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Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications

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1st International Workshop on Wireless Information Systems (WIS 2002), p. 58-69, Ciudad Real (Spain), April 2 2002. 

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http://gplsi.dlsi.ua.es/almacenes/ver.php?pdf=33

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Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications

  1. 1. Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informáticos Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Sergio Luján-Mora (sergio.lujan@ua.es / @sergiolujanmora) Published in: 1st International Workshop on Wireless Information Systems (WIS 2002), p. 58-69, Ciudad Real (Spain), April 2 2002. Download: http://gplsi.dlsi.ua.es/almacenes/ver.php?pdf=33
  2. 2. Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informáticos Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Sergio Luján-Mora
  3. 3. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Contents • Introduction • • • • • Mobile positioning Architecture of the system Application programming Applications 1 & 2 Summary and future work 3
  4. 4. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Introduction • The Web has changed the way we work • One of the main advantages of the Web: “universal access” • Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)  Mobile digital communications • The GSM network can be used to establish the position of the user 4
  5. 5. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Introduction • Wireless Application Protocol (WAP): Mobile phone ↔ Web server. • Universal access from everywhere • WAP: a group of specifications to develop applications and services that operate over wireless communications networks • Convergence of wireless communications and Internet 5
  6. 6. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Introduction • Two WAP applications for mobile phones • Provide location-based information to the user • Geographical Information System (GIS)  Geographical information to the user 6
  7. 7. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Introduction • Application 1: resource searcher and locator  User can obtain information from the GIS • Application 2: data acquisition system  User can obtain information or can also introduce information into the GIS. 7
  8. 8. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Contents • Introduction • Mobile positioning • • • • Architecture of the system Application programming Applications 1 & 2 Summary and future work 8
  9. 9. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Mobile positioning • The position of a mobile phone can be located using information from the GSM network • When a call is established, the phone is connected to a base station • The distance from the base station can be approximately calculated (Timing Advance) 9
  10. 10. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Mobile positioning Base station •A cell is the basic unit of a mobile system  The area where the radio coverage is given by one base station •A cell is represented simplified by a hexagon 10
  11. 11. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Mobile positioning Base station Mobile phone 11
  12. 12. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Mobile positioning Base station α1 R1 (lat, long) R2 α2 Mobile phone 12
  13. 13. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Mobile positioning • Timing Advance is a server-based solution that allows positioning services to be used with current mobile phones • It is not possible to give a specific value for the accuracy, since it depends on several factors: the size of the cell, the kind of the cell, the distance to the base station, the topology, etc. • Tens of meters … Hundreds of meters 13
  14. 14. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Mobile positioning • European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI): – Time of Arrival (TOA) – Enhanced Observed Time Difference (EOTD) – Assisted GPS (A-GPS) 14
  15. 15. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Contents • Introduction • Mobile positioning • Architecture of the system • Application programming • Applications 1 & 2 • Summary and future work 15
  16. 16. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Architecture of the system • Ericsson’s Mobile Positioning System 3.0 (MPS 3.0): Timing Advance • It can be used with current mobile phones with no further change 16
  17. 17. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications WSP WIRELESS NETWORK WAP DEVICE •The WAP Device (mobile client or mobile station) •Connects to the wireless network by means of the Wireless Session Protocol (WSP) 17
  18. 18. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications WSP WIRELESS NETWORK WAP DEVICE WSP WAP PROXY •The WAP Proxy (Gateway) translates WAP requests to Web requests and vice versa 18
  19. 19. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications WSP WIRELESS NETWORK WAP DEVICE WSP HTTP WAP PROXY HTTP INTERNET POSITIONING APPLICATION •The WAP Proxy converts the WSP requests into HTTP requests and forwards them to Internet 19
  20. 20. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications WSP WIRELESS NETWORK WAP DEVICE WSP HTTP WAP PROXY HTTP INTERNET POSITIONING APPLICATION The WAP Proxy allows the WAP Device to submit requests to the Web server that hosts the Positioning Application 20
  21. 21. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications MOBILE POSITIONING CENTRE WSP MPP WIRELESS NETWORK INTERNE T WAP DEVICE MPP WSP HTTP WAP PROXY HTTP INTERNET POSITIONING APPLICATION •The Positioning Application requests the position of the WAP Device to the Mobile Positioning Centre by means of Mobile Positioning Protocol (MPP) 21
