As we mentioned last meeting, one of the most fundamental areas to address to really get to Abundance is water. Currently a billion people lack access to safe drinking water, and 2.6 billion lack access to basic sanitation. As a result, half of the world’s hospitalizations are due to people drinking water contaminated with infectious agents, toxic chemicals and radiological hazards. According to the World Health OrganizationKotler, (WHO), just one of those infectious agents—the bacteria that cause diarrhea—accounts for 4.1 percent of the global disease burden, killing 1.8 million children a year. Right now more folks have access to a cell phone than a toilet. In fact, the ancient Romans had better water quality than half the people alive today.what happens if we solve this one problem? According to calculations done by Peter Gleick at the Pacific Institute, an estimated 135 million people will die before 2020 because they lack safe drinking water and proper sanitation.. So what can we do to solve this situation using technology and knowledge available today?But what of population growth?“The key thing you can do to reduce population growth is actually improve health. … [T]here is a perfect correlation, as you improve health, within half a generation, the population growth rate goes down.” – Bill Gates
Projections of global water needs are worrisome enough when the water demands arising from future population and economic growth are compared with current estimates of developed and developable supplies. However, the reliability of current supplies is also in question. The fact is that there are trends and circumstances which will almost certainly reduce available supplies in the face of sharply escalating water demands world-wide. Ground water overdraft, a condition in which the rates of extraction from an aquifer exceed the rates of recharge by water percolating from above, occurs in almost every region of the world. China and India today are estimated to be feeding nearly 400 million people through irrigation supported only by the persistent overdrafting of aquifers, and they are not alone in this practice. Because aquifer capacity is finite, ground water overdraft is always self-terminating. In the absence of effective management, water tables are drawn down to the point where it is no longer economical to pump them, and extractions diminish to levels that balance recharge or even cease entirely because they are too costly. This economic exhaustion is the final outcome of persistent overdraft.Salination – (agriculture, water)Soil salinization will continue to be a problem that plagues irrigated agriculture, particularly in arid and semiarid climates. Salt buildup in shallow soil can significantly decrease crop yields and in extreme cases render the soil unfit for farming. Ironically, the best way to avoid salinization is to apply water at a rate substantially in excess of crop water needs to avoid buildup of salt in the crop root zone. Unfortunately, this practice increases the likelihood that agricultural chemicals will reach the underlying ground water. Salinity will become increasingly difficult to manage as water supplies become scarcer, which will constrain the ability of arid and semiarid countries (and regions) to feed their growing populations.
Miracle Water distillerIt is designed to supply a village with 1,000 liters/day of clean water. (Colbert Report)You can use any water source — ocean, puddle, chemical waste site, hexavalent chrome, arsenic, poison, 50 gallon drum of urine. (Colbert Report)It is designed to supply a village with 1,000 liters/day of clean water. (Colbert Report)You can use any water source — ocean, puddle, chemical waste site, hexavalent chrome, arsenic, poison, 50 gallon drum of urine. (Colbert Report)Vapor compression distillation is not new. Doing it in such an incredibly efficient way such that it takes only 2 percent of the power of convention distillers is new. (R&D World and Gizmodo commenter)The are no filters to replace, no charcoal, no anything disposable (just distillation). (Colbert Report)The Slingshot (as its called) can use half the waste heat (450 watts) from a sterling engine electrical generator (prototype also being designed by Kamen’s company) to boil its water. (TED)The heat put into the water is recovered with a "counter-flow heat exchanger" and recycled to heat the next batch of water (that is part of the novel bit). (TED and Gizmodo commenter)Slingshot will be less then 60 lbs. (TED)proThetotypeslingshot was hand-built for $100K. The goal is to get production units down to $1,000 to $2,000. (CNN)The sterling engine, used as an electrical generator, can produce about 200 watts of power (it will never be more then 20 percent efficient) and 800 watts of waste heat (the waste heat that slingshot uses). TEDLater sources say the sterling engine can generate 1 kilowatt or enough power for 70 high-efficiency light bulbs. (CNN)The sterling engine can run on anything that burns, propane or even cow dung. (CNN)http://gizmodo.com/370698/colbert-first-vid-of-dean-kamens-miracle-water-distillerhttp://www.popsci.com/technology/article/2012-04/new-wind-turbine-condenses-clean-water-air/
Water desalization is of course very important. Our planetary surface is mostly water. The vast majority of that is salt water.One filtration technology propose for desalinization uses atom thick sheets of graphene with contain nanoscopic pores. The process is essentially reverse osmosis, which is nothing new, but due to the incredible thinness of the graphene filter, this method is more efficient than conventional methods by two to three orders of magnitude.http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nl3012853This can drive desalination cost down to around 10 cent per cubic meter.
http://boltonhill.wordpress.com/videos/slingshot/Dean Kamen has unveiled the latest iteration of his power and water package for the third world. The two components are a water purifier called Slingshot that uses a fraction of the power of alternatives and a Stirling engine based power generator that works on cow dung. The $1500 water purifier will produce 1000 liters of water a day, while the $3,700 generator produces around 1 kW, which is enough to deliver light to a small village. The two products have been in development for years, but it looks as though they are now ready for more prime time consideration.
