Розвідка нафти і газу (Petroleum exploration)

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«Пошук та розвідка родовищ нафти і газу. Промислова геологія». Лектор: Вольфганг Нахтман – менеджер компанії RAG по проектам в Україні.

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Розвідка нафти і газу (Petroleum exploration)

  1. 1. Petroleum Exploration – 01 OverviewРозвідка нафти і газу – 01 загальний вигляд Вольфганг Нахтманн Wolfgang Nachtmann — RAG — Wien wolfgang.nachtmann@rag-austria.at
  2. 2. Petroleum Exploration – Content & ProgramРозвідка нафти і газу – зміст та програма • 01 – overview • 02 – petroleum systems • 03 – sedimentary basins • 04 – sedimentary rocks • 05 – seismic: from acquisition to prospect • 06 – resources and reserves • 07 – opportunity selection • 08 – risk assessment • 01 – загальний вигляд • 09 – petroleum contracts • 02 – Системи нафти та газу • 10 – unconventionals – shale gas • 03 – осадові басейни Practical examples of Field Studies & • 04 – осадові породи Business Cases • 05 – сейсміка • 06 – Ресурси та резерви • 07 – вибір перспективних площей • 08 – Оцінка ризику • 09 – Контракти по нафті та газу • 10 – нетрадиционные ресурсы Practical examples of Field Studies & Business CasesPetroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 2
  3. 3. World Consumes One Cubic Mile of Oil per YearСвіт споживає одну кубічну милю нафти за рік 1 cubic mile of oil contains as much energy as we would get from 52 new nuclear power plants working for the next 50 yearsPetroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 3
  4. 4. Fossil versus or Fossil and Renewable Energy Sources?Копалини у порівнянні або копалини та поновлювані джерела енергіїPetroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 4
  5. 5. 60% of OECD Petroleum Demand For Transportation 60% попиту ОЕСР на нафту і газ для транспортуThe transportation sector accounts for 60% of OECD petroleum demand, but is likely toflatten out after years of steady growth.“Petroleum for transportation has been the single driving force behind OECD oil demand for thepast two decades,” said Aaron Brady, IHS CERA director, global oil. “After the oil crisis of the early1980s the non-transportation sector turned to readily available substitutes like coal, gas or nuclearpower. Now we are seeing the tempering of the last significant driver of oil demand in developedcountries—petroleum for transportation.” Future world oil demand growth will be driven almostexclusively by emerging markets.Petroleum based liquids consumption is projected to be flat as biofuels use grows Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 5
  6. 6. Global Energy Consumption Глобальне споживання енергії 100 80 Percentage of total market 60 H/C<1 (Wood, Coal) H/C~2 (Oil) 40 H/C>4 (Natural Gas, Hydrogen, Nuclear, 20 Emerging) 0 1850 1900 1950 2000U.S. Data: Annual Energy Review 1999 (EIA, 2000)World Data: International Energy Annual 1999 (EIA, 2000) Source: SWT, DPA Luncheon, 2006 Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 6
  7. 7. The Oil Industry in the Media – Are There Any Good News?? Нафтова індустрія у ЗМІ – чи є хороші новини??What gets immediately reported …• oil price• gas(oline) price• environmental hazards Macondo Spill 2010• wars for oil• the “Multis” in general and their profits Gulf War 1991 Burning Oil Fields in Kuwait 22.6.2008 Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 7
  8. 8. Elevated Political Risk and Uncertainty Підвищені політичний ризик та невизначенність Shtokman „Putinism“ Kovikta Terrorist Sakhalin 2 Threats 754 Bbo Civil „Chavezism“ UnrestQuasi-NationalismNationalize the Faja Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 8
  9. 9. The Oil Industry in the Media – Are There Any Good News?? Нафтова індустрія у ЗМІ – чи є хороші новини?? BP‘s Thunder Horse Oil Platform after Hurricane Dennis, 2005… but who is talking about• huge (private) investments• risk taking• secured global energy supply• safety and environmental awarness• technological and economic drivers Hibernia – Grand Banks, 315 km off St. John‘s, Newfoundland Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 9
  10. 10. What is PetroleumЩо таке Петролеум Glossary of Petroleum Industry Common Terms & Symbols PETROLEUM A generic name for hydrocarbons, including crude oil, natural gas liquids, natural gas and their products.Petroleum is crude oil, a naturally occurring liquid that can bedistilled or refined to make fuels, lubricating oils, asphalt, and othervaluable products. It is composed of many molecules of differentsizes. The word petroleum comes from the Latin petra, meaning“rock,” and oleum, meaning “oil.” Used in a broad sense, petroleumalso refers to natural gas and solid asphalt, …Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 10
  11. 11. History and Development of Oil Історія та розробка нафтиPetroleum has been known throughout historical time. It was used in mortar, forcoating walls and boat hulls, and as a fire weapon in defensive warfare. NativeAmericans used it in magic and medicine and in making paints. Pioneers bought itfrom the Native Americans for medicinal use and called it Seneca oil and Geneseeoil. In Europe it was scooped from streams or holes in the ground, and in the early19th century small quantities were made from shale. In 1815 several streets inPrague were lighted with petroleum lamps.The modern petroleum industry began in 1859, when the American oil pioneer E. L.Drake drilled a producing well on Oil Creek in Pennsylvania at a place that laterbecame Titusville. Many wells were drilled in the region. Kerosene was the chieffinished product, and kerosene lamps soon replaced whale oil lamps and candles ingeneral use. Little use other than as lamp fuel was made of petroleum until thedevelopment of the gasoline engine and its application to automobiles, trucks,tractors, and airplanes. Today the world is heavily dependent on petroleum formotive power, lubrication, fuel, dyes, drugs, and many synthetics. The widespreaduse of petroleum has created serious environmental problems. The great quantitiesthat are burned as fuels generate most of the air pollution in industrializedcountries, and oil spilled from tankers and offshore wells has polluted oceans andcoastlines. Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 11
  12. 12. Chronology of OilХронологія нафти1781 Borislav, Ukraine, first field development (hand dug shafts)1821 Russia established mineral leasing system1858 First oil well in Ontario, Canada (hand dug) Trinidad – La Brea asphalt refineryPetroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 12
  13. 13. Chronology of Oil (continued) Хронологія нафти (продовження)August 28, 1859 – Titusville*, Pa.Beginning of „modern“ oil drilling„Colonel“ Edwin L. Drake drills the firstoil well down to 69 and a half feet * before this date some 3 to 6 bbl of oil per day were skimmed from the surface of the Oil Creek Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 13