  22. 22. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications MOBILE POSITIONING CENTRE WSP MPP WIRELESS NETWORK INTERNE T WAP DEVICE MPP WSP HTTP WAP PROXY HTTP GIS DATABASE INTERNET POSITIONING APPLICATION •The Positioning Application uses the position of the WAP Device to query the GIS database and provide localized services 22
  23. 23. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Contents • Introduction • Mobile positioning • Architecture of the system • Application programming • Applications 1 & 2 • Summary and future work 23
  24. 24. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Application programming • Client/server model • Server: – ASP  Personal Web Server or Internet Information Server – Visual Basic Script – Access database 24
  25. 25. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Application programming • Client: – Application  WAP device: • Wireless Markup Language (WML) • The correct operation of the application has been proven with different mobile phones: Nokia, Ericsson, Phone.com WAP browser, etc. – Administrative tool  Web browser: • HyperText Markup Language (HTML) • JavaScript 25
  26. 26. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Application programming • Narrow bandwidth Transmission of GIS files is time-consuming • Limited display  Geographical images can be hardly showed • Applications provide geographical information based on text 26
  27. 27. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Application programming • Ericsson Mobile Positioning System Software Development Kit 3.0 (MPS SDK 3.0): – MPC Emulator: positioning server that accepts MPP requests and emulates positioning answer – MPC Map Tool: mobile network building tool 27
  28. 28. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications MOBILE POSITIONING CENTRE WSP MPP WIRELESS NETWORK INTERNE T WAP DEVICE MPP •The PA sends a POST request to the MPC •The message body of the request includes an XML formatted request POSITIONING APPLICATION 28
  29. 29. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Application programming <?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1“ standalone="yes"?> <REQ ver=”3.00”> <CLIENT><ID>TheUser</ID><PWD>ThePassword</PWD> </CLIENT> Latitude and longitude <LIR> <GEO_INFO> <COORD_SYS>LL</COORD_SYS> Geodetic datum <DATUM>WGS-84</DATUM> <FORMAT>IDMS0</FORMAT> </GEO_INFO> <MSIDS><MSID>461011334411</MSID></MSIDS> </LIR></REQ> Mobile Station Direction indicator, degrees, minutes, seconds, and precision 29
  30. 30. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications MOBILE POSITIONING CENTRE MPP INTERNE T MPP •The MPC responds with either an error message or with the position of the WAP Device GIS DATABASE POSITIONING APPLICATION •The PA uses the answer to query a GIS database 30
  31. 31. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Application programming <?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1“ standalone="yes"?> <ANS ver="3.00"> Mobile Station <LIA><GMT_OFF>+0100</GMT_OFF> <POS msid="461011334411"> <PD><TIME>20020128090000</TIME><ARC> <LL_POINT> <LAT>N391628.3</LAT> Point of origin <LONG>E010001.5</LONG> </LL_POINT> <IN_RAD>1200</IN_RAD> Radius <OUT_RAD>1500</OUT_RAD> <START_ANGLE>120</START_ANGLE> Angle <STOP_ANGLE>180</STOP_ANGLE> </ARC></PD></POS></LIA></ANS> 31
  32. 32. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Contents • • • • Introduction Mobile positioning Architecture of the system Application programming • Applications 1 & 2 • Summary and future work 32
  33. 33. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Application 1 • Resource searcher and locator • The user can locate the nearest resource (gas station, theatre, etc.) to his/her position • It is not necessary to know the exact position (latitude and longitude coordinates) 33
  34. 34. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Application 1 34
  35. 35. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Application 1 35
  36. 36. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications 36
  37. 37. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Application 2 • Data acquisition system  The user can introduce information into the GIS • The application is oriented to gather data about agriculture: terrain quality, plants that grow, etc. 37
  38. 38. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Application 2 38
  39. 39. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications 39
  40. 40. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Contents • • • • • Introduction Mobile positioning Architecture of the system Application programming Applications 1 & 2 • Summary and future work 40
  41. 41. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Summary • WAP  The de facto standard for wireless applications • Two WAP applications  Mobile positioning system  Location-based services • Information can flow two ways: – GIS database  User – User  GIS database • Standard technology 41
  42. 42. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Future work • New applications: news, weather and traffic reports, recommendation systems, etc. • Generate dynamic images that represent maps from GIS database 42
  43. 43. Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informáticos Delivering location-based services using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications Sergio Luján-Mora 43

Editor's Notes

  • Good morning to everybody, my name is Sergio Luján-Mora.
    The paper I am going to present (pri’zent) is entitled (in’taitl) “Delivering (di’liverin) location-based services (se:visis) using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications”. This work has been carried out in the “Department (di’pa:tment) of Software and Computing Systems” at the “University (ju:ni’ve:siti) of Alicante” in Spain.
  • Good morning to everybody, my name is Sergio Luján-Mora.
