) side view of the crystal structures of the host-guest complex 1É8 with single helix 1 in tube representation and rod 8 in CPK representationb) Top view and c) side view of 1É8 with both rod and helix in CPK representation. Carbon atoms of the thread are shown in grey, nitrogen atoms in light blue, oxygen atoms in red and hydrogen atoms in white. Single helix 1 is shown in red. Isobutyl side chains and included solvent molecules have been removed for clarity.http://www.sciencemag.org/content/331/6021/1172.abstractDynamic assembly is a powerful fabrication method of complex, functionally diverse molecular architectures, but its use in synthetic nanomachines has been hampered by the difficulty of avoiding reversible attachments that result in the premature breaking apart of loosely held moving parts. We show that molecular motion can be controlled in dynamically assembled systems through segregation of the disassembly process and internal translation to time scales that differ by four orders of magnitude.
By grafting several pistons together end-to-end, it could be possible, for example, to produce a simplified version of an artificial muscle, capable of contracting on demand.
http://www.foresight.org/nanodot/?p=3008http://www.foresight.org/nanodot/?p=3927Spurred on by these new results, the team would now like to move the motor over longer tracks. “Using concepts and mechanisms developed in this research, we would also like to coordinate assembly of a chemical product, where a nanorobot moves between locations and picks up ingredients in a reaction,” added Muscat.
Today in Nature, a group of researchers announced they’d successfully operated the first assembly line populated entirely by nanobots. The bots in question are molecular machines made from strands of DNA, and each one has four “feet” that walk on a specially-prepared surface covered in chemicals that direct the bot’s motion.It also has three “arms” to carry cargo – in this case various sizes of gold particles. These gold particles can bind together into eight different products.In their experiment, the scientists succeeded in guiding a nanobot to pick up the three gold particles, each held by other bots. It walked up to each bot, grabbed the gold cargo, and moved on to the next bot to do the same thing.
http://pubs.acs.org/stoken/presspac/presspac/full/10.1021/nn1024658Fabrication of Stable and RNase-Resistant RNA Nanoparticles Active in Gearing the Nanomotors for Viral DNA PackagingLiving organisms produce a wide variety of highly ordered or patterned structures such as smart nanomachines and elegant arrays that are made up of macromolecules to perform diverse biological functions. RNA and DNA share certain common features via their unique properties of strand complementarities and self-assembly, which can serve as powerful building blocks for bottom-up fabrication of nanostructures and nanodevices.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RNA_world_hypothesis
It could also lead to computers and electronics that operate at speeds 100 times greater than today’s devices, using light instead of electrons to communicate and compute. More efficient solar energy collectors in renewable energy are another proposed application.The Spaser uses surface plasma waves, whose wavelength can be much smaller than that of the light it produces.
The scientists at the Kiel University developed a molecular machine constructed in a similar way to a record player.The molecule consists of a nickel ion surrounded by a pigment ring (porphyrin), and a nitrogen atom which hovers above the ring like the tone arm on a record player. “When we irradiate this molecule with blue-green light, the nitrogen atom is placed exactly vertically to the nickel ion like a needle”, Rainer Herges explains.Reverse effect achieved with blue-violet light.http://www.alphagalileo.org/ViewItem.aspx?ItemId=94640&CultureCode=en
A nanoprocessor constructed from intrinsically nanometre-scale building blocks is an essential component for controlling memory, nanosensors and other functions proposed for nanosystems assembled from the bottom up
Self Assembling Molecular Piston• Problem: Nanoscale machines fall apart• Solution: self-assembly as it operates• Operates 4x faster than it falls apart• Each operation recoils the apparatus
Protein Folding: Quantum Effects• Apparently QM is needed to explain some aspects of protein folding – Especially oddness in folding/unfolding as temperature increases – May mean that control of protein folding and its prediction is much harder• Controlled protein folding/unfolding is one path identified by Drexler for building nano- machines
DNA Molecular Robots• Walk along DNA tracks in any desired direction – Precursor to nano assembly line – Walks along rigid track• Robots behavior is modified by programming the track work
RNA as an nano-assembly tool• New research shows RNA, like DNA can be used for nanoscale construction• RNA can be manipulated with simplicity characteristic of DNA, while possessing noncanonical base-pairing, versatile function, and catalytic activity similar to proteins.• Problem of Rnase contamination has been addressed – RNA nanoparticles resistant to RNase digestion
Spaser – Improvement on Laser• Normal laser length cannot be less than half wave length of light – Spaser can be much smaller • “surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation” – considered a critical component for future technologies based on nanophotonics – A Spaser-based microscope might be so sensitive that it could see genetic base pairs in DNA.
Magnetic State Switch – Room temperature• State of single molecule changed – Beams of light used• Possible path to ultra small storage devices• Switch is only 1-2 nm wide
First Programmable Nanoprocessor• Nanoprocessor with 2 terahertz switching – Uses nanowires to perform logic and arithmetic operations – scalable and programmable logic tiles based on semiconductornanowire transistor arrays – Prototype is only fuller adder and other basic computational components – the tiled architecture is fully scalable, allowing the assembly of much larger and ever more functional nanoprocessors.