  14. 14. World Energy Demand and Economic Outlook 2007 – 2035 Світовий попит на енергію та економічна перспектива 2007-2035From 2007 to 2035, growth in world real GDP (on a purchasing power parity basis) averages3.2 percent per year in the reference case. In the long term, the ability to produce goods andservices (the supply side) determines the growth potential of each country’s economy.Growth potential is influenced by population growth, labor force participation rates, capitalaccumulation, and productivity improvements. In addition, for the developing economies,progress in building human and physical capital infrastructures, establishing credibleregulatory mechanisms to govern markets, and ensuring political stability also are importantdeterminants of medium- to long-term growth potential.Published: July 2010 http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/world.html Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 14
  15. 15. Population Driven Energy DemandПопит на енергію, в залежності від населення Courtesy: W. SchollnbergerPetroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 15
  16. 16. Oil & Gas Provide 2/3 of Primary Energy Нафта та газ забезпечують 2/3 первинної енергії Coal Latin Hydro AmericaNuclear China Gas Oil Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 16
  17. 17. Value and Flexibility of Oil, Gas and Coal Вартість та гнучкість нафти, газу та вугілля Oil Gas CoalEnergy density GJ/m3 40 0,04 25CO2 emissions 135 100 155 small – large small – large LargeSize of burners / mobile immobile immobilemobility of use (cars – power plants) (household – turbines) (industrial)Production unitised fields unitised fields independent in fieldsTransport easy (ships) costly (pipeline, LNG) easy (ships)Spare production cheap cheap costlycapacitySpare transport cheap costly cheapcapacityPlace of storage production market consumption Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 17
  18. 18. Oil PriceЦіна на нафтуPetroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 18
  19. 19. World Oil Price Scenarios 1990 – 2035Сценарії розвитку світової ціни на нафту 1990 - 2035Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 19
  20. 20. Crude Oil Prices Since 1861Ціна на сиру нафту з 1861 BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2010Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 20
  21. 21. How OPEC Governed Oil PriceЯк ОПЕК регулював ціну на нафтуPetroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 21
  22. 22. Oil ReservesРезерви нафти Oil ReservesPetroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 22
  23. 23. From Resources to Reserves (after Jean-Noël Boulard) Від ресурсів до резервів (після Jean-Noël Boulard)Resources: volumes of hydrocarbons which are present in an oil or gas field, without reference to constraints as to their accessibility and/or costReserves: volumes of hydrocarbons which are or will be recoverable. Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 23
  24. 24. Proved Oil Reserves by End 2009Підтверджені резерви нафти на кінець 2009 Total: 1,206 billion bbl (~ 165 billion tons) BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2010Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 24
  25. 25. Hubbert’s Peak Oil Thesis – the OriginalСтвердження Хубберта щодо піку видобутку нафти - оригінал http://www.hubbertpeak.com/hubbert/1956/1956.pdfPetroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 25
  26. 26. The Growing Gap Between Production and DiscoveriesЗростання розбіжності між видобутком та відкритими покладами Weatherford, Annual Report 2007Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 26
  27. 27. Is the World Running Out of Oil?? Чи закінчується нафта у світі??(When) Will the Oil Run Out?According to published sources, the world has something like 1.258 trillionbarrels of oil reserves (that is, 1012) and consumes around 81 million (106)barrels a day [data: BP 2010].Therefore we will run out of oil in1,258,000 / 81 = 15,530 days = ~ 42 years, which is in 2052 or thereabouts.Thats within the lifetime of most of us, so panic about a coming oil drought isentirely appropriate.Right ? Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 27
  28. 28. Oil Reserves-to-Production (R/P) RatiosСпіввідношення резервів нафти до видобутку (R/P) BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2010Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 28
  29. 29. R/P Model R/P модель Data: 2007 reserves 1283 bln bbls 2007 production 29,8 bln bbls / a 30 R/P 41,6 years R/P model assumptions:World Annual Oil Production (bln bbls) 25 Production stable at 2007 level until reserves are fully depleted 20 15 10 5 0 2007 2017 2027 2037 2047 2057 2067 2077 2087 2097 Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 29
  30. 30. R/P Model and More Realistic Expectation R/P модель та більш реалістичні очікування Data: 2007 reserves 1283 bln bbls 2007 production 29,8 bln bbls / a 30 R/P 41,6 years R/P model assumptions:World Annual Oil Production (bln bbls) 25 Production stable at 2007 level until reserves are fully depleted 20 More realistic assumption: Production from existing fields will not remain stable but decline 15 annually by 3% (low value) No new reserves (discoveries, 10 extensions etc.) assumed 5 0 2007 2017 2027 2037 2047 2057 2067 2077 2087 2097 Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 30
  31. 31. R/P Key ObservationsR/P – основні вихідні дані R/P values have no practical meaning Only relative comparison between countries or companies R/P only refers to proven reserves Realistic expectation of future producible amounts is proven reserves plus possible reserves plus new discoveries. Replenishment more important than reserves or R/P Replenishment is possible through any combination of New discoveries Field extension Increased recovery rate Price increase Technology application Lack of replenishment has serious consequences Significant shortage will occur very quickly (within a few years) Price will likely shoot up ⇒ new reserves and replenishmentPetroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 31
  32. 32. World Oil Reserves incl. Unconventional Reserves Світові резерви нафти вкл. нетрадиційні резервиA similar chart amended to include USGS estimates of ultimately recoverable oil reserves presents amore accurate impression of overall world oil reserves.The "unconventional" oil reserve of South America is the Venezuelan Orinoco heavy oil belt with oneto four trillion (with a "T") barrels of oil. Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 32
  33. 33. Rising & Future Hot Spots for Oil & Gas ExplorationЗростання та майбутні напрямки дії, щодо розвідки нафти і газу the Arctic – Russia, Greenland, Canada, Alaska, Norway South Atlantic – West Africa (Ghana, Liberia, Mauritania, Morocco) Sub-Salt – Brazil, Gulf of Mexico Rift Areas – East Africa (Sudan, Uganda; Tanzania, Moçambique)Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 33
  34. 34. One of the Future Hot Spots for Oil & Gas Search Один з майбутніх напрямків дій, щодо пошуків нафти і газуThe U.S. Geological Survey estimates that 90 billion barrels of oil, 44 billion barrels ofnatural gas liquids and 1,670 trillion cubic feet of natural gas are recoverable in thefrozen region north of the Arctic Circle.And the fight over who owns those resources may turn out to be the most importantterritorial dispute of this century. Russia, Canada, the United States, Denmark, Norwayand Iceland all have a stake in the Arctics icy real estate. Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 34
