Recent Trends and Technologies for Shale Gas Completions


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  • Slide 1 – Discuss development trends in the USA, AND some of the challenges we face in a region like Europe to adapt to these changing methods. Will also talk about some solutions to those challenges
  • Halliburton’s experience is highlighted – North American Shale American fracturing experience, HPHT experience, SPE paper written during the past 20 years and Shale basins screened by Hal teams around the world pass 2 years.The technologies that have facilitated shale plays commercial success: completions, drilling, hydraulic fracturing. Approximately 82% of Halliburton’s 2010 portfolio are patents associated with these technologies. Halliburton pumps 4,200 stages per month – Unconventional HydrocarbonsHalliburton HP/HT experience since 2003Stages Pumped below 15,000’ – 14,275Stages Pumped above 350°F – 1,719Stages Pumped below 18,000’ – 2,514Stages Pumped above 400°F – 677450 SPE papers on Unconventional GasShale screening / recommendations for appraisal and development of various shale plays around the globe. (>50 Basins, 32 countries)
  • One of the first trends we are seeing in the US is the nearly exclusive use of horizontal wells to complete shale gas reservoirs. When we look at reservoir simulations, for example, we see that multifrac HZ wells are really the only way to complete shale gas plays with microdarcypermeabilitiesDirectional and vertical rig count are each expected to rise 5% in 2011.
  • Environmental scrutiny includes land access, noise control, frac fluid compositions, etcWater management includes supply and disposal issues
  • When we look at the Global Gas Markets and compare that to the available fracturing hydraulic horsepower in the various areas, we quickly notice that there is a serious imbalance of HHP around the world. Note that the US has about 25% of the estimated GIP globally, along with 75% of the global pumping HHPWhen we look at South America, we see more than ½ of the US gas volume, but less than 10% of the HHPIn Europe, the situation is even worse with Europe having more than 25% of the US gas volume but only 2% of the available HHP. So what do we do? What I would like to discuss over the next few slides are the way in which these shales plays are being completed, and some alternative approaches we can use in places like South America and Europe that can help us overcome some of these equipment availability issues.
  • Unconventional shale gas development requires large amounts of water. While water volumes used in hydraulic fracturing operations are still a small percentage of overall water consumption in the US, it is nonetheless an issue with much public attention and concern in local communities where water supplies can be limited. We are developing and championing water management technologies that reduce the amount of water consumed and which also allow the reuse of flowback and produced waters for ongoing stimulation campaigns. These technologies allow operators to take a typical waste stream (produced water) and turn it to an asset (water to support ongoing completion activities). Not only is this an economic benefit to operators, it is also a great opportunity for us to minimize any potential environmental impact of water consumption in fields under development.Harmful impact of chemicals used in oil and gas completions is an area of growing scrutiny by public and government groups today. While there is not one single documented case of hydraulic fracturing or hydraulic fracturing chemicals damaging underground water sources, we must advance our chemical technologies to minimize potential hazards…real or perceived. To that end, our company has introduced CleanSuite technology, providing the opportunity to reduce and eliminate chemical biocides in our fracturing operations. This technology, employing very high power ultraviolet light, is able to kill bacteria and microorganisms at down hole job rates and protect the formation without use of traditional chemicals. This is a great advancement for our operators and we are seeing a great deal of interest in this technology in a number of fields. Halliburton has also developed our Chemical Scoring Index (CSI). This chemical product scoring system rates products in our portfolio based on ecotoxicity, human health, and physical hazard parameters to highlight best in class materials, target other materials for replacement, and provide a suite of environmental product choices for our customers. This methodology will allow us to lead our industry toward new levels of environmental stewardship on shale gas development. We are very excited about this as it moves forward.
  • Developed using the same products used to make marshmallows and ice cream…Advantages of CleanStim®Most environmentally acceptable frac fluid todayCan be used as a “slickwater”, linear gel, or crosslinked systemCan be mixed in a variety of base mix waters, including produced waterNew version being tested for use in seawater
  • Developing shale plays outside of the USA brings unique challenges such as limited equipment availability, smaller wellsite sizes, and increased environmental restrictions Technologies such as PinPoint Stimulation minimize equipment requirements, location size, and overall frac job costsThe PowerReach system provides a unique solution for fracturing in deep horizontal wellsThe CleanSuite technologies offer solutions for reducing fresh water requirements and water disposal, and provides a much more environmentally friendly solution for the fracturing process
  • Recent Trends and Technologies for Shale Gas Completions

    1. 1. Recent Trends and Technologies for Shale Gas Completions Alfred Azer Operations Manager Production Enhancement Continental Europe© 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
    2. 2. What Halliburton brings to Europe - First developed in 1903 and First Commercial Fracturing JobProven Expertise In All Shale Basins Velma, OK - March 1949 Shale Global Gas Halliburton locations© 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 2