    The paper I am going to present (pri’zent) is entitled (in’taitl) “Delivering (di’liverin) location-based services (se:visis) using GIS, WAP, and the Web: two applications”. This work has been carried out in the “Department (di’pa:tment) of Software and Computing Systems” at the “University (ju:ni’ve:siti) of Alicante” in Spain.
  • I have divided my presentation into six main points.
    Firstly, I will start with a brief (bri:f) introduction to my work.
    Then, in the second section I will describe (di’skraib) the basis of mobile positioning.
    Next, I will present (pri’zent) the architecture (‘a:kitektcha) of the system that supports the applications (aepli’keishns).
    And then, I will go on to discuss (di’skas) some relevant (‘relevant) issues (‘ishu:s) about programming the applications.
    Finally, I will end my presentation with the summary (‘samari) and the future (‘fjucha) work.
    Let us start with the first part of the presentation (prezen’teishn).
  • The advent (‘advent) of the Web has dramatically (dra’maetikli) changed the way we work. New working methods, services and opportunities have appeared.
    One of the main advantages (ad’va:ntichis) of the Web is the universal access (‘aekses): users can access the same services and information all over the world.
    On the other hand, Global System for Mobile (‘moubail) Communications (komju:ni’keishns) has increased the applications of the mobile phones enabling (i’neibling) digital communications.
    Besides, the GSM (dyi, es, em) network can be used to establish the position (po’zishn) of the user.
  • The Wireless (‘waiales) Application (aepli’keishn) Protocol (‘protocol) allows a phone to communicate (ko’mju:nikeit) with a Web server. Therefore, thanks to WAP, users can really have the benefit of the Web and the universal access from everywhere.
    WAP is a group of specifications to develop (di’velop) applications and services that operate over wireless communications networks.
    WAP is the convergence of wireless communications and Internet (‘intenet).
  • In this work, I present two WAP applications (aepli’keishns) for mobile phones.
    These two applications provide location-based information (info’meishn) to the user.
    In order to accomplish (a’komplish) this task (ta:sk), the applications use a Geographical (dyi:o’graficol) Information System to provide geographical information.
  • The first application is a resource (ri’so:s) searcher (‘serche) and locator (lou’keitor). The user can obtain information from the Geographical Information System.
    The second application is a data acquisition (aekwi’zishn) system. The user can obtain information and can also introduce information into the GIS.
  • After this brief (bri:f) introduction (intro’dakshn), let us see the basis of mobile positioning.
  • The position of a mobile phone can be located using information from the GSM network.
    When a call is established (i’staeblisht), the phone is connected to a base (beis) station.
    The distance (‘distans) from the base station can be approximately (a’proksimatli) calculated (’kaelkjuleitid) by means of Timing Advance (ad’va:ns).
  • A cell (sel) is the basic unit of a mobile system.
    It is the area (‘eria) where the radio coverage (‘koverich) is given by one base station.
    A cell is represented simplified (‘simplifaid) by a hexagon (‘heksagon).
  • When a call is established, the phone is connected to a base station.
    The base station knows which cell is using the mobile phone.
    Besides, the distance (‘distans) from the base station can be approximately (a’proksimatli) calculated (’kaelkjuleitid) by means of Timing Advance (ad’va:ns).
  • Therefore, the position of a mobile phone is given by an arc:
    The point of origin (‘oridyin) is the base station. The base station is represented by a latitude and longitude value.
    One start angle (‘aengl) and one stop angle.
    One inner radius (‘reidios) and one outer radius.
  • Timing Advance is a server-based solution that allows positioning services to be used with current mobile phones.
    It is not possible to give a specific value for the accuracy (‘akjurasi), since it depends on several (‘sevrol) factors: the size of the cell, the kind (kaind) of the cell, the distance to the base station, etc.
    The accuracy usually ranges (reinchs) from some tens of meters to some hundreds (‘handreds) of meters.
  • The European Telecommunications Standard Institute has been working to standardize (‘staendadaiz) Location Services for GSM (dyi, es , em). Three positioning methods have been standardized:
    Time of Arrival (a’raivol)
    Enhanced (in’ha:ns) Observed Time Difference
    Assisted (a’sistid) GPS (dyi, pi, es)
    But E-OTD and A-GPS require both network and mobile phone modifications.
  • Now, I will present (pri’zent) the architecture (‘a:kitektcha) of the system that supports the applications (aepli’keishns).
  • I have used Ericsson’s Mobile Positioning System, that is based on Timing Advance.
    It can be used with current (‘karent) mobile phones with no further (‘fa:da) change (cheinch).
  • The WAP Device (di’vais), also known as mobile client (‘klaiant) or mobile station connects to the wireless (‘waiales) network by means of the Wireless Session Protocol.