  35. 35. Proved natural gas reserves at end 2009Підтверджені резерви нафти і газу у кінці 2009 Total: 187,5 TCM Memo: 1 billion m³ Gas = 6.29 million BOE BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2010Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 35
  36. 36. Natural Gas Production by Region Видобуток природного газу по регіонам~ 150 BCM are annually flared - this equals some 5% of total production!! BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2010 Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 36
  37. 37. Gas Flaring – A Still Ongoing Waste of Natural ResourcesСпалювання газу – все ще наявні втрати природного газуShell flared over 30 per cent more gas in 2010 than it did in 2009 due to what it said was“increased production in Nigeria and new activities in Iraq” (Daily Independent, April 25, 2011)Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 37
  38. 38. Gas reserves-to-production (R/P) ratiosСпіввідношення резервів газу до видобутку (R/P) BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2010Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 38
  39. 39. The Impact of Upstream Technological Advances on Future Oil SupplyВплив технологічних переваг апстрім на майбутні поставки нафти“We are looking at more than four and a half trillion barrelsof potentially recoverable oil. That number translates into140 years of oil at current rates of consumption, or to put itanother way, the world has only consumed about 18percent of its conventional oil potential.”Mr. Abdallah S. Jumah, President & Chief Executive Officer,Saudi Aramco, address to OPEC, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 13, 2006. •1 – знайти нові нафтові родовища •1 – finding new oil fields •2 – increasing recovery •2 – збільшити витягання •3 – reducing exploration and producing cost •3 – знизити витрат на розвідку та видобуток •4 – unconventional oil •4 – нетрадиційна нафта •5 – environment •5 – навколишнє середовище http://www.opec.org/home/multimedia/videos/2006/opec%20seminar/mrabdullahsjumah.htm Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 39
  40. 40. The Search for Oil and GasПошук нафти та газу A Multiphase Process Global Basin Analysis Play Concept Exploration Fairway Drillable Prospect Production Feasibility Analysis Environmental Impact Study Obtain Lease Wildcat Drilled Appraisal Wells Field Facilities Development Wells Refining and MarketingPetroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 40
  41. 41. The Petroleum Geologist – A DetectiveГеолог у нафтогазовій галузі - детектив Data Search Gravimetry, Magnetic Development and Distribution of Rocks Seismic Acquisition & Processing Interpretation & Visualization Evaluation of Petroleum System Project Generation Estimation of Potential Project Economics Drilling Proposal “Sell” Project and DrillPetroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 41
  42. 42. Petroleum Industry Scientists Спеціалісти нафтогазової галузі Geologists Geophysicists HydrologistsPetroleum Engineers Both Chemical Engineers Research Civil Engineers Electrical Engineers and Mathematicians Applications Chemists Physicists Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 42
  43. 43. Petroleum Industry Breakthroughs Важливі кроки нафтогазової індустрії 1883 Anticlinal Theory Concept of ‘Where-to-Drill’1900’s Rotary Drilling Drill deeper 1914 Seismograph 1D Subsurface imaging 1924 Well Logging Subsurface rock and fluid properties1930’s Offshore Drilling Access to new areas and basins1960’s Digital Computer 2D Subsurface imaging & data management1970’s Directional Drilling Access to areas with surface obstacles1980’s 3D Seismic More precise subsurface imaging1990’s 3D Simulation Predicting fluid movement Basin and Reservoir2000‘s Drilling Multilaterals More production per well headJMA Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 43
  44. 44. E & P Creaming CurveР та В - Крива співвідношення успішних свердловин до усіх розвідувальнихPetroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 44
  45. 45. ms Syste um etrole –P r 02 hapte hC wit ueContin Petroleum Exploration – 01 Overview | 2011 | 45
  46. 46. Petroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum SystemsРозвідка нафти та газу – 02 Системи нафти та газу Monterey Fmt, Gaviota Beach, California Вольфганг Нахтманн Wolfgang Nachtmann — RAG — Wien wolfgang.nachtmann@rag-austria.at
  47. 47. Petroleum System PuzzleПаззл нафтогазової системи MIGRATION PATHS GEOLOGICAL MIGRATION SITUATION RESERVOIR SOURCE ROCK TRAP TRAP OVER SEAL TIME MATURITYOF SOURCE ROCKPetroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 2
  48. 48. Exploration ToolsІнструменти розвідки • Observation • natural oil and gas shows – seeps • morphology • surface geology • rocks • structural elements • Analogies • interpretation • mapping • Measurements • rock samples • gravimetry • magnetic • seismic • geochemistry • Interpretation and Experiments • modeling (seismic, reservoir, HC-system • visualizationPetroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 3
  49. 49. E & P CycleЦикл розвідки та вибодутку (Р та В) Discovery Prospect- Appraisal Definition & Planning E & P Cycle Seismic, Field- Gravimetry EXPLORATION Development PRODUKTION Basin-Analysis, Reservoir (Play) Concept(s) Management Regional Geology, Data (Expl. History), AnalogiesPetroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 4
  50. 50. E & P CycleЦикл розвідки та вибодутку (Р та В) Відкриття Визначення Аналіз & перспективи планування E & P Цикл Сейсміка, Розробка гравіметрія РОЗВІДКА родовища ВИДОБУТОК Аналіз басейну, Пласт (комплексу) концепція(ї) Менеджмент Регіональна геологія, дані (іст. розвідка), аналогіїPetroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 5
  51. 51. Natural Oil & Gas Seeps Природні нафто- і газопроявиWhat Are Oil and Gas Seeps?Oil and gas seeps are natural springs where liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons(hydrogen-carbon compounds) leak out of the ground. Whereas freshwater springsare fed by underground pools of water, oil and gas seeps are fed by naturalunderground accumulations of oil and natural gas.Oil that leaks to the Earths surface is eventually transformed from a clear fluidto a tar-like substance called asphaltum. The lighter components of the oil arelost to evaporation, and the remaining heavier oil is oxidized and degraded bybacteria until it becomes sticky and black. Petroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 6 http://seeps.wr.usgs.gov/seeps/what.html
  52. 52. Oil Seeps versus Oil Spills – Natural or Man MadeПорівняння проявів і розливів нафти – природних або створених людиною A drop of oil from a seep in the Gulf of Mexico bursts on the surface after rising up through 560 meters of water. Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill Observed From the International Space Station May 10, 2010Petroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 7
