23. 23. 27 July 2015 23 ANSIBLE World Map
  24. 24. ANSIBLE 27 July 2015 24
  25. 25. 27 July 2015 25
  26. 26. Virtual Environment as Extension to Real World? 26 Brown and Levinson (1987) Politeness Theory Reeves and Nass (1996) “The Media Equation” Miller et al (2010) Human Computer Etiquette Humans can interact with Virtual Agents in socially meaningful ways Socially appropriate VA behaviors can affect Human Performance
  27. 27. Virtual Environment as Extension to Real World? Yee & Bailenson (2007) “The Proteus Effect” 27 July 2015 27 Bandura (1986) Social Cognitive Theory “Immersive Entrainment” Learning is a cognitive process that occurs in a social context, and VEs can provide the social context, so perhaps it’s possible to learn positive behaviors in VEs Virtual Environment with social context E.g.
  28. 28. Virtual Environment as Extension to Real World? 27 July 2015 28 Hasson (2008) “Neurocinematics” Konigsberg (2007) Activation of Mirror Neurons Ramachandran (2012) The Tell-Tale Brain Iacoboni (2008) Mirroring People
  29. 29. 29 Köhler effect: phenomenon that occurs when a person works harder as a member of a group than when working alone. Industrial psychologist Otto Köhler found members of Berlin Rowing Club worked harder when part of a group vs. as individuals Virtual Environment as Extension to Real World?
  30. 30. Operationalized Evidence Based Strategies in VE Combat Sensory Monotony • Weather, Lighting, Sun Rise/Set • Virtual Plant life, Nature Scenes • Virtual spaces for crew discretionary events, providing different visual stimuli Combat Social Monotony • Virtual pets • Virtual agents as actors • People watching tied to Earth • Vary types of interactions e.g. support personal pursuits and hobbies (3D modeling) Recall positive memories, memories of gratitude, acts of kindness (Lyubomirski) • Game - pictionary for shared memories • Scavenger Hunt • Virtual care package Interpersonal skills training • Motivational interviewing • VA to consult and provide guidance on avoiding global criticisms, contempt, defensiveness, stonewalling etc. Continuing rituals (Xygalastas et el., 2011) • Birthdays, thanksgiving, christmas Shared experiences, laughter and humor (Cousins, 1976) • Virtual vacations • Comedy club • Turn taking games Meaningful work: reflecting on past and future, expectations and responsibilities (Baumeister et al., forthcoming, Frankl, 1991) • Public Interaction area • Educational outreach • Music, Creative expressions, personal pursuits Mere belonging to increase connectedness • Sharing random/superficial commonalities e.g. Sports jersey Mindfulness and meditation Review of 80+ publications, seeking evidence based strategies for promoting psychosocial health, brainstormed implementation ideas for VE+COMM delay 30
  31. 31. “If we knew what we were doing it wouldn’t be research.” - Albert Einstein 27 July 2015 31 Is it going to work?
  32. 32. Validation Testing HISEAS: Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation Hawaii actually looks a lot like Mars… 27 July 2015 32
  33. 33. HI-SEAS Missions 1 & 2: 4 months Mission 3: 8 months (Oct 2014-June 2015) Control group for ANSIBLE Mission 4: 12 months ANSIBLE group 30min 3x/week 27 July 2015 33
  34. 34. Surveys and Measures (Crew & Family) Pre and Post: - STAI (20 Qs) - Sensory Seeking Survey (40 Qs) - Outgoing debrief (30min) In hab (both crew & designated family/friend): - Modified Circles of Closeness (3x/week 4 Qs ~1min) - Connectedness & Sensory (3x/week 11 Qs ~2min) - Journal + 6 questions (3x/week ~25min) - Perceived Stress Questionnaire (weekly 30 Qs ~8min) - Modified Social Support (SF) (weekly 18 Qs ~3min) - Usage (ANSIBLE group only) - Earth-Space communications in open forum - PANAS (daily, crew only) - Sleep (3x week) - HRV - Cortisol 34
  35. 35. Experiences or Things you miss most 27 July 2015 35
  36. 36. PWu@Siftech.com 27 July 2015 36

Presenter: Peggy Wu, Principal Investigator, SIFT There are a number of challenges associated with making games for behaviour change to help the player make healthier lifestyle choices. The game needs to incorporate the magic formula of fun and engagement, incorporate an educational component either through experiential or didactic learning, tied to real world detection and/or consequences, all to change the mindset of the player with lasting effects. This talk provided an overview of several research projects related to games for behaviour change, discuss applicable theories from psychology and sociology, how those theories could be used to help systematically design a game, and some of the challenges and lessons learned by the game designers.

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