    3. 3. Currently 3,500 wells perExpertise & Technologies year is hydraulically fracturedIn Unconventional Hydrocarbons Halliburton Patents 2010 Shale leader 4,200 Frac Treatments per month Drill Bits and Services Various Wireline and Perforating Landmark Extensive HP/HT experience Testing and Subsea Completion Tools Stimulation Sperry Drilling 5% 28% 2% 6% >1,300 SPE papers 2% 3% 15% Global shale appraisal and 39% development expertise Halliburton Technology Strength (5300 patents)© 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 3
    4. 4. Current US Shale Gas Trends Increasing use of horizontal wells© 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 4
    5. 5. Current US Shale Gas Trends Increasing use of horizontal wells Longer laterals and more frac stages© 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 5
    6. 6. Current US Shale Gas Trends Increasing use of horizontal wells Longer laterals and more frac stages Increased focus on water management and environmentally focused frac solutions© 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 6
    7. 7. Market Shift to Horizontal Wells and Larger Jobs – Haynesville Example July 2008 Job Type Distribution September 2009 Job Type Distribution (199 Total Stages) (227 Total Stages) 8 215 Vertical Horizontal Vertical Horizontal 2008 2009 © 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 7
    8. 8. Shale Play Development Challenges Outside of USA I. Deep shale plays requiring long laterals II. Pressure pumping equipment availability III. Limited wellsite location sizes IV. Strong environmental scrutiny V. Need for effective water management strategy© 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 8
    9. 9. Global Gas Markets and Pressure Pumping Equipment 132k HHP 248k HHP 7.2 mm HHP 1,175 TCF 3,526 TCF 3,810 TCF 355k HHP 2,547 TCF 774k HHP 2,625 TCF 624k HHP 88k HHP 2,116 TCF 274 TCFSources: Russell, P.L., Oil shales of the world, their origin, occurrence andexploitation, Pergamon Press, Inc., Elmsford, NY, 1990 (ISBN 0-08-037240-6;753PP; over 40 refs); Saleh M. Billo, Ridayh University, Ridayh, SaudiArabia, “Oil shale and its relation to petroleum and other fuels,” Oil & Gas North America has 25% of worldwide reserves but 75% of pressure pumping equipmentJournal – December 22, 2008.© 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 9
    10. 10. Main Types of Horizontal Frac Completion Methods I. Plug and Perf Perforate several “clusters” with high rate fracturing, isolate with pumpdown plugs II. Sliding Sleeves (Delta Stim® Sleeve) Annular isolation using ECP (Swellpacker® system, Wizard® Packers, etc)© 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 10
    11. 11. Main Types of Horizontal Frac Completion Methods (CONTINUED) III. PinPoint Stimulation with Coiled Tubing Frac with coiled tubing in the well, isolate zones with sand plugs© 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 11
    12. 12. Equipment Layout – PinPoint vs. Conventional HRWF PinPoint Equipment HRWF Equipment© 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 12
    13. 13. Benefits of Pinpoint Stimulation A typical Haynesville A typical PinPoint Plug and Perf frac: Stimulation job with CTU:  5 clusters per 50m interval  1 cluster of perforations per job  5 shots per cluster  3 hydrajetted perforations per interval  80bpm  30bpm  19,600 HHP @ 10,000 psi  6,250 HHP @ 8,500 psi  Rate per perf: 3.2 Bpm/perf  Rate per perf: 10 Bpm/perf  2 frac intervals per day  Tip screenout design  Monitor BHTP with static tubing column  Multiple intervals per day Pinpoint stimulation requires less equipment and a smaller footprint, while providing better fracture placement, higher conductivity, and better understanding of the downhole conditions© 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 13
    14. 14. Clean Fracturing Technologies
    15. 15. Big Picture - Water Volumes Used On Shale Gas Fracs thousand cubes of water per well Flow back up to© 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 15
    16. 16. Environmental Leadership A CleanSuiteSM line of products… CleanWaveSM Treatment Services CleanStream® CleanStim® Services Formulation …creating a compelling sustainability option for our customers© 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 16
    17. 17. Treatment Technologies: CleanwaveSM Services  Purpose is to “clean” water in order for use in fracturing operations  Electrical charge coagulates suspended matter  Handles wide variety of source waters (TDS range = 100 to 300,000 mg/l) Winner of the 2011 Spotlight Award for New Technology at Offshore Technical Conference (OTC)© 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 17
    19. 19. Treatment Technologies: CleanStream® Services  Ultraviolet (UV) light treatment kills bacteria  Used inline with frac spread up to 100 bpm  Eliminates the need for common fracturing bacteriacides© 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 19
    20. 20. TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES: CleanStim® Fracturing Fluid CleanStim® is made from ingredients sourced from the food industry© 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 20
    21. 21. Putting it all Together: CleanSuiteTM Products Case History - El Paso Natural Gas Haynesville Shale Well Horizontal Well Depth = 3,500 m Lateral length = 2,100 m # of Frac Intervals = 14 BHST = 150 deg C CleanWaveSM Treatment Services CleanStream® CleanStim® Frac Treatments Services Formulation Job size = 1,250 m3 per zone + 180,000 kg proppant Pump rate = 75 bpm CleanSuite Product Results CleanWaveSM – 3,500 m3 of produced water “cleaned and re-used” CleanStream® – 18,000 m3 treated - No biocides used for entire job CleanStim® – 9,000 m3 of Linear gel + 6,000 m3 of Crosslinked gel© 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 21
    22. 22. How far are we from the underground water table?© 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 22
    23. 23. Summary – Trends in Shale Gas Trends  Longer horizontal wells & shorter spacing  Larger jobs Horizontal Length  Increasing focus on water management Fracture Spacing  Operations outside of USA with – Less equipment – Smaller locations – Strong environmental focus Facilitating Technologies  PinPoint completion techniques  CleanSuite technologies for – Reducing water requirements – Reduce disposal costs CleanWaveSM Treatment Services CleanStream® CleanStim® Services Formulation – Cleaner frac fluids© 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 23
    24. 24. Thank you© 2011 HALLIBURTON. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 24