  53. 53. “Outcropping Oil Field” – Gaviota Beach, California “Нафтове родовище, що вийшло на поверхню” – Гавіота Біч, КаліфорніяAsphaltum like this from a cliff-side seep at Gaviota Beach near Santa Barbara,California, forms a hard, rolling surface that looks like old, worn pavement.Asphaltum from this and similar seeps may have been collected by the Chumash Indians tocaulk their canoes. Petroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 8
  54. 54. Gas Seeps from the Bottom of the Black SeaГазопрояви з дна Чорного моря Distribution of seabed seeps Methane seepage is extremely intense on the shelf and on the slope of the Black Sea. Intense seepage areas have been identified particularly on the western and north-western shelf and slope, as well as on the northern and north-eastern slope. In some areas of the north-western shelf the density of seeps is very high.Petroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 9 www.crimea-info.org/
  55. 55. Gas Seeping in the Subcrop – ChimneyПрояви газу у розрізі - трубі A gas chimney characterized by relatively high seismic amplitudes and maintained coherency over a southern North Sea salt dome (blocks F3 and F6).Petroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 10 www.searchanddiscovery.com/.../thumbs/03.jpg
  56. 56. Oil Seep – Rancho La Brea Tar Pit, Los Angeles, California Нафтопрояви – Ранчо Ля Бре Тар Піт, Лос Енджелес, КаліфорніяThe Rancho La Brea Tar Pits is one of the worlds most famous fossil localities,located 5 miles west of downtown Los Angeles. Near the end of the Ice Age, about40,000 to 10,000 years ago, sabertoothed tigers and woolly mammoths roamed theLos Angeles Basin. Some of these animals, along with countless other animals andplants, became mired in pools of natural tar - a tragic ending for many prehistoriccreatures, but a boon for todays paleontologists studying the Ice Age. Petroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 11
  57. 57. The Petroleum System – Elements and ProcessesНафтогазова система – елементи та процесиPetroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 12
  58. 58. Main Questions in Hydrocarbon ExplorationОсновні питання розвідки вуглеводнівPetroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 13
  59. 59. Petroleum System Definition Визначення нафтогазової системиThe essential elements and processes and all genetically-related hydrocarbons that occur inpetroleum shows, and accumulations whose provenance is a single pod of active source rock. Elements Processes Source Rock Migration Route Generation Reservoir Rock Migration Seal Rock Accumulation Trap Preservation Елементи Процеси Материнська порода Формування Шлях міграції Міграція Пластова порода Накопичення Непрониклива порода Збереження Пастка Petroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 14 Source: JMA 2000
  60. 60. Petroleum System ElementsЕлементи нафтогазової системи Anticlinal Trap Top Seal Rock (Impermeable) Reservoir Rock (Porous/Permeable) Potential Migration Route Source Rock (Organic Rich) 24803Petroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 15 Source: JMA 2000
  61. 61. Petroleum System ProcessesПроцеси нафтогазової системи Gas Cap Oil Accumulation Entrapment Water Seal Rock Reservoir Rock Migration 120° F Source Rock 350° F Generation 24803Petroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 16 Source: JMA 2000
  62. 62. Petroleum System Elements Елементи нафтогазової системи• Source Rock - A rock with abundant hydrocarbon-prone organic matter• Reservoir Rock - A rock in which oil and gas accumulates: - Porosity - space between rock grains in which oil accumulates - Permeability - passage-ways between pores through which oil and gas moves• Seal Rock - A rock through which oil and gas cannot move effectively (such as mudstone and claystone)• Migration Route - Avenues in rock through which oil and gas moves from source rock to trap• Trap - The structural and stratigraphic configuration that focuses oil and gas into an accumulation Petroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 17 Source: JMA 2000
  63. 63. Petroleum System Processes Процеси нафтогазової системи• Generation - Burial of source rock to temperature and pressure regime sufficient to convert organic matter into hydrocarbon• Migration - Movement of hydrocarbon out of the source rock toward and into a trap• Accumulation - A volume of hydrocarbon migrating into a trap faster than the trap leaks resulting in an accumulation• Preservation - Hydrocarbon remains in reservoir and is not altered by biodegradation or “water-washing”• Timing - Trap forms before and during hydrocarbon migrating Petroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 18 Source: JMA 2000
  64. 64. Hydrocarbon Trap TypesТипи вуглеводневої пасткиAnticline Fault Salt Dome Pinchout UnconformityPetroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 19 American Petroleum Institute, 1986
  65. 65. Trap Types Типи пастокA trap is a geologicstructure or astratigraphic featurecapable of retaininghydrocarbons.Stratigraphic trapshydrocarbon traps thatresult from changes inrock type or pinch-outs,unconformities, orother sedimentaryfeatures such as reefsor build-ups.Structural trapshydrocarbon traps thatform in geologicstructures such as foldsand faults.Combination trapany mixture ofstructural andstratigraphic elements. Petroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 20
  66. 66. Trap – a Matter of Reservoir Discontinuity ReasonsПастка – причини уривчастості пластаPetroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 21 Source: McMoRan, 2010
  67. 67. Traps Related to a Salt DomeПастки, спричинені соляним куполомPetroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 22
  68. 68. HC Loss During MigrationВинесення вуглеводнів, упродовж міграціїPetroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 23
  69. 69. Reservoir ПластA subsurface body of rock havingsufficient porosity and permeability tostore and transmit fluids. • sedimentary rocks are the most common reservoir rocks because they . have more porosity than most igneous and metamorphic rocks and • they form under temperature conditions at which hydrocarbons can be preserved.A reservoir is a critical component of acomplete petroleum system. Petroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 24
  70. 70. Reservoir Filling – East Texas Oil Field (1930) Заповнення пласта – нафтове родовище у Східному Техасі (1930) Unconformity Trap West EastSea Level 1,000 Reservoir 2,000 Seal Seal unconformity 3,000 120° F • Largest “lower-48” field Kitchen • More than 5 billion barrels recoverable American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1990 Petroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 25
  71. 71. Reservoir Filling – Prudhoe Bay Oil Field (1968) Заповнення пласта – нафтове родовище у Прудо Бей (1968) Anticlinal/Unconformity Anticlinal Trap Combination Trap South North Brooks Beaufort Range SeaSea Level 10,000 Seal unconformity Reservoir 20,000 120° F Barrow Arch 30,000 Kitchen• Largest North American field• More than 8 billion barrels recoverable American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1990 Petroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 26