  • The WAP Proxy (‘proksi), also known as Gateway (‘geitwei) translates WAP requests (ri’kwest) to Web requests and vice versa (vais ‘ve:sa).
  • The WAP Proxy converts the WSP requests into HTTP requests and forwards (‘fo:wods) them to Internet (‘intenet).
  • In this way, the WAP Proxy (‘proksi) allows the WAP Device to submit (sab’mit) requests to the Web server that hosts the Positioning Application (aepli’keishn).
  • The Positioning Application requests the position of the WAP Device to the Mobile Positioning Centre by means of Mobile Positioning Protocol.
  • Finally, the Positioning Application uses the position of the WAP Device to query (‘kwiri) the GIS database (‘deitabeis) and provide (pro’vaid) localized services.
  • Now, I will present some relevant (‘relevant) issues (‘ishu:s) about programming the applications.
  • The two applications are based in the client/server (‘klaiant) model.
    The server part is implemented (‘implementid) in Microsoft (‘maickrosoft) ASP (ei, es, pi) running on Personal Web Server or Internet Information Server. It is programmed in Visual Basic Script and uses an Access (‘akses) database (‘deitabeis).
  • The client (‘klaiant) part is divided into application and administrative (ad’ministrativ) tool.
    On the one hand, the application is aimed (eimd) for WAP devices.
    On the other hand, the administrative tool is aimed (eimd) for Web browsers (‘brausars).
  • Due to narrow bandwidth, the transmission of GIS files is time-consuming.
    Besides, the limited display of mobile phones can hardly show geographical (dyi:o’graficol) images (‘imichis).
    Therefore, the applications provide geographical information based on text.
  • I have used the Ericsson Mobile Positioning System Software Development (di’velopment) Kit. This tool includes (in’klu:ds):
    MPC (em, pi, si:) Emulator (‘emjuleita)
    MPC Map Tool
  • How do the applications work?
    The Positioning Application sends a POST request to the Mobile Positioning Centre.
    The message body of the request includes an XML formatted request.
  • For example, the following requests the position of this Mobile Station.
  • Then, the Mobile Positioning Centre responds with either an error message or with the position of the Mobile Station.
    Then, the Positioning Application uses the answer to query a GIS database.
  • For example, the following is the position of this Mobile Station. It is described as an arc with its point of origin, an inner and outer radius (‘reidios), and a start and stop angle (‘aengl).
  • Now, I will describe (di’skraib) the two applications (aepli’keishns).
  • The first application is a resource (ri’so:s) searcher (‘serche) and locator (lou’keitor).
    The user can locate the nearest resource (gas station, theatre (‘ziata), and so on) the his/her position.
    In this kind of applications, it is not necessary (‘nesesari) to know the exact position of the user.
  • This the main menu of the application. It contains eight options.
    For example, when the user selects Products, a list of products is displayed. The number of companies offering a product appears between parenthesis.
    When the user chooses a product, the application displays the companies that sell that product.
    By default, the companies are shown in alphabetical order. Using Order by distance, …
  • … the application shows the companies order by the distance between the user’s position (po’zishn) and the company.
    When the user chooses a company, the application shows the company card, that shows the information about the company: address, telephone number, email, and so on.
    The user can obtain information about how to get to the company.
  • Finally, the administrative tool allows the user to control the information of the application through a web page (peich).
    For example, this is the form that allows to insert a new company in the GIS database.
  • The second application is a data acquisition (aekwi’zishn) system.
    The user can obtain information and can also introduce information into the GIS.
    The application is oriented to gather (‘gada) data (‘deita) about agriculture (‘aegrikoltcha): terrain quality (‘kwoliti), plants that grow, and so on.
  • This the main menu of the application. It contains six options.
    The user can view his/her current (‘karent) position and the current data for that position.
    The database stores the following data about every position: owner, the type of terrain, the type of plant that grows, and so on.
    The user can change these values whenever he/she wants.
  • This application also has an administrative tool.
    For example, this is the web page that shows new inputs in a day. The table shows the date and time of the input, the position and the rest of the values that the user has introduced through the WAP device.
  • To conclude, let us see the summary (‘samari) and the future (‘fjucha) work.
  • WAP has become the de facto standard for wireless applications.
    I have presented two WAP applications that use mobile positioning system to provide location-based services.
    I have show that the information can flow two ways, from the GIS database to the user and from the user to the GIS database.
    The applications are based on standard technology.
  • We are currently working on new applications: news, weather (‘weda) and traffic reports, recommendation systems, and so on.
    We also intend to generate (‘llenereit) dynamic (dai’namik) images (imichis) that represent maps from the GIS database.
  • Thank you very much for your time and attention (a’tenshon).
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