LIFESAVER bottle The LIFESAVER bottle is the World's first water bottle to remove all bacteria, viruses, cysts, parasites, fungi and all other microbiological waterborne pathogens without the aid of any foul tasting chemicals like iodine which is now banned substance within the EU. LIFESAVER complies with all British, US and European Drinking Water Regulations for Microbiological Reduction as tested and certified by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.http://www.lifesaversystems.com/lifesaver-products/lifesaver-bottle"The ‘LIFESAVER' bottles were tested using micro organisms in far greater numbers than could ever be found in natural water sources. This is the worse-case scenario approach recommended by the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) and their guidelines have been used to draw up our own protocols for testing of all Microbiological Water Purifiers. As well as using modified tap water for our tests we use samples taken from a pond or stream as our challenge test water to simulate ‘real-life’ situations as per EPA guidelines.”"Under the conditions of testing in our laboratory as shown in this report, our results show that the ‘LIFESAVER bottle' removed all bacteria and viruses from a contaminated water source in excess of legal requirements and as such, complies with all British, US and European Drinking Water Regulations for Microbiological Reduction."London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.Life StrawThe aptly-named LifeStraw is an invention that could become one of the greatest life-savers in history. It is a 25 cm long, 29 mm diameter, plastic pipe filter and costs just a few dollars (the manufacturers originally informed us the price was around US$2.00 but the price is now under review and we'll be posting a new price shortly. The most prolific killer of human beings in developed countries is the automobile, followed by a host of diseases resulting mainly from an indulgent lifestyle.Millions of people perish every year because they simply don’t have clean water to drink. Until now, there was not much we could do about this because systems to clean water were costly and required electricity and spare parts and and and … but the LifeStraw now offers a viable means of saving tens of millions of lives every year.LifeStraw is a personal, low-cost water purification tool with a life time of 700 litres – approximately one year of water consumption for one person. Positive test results have been achieved on tap, turbid and saline water against common waterborne bacteria such as Salmonella, Shigella, Enterococcus and Staphylococcu.If we (as in the big WE) can find a way of manufacturing and distributing one of these to each human at risk, every year, we could save countless lives (now there’s a noble outcome for the tech blogs and mags of the world to work together to promote this). Each LifeStraw lasts for one person’s annual needs of clean water – a simple straw costing a few dollars will ensure that one at-risk person will not die for a year - now that's a donation we can all make with a serious kicker!This LifeStraw was designed with special emphasize on avoiding any moving parts, as a sealed unit with no replaceable spare parts, and avoiding the use of electricity, which does not exist in many areas in the 3rd world. But as force (power) is required to implement the filtering, VestergaardFrandsen chose to use the natural source of sucking, that even babies are able to perform. A brief technical rundown is available at MedGadget, the internet journal of emerging medical technologies.VestergaardFrandsen have managed to produce this product at a price that people in this business find hard to believe, but believed it had to achieve a price affordable to the Third World consumer.http://www.gizmag.com/go/4418/All methods descriptionhttp://www.h2ro.com/_Solutio2.htm
http://www.lifesaversystems.com/documents/LIFESAVER%20Bottle%20Data%202011.pdfhttp://www.ted.com/talks/michael_pritchard_invents_a_water_filter.htmlJerry can versionLike the bottle, the LIFESAVER jerrycan uses a highly advanced ultra filtration system, originally developed for industrial applications. It will remove bacteria, viruses, cysts, parasites, fungi and all other microbiological waterborne pathogens. It does all this without the aid of any foul tasting chemicals like iodine which is a banned substance within the EU. The jerrycan holds 18.5 litres (approx 5 gallons) and can process up to 20,000 litres of water. There are 2 consumer versions, a military and an AID version.Now these don't scale very well in cost. The bottle is about $130 and the jerry can is around $200. But for small scale solutions it is a start
A new type of wind turbine harvests not only electricity from the wind, but clean water from the air, by condensing humidity from even the driest climes. One prototype turbine is apparently collecting 16.3 gallons of water an hour from the desert air over Abu Dhabi, according to the company that builds it.The company claims one turbine can produce up to 1,000 liters of water every day, depending on the humidity and wind conditions. The company says it could help remote communities in need of clean drinking water, especially in Indonesia and countries in Africa. For now, one turbine costs $790,000, but the cost could come down if the company starts building lots of them, according to a spokesman who spoke to CNN.
Water Distribution BreakdownSource Volume (km**3) Percent of fresh waterOcean, Seas, Bays 1,338,000,000Ice Caps, Glaciers, Permanent 24,064,000 68.7snowGround Water (fresh) 10,530,000 30.1Ground Water (saline) 12,870,000Soil Moisture 16,500 0.05Ground Ice, Permafrost 300,000 0.86Freshwater Lakes 91,000 0.26Saline Lakes 85,400Atmosphere 12,900 0.04Swamp Water 11,470 0.03Rivers 2,120 0.006
Water• One billion people lack access to safe drinking water• 2.6 billion lack access to basic sanitation• Half of all serious hospitalizations and disease are from unsafe drinking water• What if we solve this problem? – 135 million people live that wouldn’t otherwise – Nutrition improves – Several disease vectors are wiped out
Not just poor region problem• Aquifer depletion• Soil salinization• Irrigation – >80% of all water use is for irrigation, mostly of crops• River diversion• Infrastructure deterioration