  72. 72. Reservoir Generated by Fractured PorosityПласт, утворений роздрібленою пористістюPetroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 27
  73. 73. Georgia: Basin Edge Play Грузія: комплекс басейну грані Basin edge Play Concept 25km U Jr Proposed location Kirsa Well 0--- U Jr Q M Jr2000--- Shiraki4000--- Upper Jr6000--- Middle Jr ?? Sarmath Maycop8000--- Petroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 28
  74. 74. Petroleum System at Critical Moment – Oil WindowНафтогазові системи у критичний момент – головна зона нафтоутворення Critical Moment = Time of Expulsion/Migration GEOGRAPHIC EXTENT OF PETROLEUM SYSTEM A Trap 250 Ma Trap Trap A’ STRATIGRAPHIC EXTENT OF PETROLEUM SYSTEM t en m a se B Overburden Sedimentary Essential basin-fill elements of Seal POD OF ACTIVE petroleum SOURCE ROCK system Reservoir Source Petroleum accumulation Underburden Top of oil window Bottom of oil window Location for burial history chartPetroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 29 Magoon and Dow, 1994
  75. 75. Present Day Petroleum SystemНафтогазова система на даний час GEOGRAPHIC EXTENT OF PETROLEUM SYSTEM Present-Day A Trap Trap Trap A’ STRATIGRAPHIC EXTENT OF PETROLEUM SYSTEM t men se Ba Overburden Seal Petroleum accumulation Reservoir Top of oil window Source Bottom of oil window UnderburdenPetroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 30 Magoon and Dow, 1994
  76. 76. Burial History Chart Графік накопичення осідання Overburden 400 300 200 100 Depth (Km) Reservoir Lithology Source Rock Seal Paleozoic Mesozoic Cen. Unit D M P P TR J K P N Thick 1 FmGeneration 2 Placer Fm George Sh Top oil window Boar Ss Top gas window Deer Sh 3 Elk Fm Critical Moment Time of Expulsion and Migration (Trap must already exist) Petroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 31 Magoon and Dow, 1994
  77. 77. Thermal Maturation History Динаміка термічної зрілостіIs any chemical, physical, or Less Hydrogen More Hydrogenbiological change undergoneby a sediment after its initial Diagenesis K Kerogen Burial to Greater and Hotter Depthsdeposition and during and afterits lithification, exclusive of Ro = 0.5% Onset of Oilsurface alteration (weathering) Generationand metamorphism. These Kchanges happen at relatively Oil Gaslow temperatures andpressures and result in K1changes to the rocks originalmineralogy and texture. The Catagenesis Oil Gasboundary between diagenesisand metamorphism, which K2occurs under conditions ofhigher temperature and Oil Gaspressure, is gradational. K3 Oil Phase- Con GasCracking (= pyrolysis) process Ro = 2.0% Out dwhich results in the conversion K4of organic kerogens intohydrocarbons. The rate of Gascracking and the end productsare strongly dependent on the Metagenesistemperature and presence ofany catalysts. Petroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 32 Horsfield and Rullkotter, 1994 Rullkotter,
  78. 78. Thermal Maturation History and its Products Динаміка термічної зрілості та її продуктConversion of organic matter to petroleum occurs within a specific range of temperatures and pressures Petroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 33
  79. 79. Petroleum System – A Dynamic Entity Нафтогазова система – динамічна структура1) Early Generation Spill Point Spill Point Seal Rock Reservoir Rock (Mudstone) Migration from (Sandstone) ‘Kitchen’ Gas beginning to2) Late Generation displace oil Displaced oil accumulates Gas displaces all oil Petroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 34
  80. 80. Types of PetroleumТипи нафти і газуOil and gas are formed by the thermalcracking of organic compounds buried infine-grained rocks.Algae = Hydrogen rich = Oil-proneWood = Hydrogen poor = Gas-pronePetroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 35 Source: JMA 2000
  81. 81. Natural Gas – Chemical Composition Природний газ – хімічна композиціяThe primary component of natural gas is methane (CH4), the shortest and lightesthydrocarbon molecule. It also contains heavier gaseous hydrocarbons such asethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10), as well as other sulphurcontaining gases, in varying amounts, see also natural gas condensate. Naturalgas also contains and is the primary market source of helium.Component wt. %Methane (CH4) 80-95 Natural Gas – CH4Ethane (C2H6) 5-15Propane (C3H8) and Butane (C4H10) < 5Nitrogen, helium, carbon dioxide and trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide, water andodorants can also be present. Mercury is also present in small amounts in naturalgas extracted from some fields. The exact composition of natural gas variesbetween gas fields. Petroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 36 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_gas
  82. 82. „Never Say Never“ to an Exploration Area “Ніколи не говори ніколи” щодо розвідувальної площі New Ideas New Tools New Discoveries in ‘Old’ Areas Changed EconomicsPetroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 37
  83. 83. asins B ary ent Sedim – r 03 hapte with C ueContin Petroleum Exploration – 02 Petroleum Systems | 2011 | 38
  84. 84. Petroleum Exploration – 03 Sedimentary BasinsРозвідка нафти і газу – 03 осадові басейни Вольфганг Нахтманн Wolfgang Nachtmann — RAG — Wien wolfgang.nachtmann@rag-austria.at
  85. 85. Main Types of Sedimentary Basins Основні типи осадових басейнів• Sedimentary basins are the subsiding areas where sediments accumulate to form stratigraphic successions• The plate tectonic setting is the premier criterion to distinguish different types of sedimentary basins • Rift-type Basins form at extensional plate boundaries, are associated with increased heat flow due to hot mantle plumes. They occur, for example, at continental margins. • Foreland-type Basins form at compressional plate boundaries in front of migrating fold and thrust belts. • Transtensional Basins occur where plates move in a strike-slip fashion relative to each other Petroleum Exploration – 03 Sedimentary Basins | 2011 | 2
  86. 86. Basin EvolutionЕволюція басейнуPetroleum Exploration – 03 Sedimentary Basins | 2011 | 3
  87. 87. Types of Sedimentary BasinsТипи осадових басейнів or the Vienna Basin.Petroleum Exploration – 03 Sedimentary Basins | 2011 | 4
  88. 88. Types of Sedimentary BasinsТипи осадових басейнівPetroleum Exploration – 03 Sedimentary Basins | 2011 | 5
  89. 89. Intracratonic BasinІнтракратонічний басейнPetroleum Exploration – 03 Sedimentary Basins | 2011 | 6
  90. 90. Intracratonic Basin – Onshore Brazil Інтракратонічний басейн – оншор, БразіліяOnshore Opportunities in BrazilCovering an area about half the size of Europe,Brazils onshore basins could hold large quantitiesof oil and gas like their Northern Hemispherecounterparts. Yet they have remained barelyexplored, overshadowed by the huge successes inthe offshore.Brazil’s four primary intracratonic onshore basinsare surrounded by large exposures of three majorPrecambrian shields (Guyanas Central Brazil, andAtlantic). © HRT Ten oil and gas accumulations have been found in the Solimões basin. Hydrocarbons http://www.geoexpro.com/country_profile/onshorebrazil/ are trapped along wrench faults in Carboniferous aged sandstone reservoirs. © HRT Petroleum Exploration – 03 Sedimentary Basins | 2011 | 7
  91. 91. Extensional BasinsПротяжні басейниExtension• Rift basins develop in continental crust and constitute the incipient extensional basin type; if the process continues it will ultimately lead to the development of an ocean basin flanked by passive margins, alternatively an intracratonic basin will form• Rift basins consist of a graben or half-graben separated from surrounding horsts by normal faults; they can be filled with both continental and marine deposits• Intracratonic basins develop when rifting ceases, which leads to lithospheric cooling due to reduced heat flow; they are commonly large but not very deepPetroleum Exploration – 03 Sedimentary Basins | 2011 | 8
  92. 92. Rift Basins – Half GrabenРифтовий басейн – напівграбенPetroleum Exploration – 03 Sedimentary Basins | 2011 | 9
  93. 93. Rift Basins – Half GrabenРифтовий басейн – напівграбенPetroleum Exploration – 03 Sedimentary Basins | 2011 | 10
  94. 94. East African Rift Valley – Albert GrabenСхідно-Африканська Долина – Альберт грабен Tullow et al discovered > 1 billion bbl of proved oil reserves since 2005Petroleum Exploration – 03 Sedimentary Basins | 2011 | 11
  95. 95. Collision ЗіткненняCollision• Subduction is a common process at active margins where plates collide and at least one oceanic plate is involved; several types of sedimentary basins can be formed due to subduction, including trench basins, forearc basins, backarc basins, and retroarc foreland basins • Forearc basins form between the accretionary prism and the volcanic arc and subside entirely due to sediment loading; like trench basins, their fill depends strongly on whether they are intra-oceanic or proximal to a continent • Backarc basins are extensional basins that may form on the overriding plate, behind the volcanic arc • Retroarc foreland basins form as a result of lithospheric loading behind a mountainous arc under a compressional regime; they are commonly filled with continental deposits• Trench basins can be very deep, and the sedimentary fill depends primarily on whether they are intra- oceanic or proximal to a continent• Accretionary prisms are ocean sediments that are scraped off the subducting plate; they sometimes form island chains Petroleum Exploration – 03 Sedimentary Basins | 2011 | 12
  96. 96. Active MarginАктивна околицяPetroleum Exploration – 03 Sedimentary Basins | 2011 | 13
  97. 97. Molasse Basin – Transalp Seismic Section Басейн моласси – секція трансальп. сейсміки North Edge of AlpsMunich near TegernseeN S 75 km Petroleum Exploration – 03 Sedimentary Basins | 2011 | 14
  98. 98. Molasse Basin – Geological Cross-SectionБасейн моласси – геологічний профільPetroleum Exploration – 03 Sedimentary Basins | 2011 | 15
  99. 99. Rocks ary ent Sedim r04– e Chapt w ith ueContin Zion National Park Petroleum Exploration – 03 Sedimentary Basins | 2011 | 16
  100. 100. Petroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary RocksРозвідка нафти і газу – 04 осадові породи Zion National Park, Utah Вольфганг Нахтманн Wolfgang Nachtmann — RAG — Wien wolfgang.nachtmann@rag-austria.at
  101. 101. Sedimentary Rocks – Clastics vs. Non ClasticsОсадові породи – порівняння теригенних і нетеригеннихPetroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 2
  102. 102. Sedimentary RocksОсадові породи Clastic (siliciclastic) rocks (80-85% of the stratigraphic record) Carbonate sediments and rocks (10-15% of the stratigraphic record) Organic (carbonaceous) sediments and rocks Evaporites Volcaniclastic sediments and rocksPetroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 3
  103. 103. Environments of Clastic DepositionСередовище теригенних відкладівPetroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 4
  104. 104. Low-Sinuosity Fluvial Systems Річкові системи низької звивистостіConceptual model of sandy low sinuosity stream system. Note incipient meandering & point bar.High bedload low sinuosity channels are flanked by extensive crevasse splays that funnel sedimentonto the surrounding floodplain Petroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 5
  105. 105. Rio Negro Floodplain, Patagonia, Argentina Ріо Негро, заплава річки, Патагонія, АргентинаThe Rio Negro is recognizable by astronaut crewsfrom orbit as one of the most meandering rivers inSouth America. In this astronaut photograph, theentire floodplain (mostly ~10 kilometers wide) iscovered with curved relicts of channels known asmeander scars. Meander scars show the pastpositions of river bends. The Rio Negro is adramatic example of how mobile a river can be;these meanders were produced as the riversnaked across the plain in the very recentgeological past, probably during the last fewhundred years.When meander scars contain water they areknown as oxbow lakes. Petroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 6 http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=42640
  106. 106. Deltas ДельтаDelta definition: Coastal accumulations, both subaqueous and subaerial, of river-derived sediments adjacentto, or in close proximity to, the source stream, including the deposits that have been secondarily molded byvarious marine agents, such as waves, currents, or tides. Petroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 7
  107. 107. False-color Image of the Larger Mississippi DeltaШтучне кольорове зображення, Міссисиппі ДельтаPetroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 8
  108. 108. Mississippi Delta LobesЗападина Міссисиппі Дельта http://www.answers.com/topic/mississippi-delta-lobes-jpgPetroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 9
  109. 109. Meandering (Fluvial) SystemsСистема звивистості (річкова) Plan-view of the Mississippi, showing the various genetic elements such as point bars, oxbow lakes and crevasses that together form a meandering system 10 kmPetroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 10
  110. 110. A model of Subaqueous Slope Channel and Deep-Water FanМодель підводного похилого каналу та глибоководний конус виносуPetroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 11
  111. 111. Deep water Fan ShapesГлибоководні конусні виноси (SCHOLLNBERGER et al 1974)Petroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 12
  112. 112. Turbidite Slope Channels off West AfricaТурбідітові похилі канали Західної АфрикиPetroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 13
  113. 113. West Africa: Turbidite Reservoirs (3D View)Західна Африка: турбідітові пласти (зображення 3D)Petroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 14
  114. 114. „Classic Eastern Carpathian hydrocarbon accumulations“ “Класичне накопичення вуглеводнів у Східних Карпатах” Boryslav–Pokuttya Zonethe Paleogenereservoirs containalmost 95% of thetotal recoverablehydrocarbons.These deep-marinedeposits form thebodies of geneticallyrelated mass-flowand turbiditycurrents. Maniava Formation (early Eocene) reservoir rock areal distribution (Picha, 2006) Petroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 15
  115. 115. Sedimentary Rocks – ClassificationОсадові породи - класифікаціяPetroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 16
  116. 116. Sandstones ПісковикиSandstones (20-25% of the stratigraphic record) can besubdivided according to the Pettijohn classification, based ontexture and composition (relative proportions of quartz,feldspar, and lithic fragments) Quartz arenite: quartz-dominated Arkosic arenite: feldspar-dominated Lithic arenite: dominance of lithic fragments Wacke: significantly matrix-supported (>15% mud) Quartz wacke Greywacke (feldspathic or lithic wacke) Petroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 17
  117. 117. ConglomeratesКонгломератні відклади Conglomerates are consolidated gravels; Breccias are conglomerates with dominantly angular clasts • Clast-supported conglomeratesPetroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 18 • Matrix-supported conglomerates
  118. 118. Mudstone АргілітиMudstones (60% of the stratigraphic record)are also known as mudrocks or shales andcommonly exhibit a distinct fissility Claystone Siltstone Petroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 19
  119. 119. Mud – Sand – GravelАргіліт – Пісок - ГравійPetroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 20
  120. 120. Studying CoresВивчення кернуPetroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 21
  121. 121. Core of a Good Quality Reservoir RockКерн породи якісного пластуPetroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 22
  122. 122. Sandstone Reservoir – Good PorosityПласт пісковика – добра пористість Good Porosity = plenty of space for Gas/Oil Pore SpacePetroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 23
  123. 123. Sandstone Reservoir – No PorosityПласт пісковика – ніякої пористості Pore space filled with Calcite-cement = no room for oil/gasPetroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 24
  124. 124. Carbonate Rocks Карбонатні породиCarbonate sediments and rocksCarbonate sand usually consists either of (fragmented) skeletal remains or non-skeletalgrains. Biogenic carbonate formation occurs by a wide range of organisms (e.g.,molluscs, corals, forams, algae, bacteria, and many others) Most organisms initially form unconsolidated carbonate sediments Coral reefs and microbial mats (e.g., stromatolites) are examples of more solid carbonate structuresCarbonate mud (micrite) is commonly the product either of chemical precipitation oralgal/bacterial activity. Chemical precipitation produces non-skeletal carbonate grainsof various sizes (e.g., ooids, pisoids, micrite)Dunham classification of carbonate rocks: Texturally-based subdivision (cf. clastics): mudstone, wackestone, packstone, grainstone, rudstone Petroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 25 Organically bound framework during formation: boundstone Crimea, Ukraine
  125. 125. Tropical Carbonate Platforms: Facies BeltsТропічні карбонатні платформи: фаціальні зониPetroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 26
  126. 126. Carbonates – Depositional TextureКарбонати – літологічна структураPetroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 27 Eocene, Crimea, Ukraine
  127. 127. Carbonate Building Micro-OrganismsМікроорганізми, утворюючі карбонатиPetroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 28
  128. 128. Ooids – OnkoidsОоїди - онкоїдиPetroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 29
  129. 129. Fractured Carbonate RockРоздроблена карбонатна порода Cretaceous, GeorgiaPetroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 30
  130. 130. EvaporitesЕвапорити Evaporites Dissolved salts precipitate out of sea water due to concentration (brine formation) during evaporation (1 km of sea water --> 12 m of evaporites) Evaporites commonly lithify into consolidated rocks upon formation Least soluble compounds precipitate first: CaCO3 (calcium carbonate) CaSO4 (calcium sulphate: gypsum or anhydrite) NaCl (halite: rock salt) Other, less stable (highly soluble) chloridesPetroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 31
  131. 131. Marine EvaporitesМорські евапоритиPetroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 32
  132. 132. Marine Evaporites – Death Valley, CaliforniaМорські евапорити – Долина смерті, КаліфорніяPetroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 33 Death Valley, California
  133. 133. Volcaniclastic Sediments Вулканокластичні відкладиVolcaniclastic sediments and rocksLava (cooled magma flows) produces volcaniclastic sediment uponweatheringPyroclastic material or tephra (ejected particulate material) can besubdivided into different compositional categories: Mineral grains Lithic fragments Vitric material (volcanic glass or pumice) Petroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 34
  134. 134. Volcaniclastic SedimentsВулканокластичні відкладиPetroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 35
  135. 135. Volcaniclastic Sediment ExampleПриклад вулканокластичних відкладів Fractured volcanoclastic sediment with tar (Tertiary, Georgia)Petroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 36
  136. 136. Reservoir Quality of Sandstone Пластова якість пісковика uartzeldspar ithic Grains Petroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 37
  137. 137. mic eis –S r 05 hapte hC wit ue ContinPetroleum Exploration – 04 Sedimentary Rocks | 2011 | 38
  138. 138. Petroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic 1/2 (Acquisition)Розвідка нафти і газу – 05 сейсміка 1/2 (виміри) Вольфганг Нахтманн Wolfgang Nachtmann — RAG — Wien wolfgang.nachtmann@rag-austria.at
  139. 139. Introduction – Geophysical Methods - Gravity (reconnaissance tool) - Magnetics -“- - Radar (10m?) (details) - Geo-Electric -“- - SEISMIC - wave theory - refraction - reflection 2D / 3DPetroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 2
  140. 140. Scheme – Seismic Acquisition to InterpretationСхема – сейсміка від вимірів до інтерпретаціїPetroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 3
  141. 141. The ChallengeВиклик ?Petroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 4
  142. 142. One Possibility ……Одна можливість .....Petroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 5
  143. 143. …….Or.....Або (2D) Reflexion Seismic Petroleum Handbook 1948 (Shell)Petroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 6
  144. 144. Seismic Acquisition – Physical PrinciplesСейсмічні виміри – фізичні принципиPetroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 7
  145. 145. Equipment for AcquisitionОбладнання для вимірівPetroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 8
  146. 146. 3D Seismic Acquisition – Registration Truck3D сейсмічні виміри – реєстраційна вантажівкаPetroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 9
  147. 147. Seismic SourcesСейсмічні джерела vibrators as energy source explosivesPetroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 10
  148. 148. 2D or 3D Reflection Seismic – Planning (1)2D або 3D метод відбитих хвиль – планування (1)Area / Surface / RestrictionsGeology / Subsurface / Data = Logs, Seismic DataTargets: depth of target horizons structure/areal extension/dip horizontal resolution = structure details vertical resolution = thickness of horizons expected quality of seismic dataPetroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 11
  149. 149. Limits and Uncertainties for Seismic Activities in Austria Обмеженості та невизначеність сейсміки в АвстріїAccess Due to forests, agricultural activities, growing villages and infrastructure distances to energy sources get often reduced which cause unwanted modifications of acquisition patterns and partially lower coverageEnvironmental conditions Snow and ice in winter Continuous agricultural activities from March through October Hunting seasonsSurface and near surface geology Glacial sediments (gravels) and valley fills (lacustrine clays) have an influence on strength and transmission of acoustic signals – only solved by work intensive static correction before and during data processing Petroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 12
  150. 150. Seismic Acquisition – Procedures & Involved Parties Сейсмічні виміри – порядок та залучені сторониStakeholders Ordering company Seismic contractor Authorities (mining, water, environment, local) Abutting owners, land ownersProcedure Selection of acquisition area (incl. estimation of potential, economics) Specification of technical parameters Bidding process: EU wide announcement, evaluation, negotiations, awarding Public hearing and negotiation – official notification (mining authority) Mobilisation of seismic crew – technical and HSE audit Notification of land owners, communities etc. Surveying Acquisition Reimbursement for damages Demobilisation of seismic crew Delivery of raw data to processing Petroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 13
  151. 151. Surveying with Digital Topography by Laser ScanningДослідження з дігітальною топографією лазерним скануванням Digitale Geländehöhen Nussdorf 3D (70 km2) 400 - 800 m NNPetroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 14
  152. 152. 3D Reflection Seismic – Planning (2)3D метод відбитих хвиль – планування (2)Technical Issues - energy source (explosives vs. vibrators) - geophone array - horizontal resolution (bin size) – 5 m to 25 m) - vertical resolution (sample rate – ½ to 2 msec) - data quality: subsurface coverage (10 to 48?times)Economic Issues - cost estimate / economics - project specification / tender - selection of contractor – based on cost, quality, equipment, experience, reputationPetroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 15
  153. 153. 2D Acquisition Scheme 2D схема проведення виміру Bis zu 10,000 Kanäle Messwagen Stationsinterval 12 - 25 m Kabel 1 - 3 km langEnergie- Pattern String quelle Anregung: Geophon Petroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 16
  154. 154. 2D Seismic – Single Shot Record 2D сейсміка – однократна сейсмограмаReceiver Source Offset Offset (m) 0 Offset (m) 2-Way Travel Time Reflection Time (msec) Time (msec) 1000 Petroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 17
  155. 155. Seismic Data ProcessingОбробка сейсмічних даних „Shot Points“ „Stacked Line“ Final „migrated“ Time-SeismicPetroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 18
  156. 156. 3D Acquisition Principle 3D принцип проведення вимірів Vibrator source Receivers Petroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 19(NAM drawing)
  157. 157. 3D Seismic – Ideal Pattern of Inlines and X-lines3D сейсмика – ідеальна модель вертикальних та горизонтальних ліній Orthogonal acquisition scheme vibrator lines receiver linesPetroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 20
  158. 158. 3D Seismic – Subsurface Coverage Model3D сейсміка – модель перекриття границі у геол. розрізіPetroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 21
  159. 159. HSE Considerations During Seismic AcquisitionОхорона праці та навк. середовища під час сейсмічних вимірів Moving site Consistent outside impact by environment and weather High power of concentration needed (traffic, terrain) Healthy and physically fit people needed Choice of right people for respective work Well rested, don‘t start work with any residual alcohol from previous night Personnel turnover due to rotation Group dynamic processes with international characterPetroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 22
  160. 160. t ion eta rpr – Inte Part 2 r 06 pte Cha w ith ntinueC o Petroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 23
  161. 161. Petroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic 2/2 (Interpretation)Розвідка нафти і газу – 05 сейсміка 2/2(Інтерпретація) Вольфганг Нахтманн Wolfgang Nachtmann — RAG — Wien wolfgang.nachtmann@rag-austria.at
  162. 162. Scales of (Seismic) ResolutionМасштаб (сейсмічної) роздільної здатності γ-ray ρv Well reflectivity seismic Outcrop: detailed but limited extent Wells: detailed vertically but limited laterally Seismic: limited vertically but unlimited laterallyPetroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 2
  163. 163. Seismic Resolution (1)Сейсмічна роздільна здатність (1) ... m ?Petroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 3
  164. 164. Seismic Resolution (2)Сейсмічна роздільна здатність (2) Frequencies 8-50Hz velocity • wavelength = frequency Velocities • f=35Hz, v=2700m/s 1500m/s water 4500 m/s salt 77mPetroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 4
  165. 165. Interpretation – GeneralІнтерпретація – загальна інформація Interpretation General Regional Prospect SpecialPetroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 5
  166. 166. Interpretation Set-UpПорядок інтерпретації What do you get to work with … Hardware PC Workstation Dual Screen (PC) Network Storage, Visualization Room Software Geoframe Interpretation System (Schlumberger Geoquest), Petrel; Kingdom Geostatistics, Petrophysics, Inversion Database FINDER, RECALL (Schlumberger, Geoquest)Petroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 6
  167. 167. Work Flow (1)Послідовність робіт (1) Way to go … Geoframe PETREL survey Inlines, crosslines, slices, random lines Geoviz Well data: Sonic & density logs, synthetics, markers Regional interpretation (Geoframe, PETREL, Kingdom) (Auto-)tracking • Horizons in selected areas • Gridded Time maps • Seismic attributes (amplitude, dip, etc.) • Depth map conversion using smoothed well information (Vel/Depth)Petroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 7
  168. 168. Interpretation BasicsОснови інтерпретаціїMapping of horizons (structure)Mapping of faultsStratigraphy Auto trackingPetroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 8
  169. 169. 3D Visualization at Work Station3D Візуалізація на робочій станціїPetroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 9
  170. 170. 3D Visualization Room3D кімната візуалізаціїPetroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 10
  171. 171. 3D Data Cubes3D масив данихPetroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 11
  172. 172. 3D Visualization3D ВізуалізаціяPetroleum Exploration – 05 Seismic | 2011 | 12

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